English-Video.net comment policy

The comment field is common to all languages

Let's write in your language and use "Google Translate" together

Please refer to informative community guidelines on TED.com

TED2014

Sarah Lewis: Embrace the near win

Filmed
Views 2,328,930

At her first museum job, art historian Sarah Lewis noticed something important about an artist she was studying: Not every artwork was a total masterpiece. She asks us to consider the role of the almost-failure, the near win, in our own lives. In our pursuit of success and mastery, is it actually our near wins that push us forward?

- Writer
Art historian and critic Sarah Lewis celebrates creativity and shows how it can lead us through fear and failure to ultimate success. Full bio

I feel so fortunate that my first job
00:13
was working at the Museum of Modern Art
00:15
on a retrospective of painter Elizabeth Murray.
00:18
I learned so much from her.
00:21
After the curator Robert Storr
00:23
selected all the paintings
00:25
from her lifetime body of work,
00:27
I loved looking at the paintings from the 1970s.
00:30
There were some motifs and elements
00:33
that would come up again later in her life.
00:36
I remember asking her
00:39
what she thought of those early works.
00:41
If you didn't know they were hers,
00:43
you might not have been able to guess.
00:45
She told me that a few didn't quite meet
00:47
her own mark for what she wanted them to be.
00:50
One of the works, in fact,
00:54
so didn't meet her mark,
00:55
she had set it out in the trash in her studio,
00:57
and her neighbor had taken it
01:00
because she saw its value.
01:02
In that moment, my view of success
01:04
and creativity changed.
01:07
I realized that success is a moment,
01:10
but what we're always celebrating
01:13
is creativity and mastery.
01:15
But this is the thing: What gets us to convert success
01:19
into mastery?
01:22
This is a question I've long asked myself.
01:24
I think it comes when we start to value
01:27
the gift of a near win.
01:30
I started to understand this when I went
01:33
on one cold May day
01:36
to watch a set of varsity archers,
01:38
all women as fate would have it,
01:40
at the northern tip of Manhattan
01:42
at Columbia's Baker Athletics Complex.
01:45
I wanted to see what's called archer's paradox,
01:48
the idea that in order to actually hit your target,
01:52
you have to aim at something slightly skew from it.
01:54
I stood and watched as the coach
01:59
drove up these women in this gray van,
02:01
and they exited with this kind of relaxed focus.
02:04
One held a half-eaten ice cream cone in one hand
02:07
and arrows in the left with yellow fletching.
02:09
And they passed me and smiled,
02:12
but they sized me up as they
02:15
made their way to the turf,
02:16
and spoke to each other not with words
02:18
but with numbers, degrees, I thought,
02:20
positions for how they might plan
02:23
to hit their target.
02:24
I stood behind one archer as her coach
02:26
stood in between us to maybe assess
02:29
who might need support, and watched her,
02:31
and I didn't understand how even one
02:33
was going to hit the ten ring.
02:35
The ten ring from the standard 75-yard distance,
02:38
it looks as small as a matchstick tip
02:41
held out at arm's length.
02:44
And this is while holding 50 pounds of draw weight
02:46
on each shot.
02:49
She first hit a seven, I remember, and then a nine,
02:52
and then two tens,
02:55
and then the next arrow
02:56
didn't even hit the target.
02:57
And I saw that gave her more tenacity,
02:59
and she went after it again and again.
03:01
For three hours this went on.
03:04
At the end of the practice, one of the archers
03:07
was so taxed that she lied out on the ground
03:09
just star-fished,
03:12
her head looking up at the sky,
03:14
trying to find what T.S. Eliot might call
03:16
that still point of the turning world.
03:19
It's so rare in American culture,
03:22
there's so little that's vocational about it anymore,
03:25
to look at what doggedness looks like
03:28
with this level of exactitude,
03:30
what it means to align your body posture
03:32
for three hours in order to hit a target,
03:35
pursuing a kind of excellence in obscurity.
03:38
But I stayed because I realized I was witnessing
03:42
