sponsored links
TEDxPSU

Ali Carr-Chellman: Gaming to re-engage boys in learning

アリ・カーシェルマン「男子生徒の学習を促すゲームの作成」

October 21, 2010

TEDxPSUにてアリ・カーシェルマンは男子生徒がこぞって学校に背を向ける三つの理由を突き詰め、彼らを再び学校に向かわせる大胆な計画を展開します: 男子生徒の文化を学校にも取り入れること、男子がありのままの男子でいられる新たなルールの導入、楽しみながら学習を可能にするテレビゲームの提案。

Ali Carr-Chellman - Instructional designer
Ali Carr-Chellman is an instructional designer and author who studies the most effective ways to teach kids and to make changes at school. Full bio

sponsored links
Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So I'm here to tell you
男の子の問題について
00:15
that we have a problem with boys,
話をしたいと思います
00:17
and it's a serious problem with boys.
それは深刻な問題です
00:19
Their culture isn't working in schools,
彼らの特性が学校に適応していません
00:21
and I'm going to share with you
そこで私は この問題に
00:24
ways that we can think about overcoming that problem.
いかに対処できるかを話します
00:26
First, I want to start by saying, this is a boy,
まず初めに これが男の子
00:29
and this is a girl,
こちらが女の子です
00:32
and this is probably stereotypically
皆さん多分無意識に
00:34
what you think of as a boy and a girl.
少年と少女と思ったことでしょう
00:36
If I essentialize gender for you today,
性を要約して述べることは
00:38
then you can dismiss what I have to say.
私の意図とは外れるので
00:40
So I'm not going to do that. I'm not interested in doing that.
そんなことはしませんし 興味もありません
00:42
This is a different kind of boy and a different kind of girl.
これは別のタイプの男の子と女の子です
00:44
So the point here is that not all boys
つまり全ての男の子が
00:48
exist within these rigid boundaries
我々の考える少年と
00:50
of what we think of as boys and girls,
一致するわけではないのです
00:52
and not all girls exist within those rigid boundaries
無論全ての少女が我々の考える
00:55
of what we think of as girls.
少女の枠に当てはまるわけでもありません
00:57
But, in fact, most boys tend to be a certain way,
しかし 実はほとんどの少年 少女は
00:59
and most girls tend to be a certain way.
それぞれの特徴を持っています
01:02
And the point is that, for boys,
そして今日の学校では
01:04
the way that they exist and the culture that they embrace
行動様式や彼らの特性が
01:07
isn't working well in schools now.
上手く機能していないのです
01:10
How do we know that?
なぜそんなことがわかるのでしょう?
01:12
The Hundred Girls Project
少女100人プロジェクトは
01:14
tells us some really nice statistics.
素晴らしい統計を示しています
01:16
For example, for every 100 girls that are suspended from school,
例えば 停学処分を受ける100人の女子生徒に対して
01:19
there are 250 boys that are suspended from school.
250人の男子生徒が停学になっています
01:22
For every 100 girls who are expelled from school,
退学処分を受ける女子生徒100人に対しては
01:25
there are 335 boys who are expelled from school.
男子生徒の数は335に上ります
01:28
For every 100 girls in special education,
特別教育を受ける女子生徒が100人の時
01:31
there are 217 boys.
男子生徒の数は217
01:33
For every 100 girls with a learning disability,
学習障害を抱える女子生徒が100人なら
01:35
there are 276 boys.
男子では276となり
01:37
For every 100 girls
情緒障害と診断される
01:40
with an emotional disturbance diagnosed,
女子生徒100人に対して
01:42
we have 324 boys.
男子では324
01:44
And by the way, all of these numbers are significantly higher
それと これらの数値は黒人 貧しい家庭の出身
01:46
if you happen to be black,
もしくは生徒数が多すぎる学校に
01:49
if you happen to be poor,
通う生徒の場合に著しい
01:51
if you happen to exist in an overcrowded school.
増加傾向を示しています
01:53
And if you are a boy,
そして男子生徒は
01:57
you're four times as likely
4倍もの割合で
01:59
to be diagnosed with ADHD --
ADHDと診断されています
02:01
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
注意欠陥多動障害です
02:03
Now there is another side to this.
もう一つの側面に移りましょう
02:06
And it is important that we recognize
理解していただきたい点は 学校での
02:09
that women still need help in school,
女性への支援はいまだに必要で
02:12
that salaries are still significantly lower,
職場では 女性の賃金は著しく低く
02:14
even when controlled for job types,