what's so rare to glimpse,
03:44
that difference between success and mastery.
03:47
So success is hitting that ten ring,
03:50
but mastery is knowing that it means nothing
03:53
if you can't do it again and again.
03:55
Mastery is not just the same as excellence, though.
03:59
It's not the same as success,
04:02
which I see as an event,
04:04
a moment in time,
04:07
and a label that the world confers upon you.
04:08
Mastery is not a commitment to a goal
04:11
but to a constant pursuit.
04:15
What gets us to do this,
04:17
what get us to forward thrust more
04:19
is to value the near win.
04:22
How many times have we designated something
04:26
a classic, a masterpiece even,
04:28
while its creator considers it hopelessly unfinished,
04:31
riddled with difficulties and flaws,
04:34
in other words, a near win?
04:36
Elizabeth Murray surprised me
04:39
with her admission about her earlier paintings.
04:41
Painter Paul Cézanne so often
thought his works were incomplete
04:45
that he would deliberately leave them aside
04:48
with the intention of picking them back up again,
04:50
but at the end of his life,
04:53
the result was that he had only signed
04:54
10 percent of his paintings.
04:56
His favorite novel was "The [Unknown]
Masterpiece" by Honoré de Balzac,
04:59
and he felt the protagonist was the painter himself.
05:03
Franz Kafka saw incompletion
05:09
when others would find only works to praise,
05:11
so much so that he wanted all of his diaries,
05:14
manuscripts, letters and even sketches
05:17
burned upon his death.
05:19
His friend refused to honor the request,
05:21
and because of that, we now have all the works
05:24
we now do by Kafka:
05:25
"America," "The Trial" and "The Castle,"
05:27
a work so incomplete it even stops mid-sentence.
05:31
The pursuit of mastery, in other words,
05:34
is an ever-onward almost.
05:37
"Lord, grant that I desire
05:41
more than I can accomplish,"
05:43
Michelangelo implored,
05:46
as if to that Old Testament God on the Sistine Chapel,
05:47
and he himself was that Adam
05:51
with his finger outstretched
05:52
and not quite touching that God's hand.
05:54
Mastery is in the reaching, not the arriving.
05:59
It's in constantly wanting to close that gap
06:03
between where you are and where you want to be.
06:06
Mastery is about sacrificing for your craft
06:11
and not for the sake of crafting your career.
06:14
How many inventors and untold entrepreneurs
06:18
live out this phenomenon?
06:21
We see it even in the life
06:24
of the indomitable Arctic explorer Ben Saunders,
06:25
who tells me that his triumphs
06:28
are not merely the result
06:30
of a grand achievement,
06:32
but of the propulsion of a lineage of near wins.
06:34
We thrive when we stay at our own leading edge.
06:39
It's a wisdom understood by Duke Ellington,
06:42
who said that his favorite song out of his repertoire
06:45
was always the next one,
06:48
always the one he had yet to compose.
06:50
Part of the reason that the near win
06:54
is inbuilt to mastery
06:56
is because the greater our proficiency,
06:58
the more clearly we might see
07:00
that we don't know all that we thought we did.
07:03
It's called the Dunning–Kruger effect.
07:06
The Paris Review got it out of James Baldwin
07:08
when they asked him,
07:11
"What do you think increases with knowledge?"
07:12
and he said, "You learn how little you know."
07:15
Success motivates us, but a near win
07:20
can propel us in an ongoing quest.
07:22
One of the most vivid examples of this comes
07:25
when we look at the difference
07:27
between Olympic silver medalists
07:29
and bronze medalists after a competition.
07:31
Thomas Gilovich and his team from Cornell
07:34
studied this difference and found
07:36
that the frustration silver medalists feel
07:39
compared to bronze, who are typically a bit
07:41
more happy to have just not received fourth place
07:43
and not medaled at all,
07:46
gives silver medalists a focus
07:47
on follow-up competition.
07:49
We see it even in the gambling industry
07:52
that once picked up on this phenomenon
07:54
of the near win
07:56
and created these scratch-off tickets
07:57
that had a higher than average rate of near wins
08:00
and so compelled people to buy more tickets
08:03
that they were called heart-stoppers,
08:06