職種別に選分けてみてもそうです
02:16
and that girls have continued to struggle
そして女生徒は長年にわたって
02:19
in math and science for years.
数学や科学を苦手としています
02:21
That's all true.
これらは全て事実です
02:23
Nothing about that prevents us
だからと言って 3~13歳の
02:25
from paying attention to the literacy needs
男子生徒の読み書きの必要性を
02:27
of our boys between ages three and 13.
ないがしろにする理由にはならず
02:29
And so we should.
我々はもっと注意を払うべきです
02:31
In fact, what we ought to do is take a page from their playbook,
事実 彼らのゲームの戦略本を手本にするべきなのです
02:33
because the initiatives and programs
女子生徒が科学や工学
02:36
that have been set in place
数学を学ぶために導入された
02:38
for women in science and engineering and mathematics
構想やプログラムは
02:40
are fantastic.
素晴らしいものです
02:42
They've done a lot of good
女子生徒の抱える問題の打開に
02:44
for girls in these situations,
大きな成果を上げています
02:46
and we ought to be thinking about
どうすれば早期の段階で
02:48
how we can make that happen for boys too
男子生徒がこのような成果を得られるか
02:50
in their younger years.
検討する必要があります
02:52
Even in their older years,
年を重ねても依然として
02:54
what we find is that there's still a problem.
問題はなくなりません
02:56
When we look at the universities,
大学では現在
02:58
60 percent of baccalaureate degrees are going to women now,
60%の学士号が女生徒に渡っています
03:00
which is a significant shift.
顕著な転換です
03:03
And in fact, university administrators
事実 大学側も女子生徒の
03:05
are a little uncomfortable about the idea
人口が70%に近づいて来ている
03:07
that we may be getting close to 70 percent
この状況に少し
03:09
female population in universities.
懸念を抱えています
03:11
This makes university administrators very nervous,
大学側が不安を感じている原因は
03:13
because girls don't want to go to schools that don't have boys.
男子のいない学校に女子は行きたがらないからです
03:16
And so we're starting to see the establishment
そこで私たちは男性センターを設立して
03:21
of men centers and men studies
いかにして男性を大学生活に
03:24
to think about how do we engage men
従事させられるかという
03:26
in their experiences in the university.
男性学の研究を初めました
03:28
If you talk to faculty, they may say,
大学の教授陣はこう言うでしょう
03:30
"Ugh. Yeah, well, they're playing video games,
「あぁ そうだね 彼らは大概ゲームや
03:32
and they're gambling online all night long,
オンラインギャンブルを夜通しやっているね
03:35
and they're playing World of Warcraft,
World of Warcraftもやっているよ
03:38
and that's affecting
こういうことが彼らの
03:40
their academic achievement."
学業の妨げになっているんだよ」
03:42
Guess what?
いいですか
03:45
Video games are not the cause.
テレビゲームは根源ではありません
03:47
Video games are a symptom.
これは中毒症状で
03:49
They were turned off a long time
この状態に辿り着く随分前に
03:51
before they got here.
彼らのやる気は損なわれてしまっているのです
03:53
So let's talk about why they got turned off
そこで彼らが3-13歳の間に動機を
03:56
when they were between the ages of three and 13.
見失ってしまう原因についてお話しします
03:58
There are three reasons that I believe
今日の学校の文化に
04:01
that boys are out of sync
男子生徒が馴染めない理由は
04:03
with the culture of schools today.
三つあると考えています
04:05
The first is zero tolerance.
まず ゼロ容認が揚げられます
04:07
A kindergarten teacher I know,
知人の保母さんは
04:10
her son donated all of his toys to her,
息子さんのおもちゃを幼稚園に寄付する際
04:12
and when he did, she had to go through
おもちゃを全部点検して小さなプラスティック銃を
04:15
and pull out all the little plastic guns.
全て処分しなければなりませんでした
04:18
You can't have plastic knives and swords and axes
プラスチックのナイフ 剣 斧
04:22
and all that kind of thing
これらのものは全て
04:24
in a kindergarten classroom.
幼稚園で禁じられています
04:26
What is it that we're afraid that this young man is going to do with this gun?
この少年がこれらのおもちゃを使い いったい何ができるでしょう?
04:28
I mean, really.
冗談ではありませんよ
04:31
But here he stands as testament
これは今日 児童が校庭で大騒ぎできないと言う
04:33
to the fact that you can't roughhouse on the playground today.
事実を証明しています
04:36
Now I'm not advocating for bullies.
いじめを推奨しているのではありません
04:39