and were set on a gambling industry set of abuses
08:08
in Britain in the 1970s.
08:11
The reason the near win has a propulsion
08:14
is because it changes our view of the landscape
08:16
and puts our goals, which we tend to put
08:19
at a distance, into more proximate vicinity
08:22
to where we stand.
08:25
If I ask you to envision what a
great day looks like next week,
08:26
you might describe it in more general terms.
08:30
But if I ask you to describe a
great day at TED tomorrow,
08:33
you might describe it with granular, practical clarity.
08:37
And this is what a near win does.
08:40
It gets us to focus on what, right now,
08:42
we plan to do to address that mountain in our sights.
08:45
It's Jackie Joyner-Kersee, who in 1984
08:49
missed taking the gold in the heptathlon
08:53
by one third of a second,
08:55
and her husband predicted that would give her
08:57
the tenacity she needed in follow-up competition.
08:59
In 1988, she won the gold in the heptathlon
09:03
and set a record of 7,291 points,
09:06
a score that no athlete has come very close to since.
09:10
We thrive not when we've done it all,
09:15
but when we still have more to do.
09:18
I stand here thinking and wondering
09:21
about all the different ways
09:24
that we might even manufacture a near win
09:25
in this room,
09:28
how your lives might play this out,
09:29
because I think on some gut level we do know this.
09:31
We know that we thrive when we stay
09:36
at our own leading edge,
09:37
and it's why the deliberate incomplete
09:39
is inbuilt into creation myths.
09:41
In Navajo culture, some craftsmen and women
09:44
would deliberately put an imperfection
09:46
in textiles and ceramics.
09:49
It's what's called a spirit line,
09:51
a deliberate flaw in the pattern
09:53
to give the weaver or maker a way out,
09:55
but also a reason to continue making work.
09:58
Masters are not experts because they take
10:03
a subject to its conceptual end.
10:05
They're masters because they realize
10:08
that there isn't one.
10:09
Now it occurred to me, as I thought about this,
10:12
why the archery coach
10:15
told me at the end of that practice,
10:17
out of earshot of his archers,
10:19
that he and his colleagues never feel
10:21
they can do enough for their team,
10:23
never feel there are enough visualization techniques
10:25
and posture drills to help them overcome
10:28
those constant near wins.
10:31
It didn't sound like a complaint, exactly,
10:33
but just a way to let me know,
10:36
a kind of tender admission,
10:38
to remind me that he knew
he was giving himself over
10:40
to a voracious, unfinished path
10:43
that always required more.
10:46
We build out of the unfinished idea,
10:49
even if that idea is our former self.
10:52
This is the dynamic of mastery.
10:57
Coming close to what you thought you wanted
11:00
can help you attain more than you ever dreamed
11:03
you could.
11:06
It's what I have to imagine Elizabeth Murray
11:07
was thinking when I saw her smiling
11:10
at those early paintings one day
11:12
in the galleries.
11:14
Even if we created utopias, I believe
11:17
we would still have the incomplete.
11:20
Completion is a goal,
11:23
but we hope it is never the end.
11:25
Thank you.
11:29
(Applause)
11:32

▲Back to top

About the speaker:

Sarah Lewis - Writer
Art historian and critic Sarah Lewis celebrates creativity and shows how it can lead us through fear and failure to ultimate success.

Why you should listen

Curator and critic Sarah Lewis has emerged as a cultural powerhouse for her fresh perspectives on the dialogue between culture, history, and identity. In 2010, she co-curated the groundbreaking SITE Santa Fe biennial, a platform celebrating artists melding the “homespun and the high-tech.” She has served on Obama’s National Arts Policy Committee, and as a curatorial advisor for Brooklyn’s high-profile Barclays Center. 

Her debut book The Rise analyzes the idea of failure, focusing on case studies that reveal how setbacks can become a tool enabling us to master our destinies. As she says: "The creative process is actually how we fashion our lives and follow other pursuits. Failure is not something that might be helpful; it actually is the process." — Art21.org.

More profile about the speaker
Sarah Lewis | Speaker | TED.com