I'm not suggesting
学校での銃やナイフへの許容が
04:41
that we need to be allowing guns and knives into school.
必要だと言うつもりもありません
04:43
But when we say
しかしイーグル・スカウト
04:46
that an Eagle Scout in a high school classroom
(米国ボーイスカウトの最高位)
04:48
who has a locked parked car in the parking lot
の生徒が鍵をかけ 駐車した
04:50
and a penknife in it
車からペンナイフが見つかれば
04:52
has to be suspended from school,
停学処分を受けるとなれば
04:54
I think we may have gone a little too far with zero tolerance.
ゼロ容認は行き過ぎているかもと考えます
04:56
Another way that zero tolerance lives itself out is in the writing of boys.
ゼロ容認は男子生徒の作文にも適用されます
04:59
In a lot of classrooms today
今日 多くの学校で暴力について
05:02
you're not allowed to write about anything that's violent.
書くことは認められていません
05:04
You're not allowed to write about anything
テレビゲームに関するものも同様です
05:06
that has to do with video games -- these topics are banned.
この手の主題は禁じられているのです
05:08
Boy comes home from school, and he says,
男子は学校から帰宅し 言うでしょう
05:11
"I hate writing."
「作文なんて嫌いだ」
05:13
"Why do you hate writing, son? What's wrong with writing?"
「どうして嫌いなの?作文の何が嫌いなの?」
05:15
"Now I have to write what she tells me to write."
「先生の言うことを書かなきゃいけないから」
05:17
"Okay, what is she telling you to write?"
「そう 先生は何を書きなさいって言っているの?」
05:20
"Poems. I have to write poems.
「詩だよ 詩を書かなきゃいけないんだ
05:23
And little moments in my life.
それと日常のささいなこと
05:25
I don't want to write that stuff."
こんなものは書きたくないんだ」
05:27
"All right. Well, what do you want to write? What do you want to write about?"
「そう じゃあ何を書きたいの?どんなことを書きたいの?」
05:29
"I want to write about video games. I want to write about leveling-up.
「テレビゲーム レベルアップについてとか
05:32
I want to write about this really interesting world.
あの面白いゲームの世界についてとか
05:35
I want to write about a tornado that comes into our house
僕の家にやって来て 窓を全部吹っ飛ばして
05:37
and blows all the windows out
家具をめちゃくちゃにして
05:40
and ruins all the furniture and kills everybody."
みんなを殺しちゃう竜巻とか」
05:42
"All right. Okay."
「そう わかったわ」
05:44
You tell a teacher that,
先生にこれを話せば
05:46
and they'll ask you, in all seriousness,
深刻な面持ちでこう言われるでしょう
05:48
"Should we send this child to the psychologist?"
「精神病院に連れて行った方がいいかしら?」
05:51
And the answer is no, he's just a boy.
答えはNoです 彼は子供なのです
05:54
He's just a little boy.
彼は小さな男の子なのです
05:57
It's not okay to write these kinds of things
今日 学校ではこのようなことを
06:00
in classrooms today.
書くことは良しとされていません
06:02
So that's the first reason:
これが第一の理由です
06:04
zero tolerance policies and the way they're lived out.
ゼロ容認と学校からの孤立です
06:06
The next reason that boys' cultures are out of sync with school cultures:
男子が学校に適合できない次の理由は
06:08
there are fewer male teachers.
男子教員の不足です
06:11
Anybody who's over 15 doesn't know what this means,
15歳以上の方はなんのことだか
06:13
because in the last 10 years,
さっぱりでしょうが
06:16
the number of elementary school classroom teachers
ここ10年で小学校教員の数は
06:18
has been cut in half.
半分に削減されました
06:20
We went from 14 percent
こうして男性職員の割合は
06:22
to seven percent.
14%から7%に落ち込みました
06:24
That means that 93 percent of the teachers
つまり小学校で男子生徒を
06:26
that our young men get in elementary classrooms
担当する先生の93%は
06:28
are women.
女性ということです
06:30
Now what's the problem with this?
問題は何なのでしょう?
06:32
Women are great. Yep, absolutely.
女性は素晴らしいです 間違いなく
06:34
But male role models for boys
しかし 賢いのは良いことだと
06:36
that say it's all right to be smart --
示してくれる模範男性--
06:39
they've got dads, they've got pastors,
父親や牧師
06:41
they've got Cub Scout leaders,
カブスカウトのリーダーもいますが
06:43
but ultimately, six hours a day, five days a week
結局彼らは一日6時間
06:45
they're spending in a classroom,
週5日を学校で過ごします
06:48
and most of those classrooms
そしてほとんどの教室には
06:50
are not places where men exist.
男性がいません
06:52
And so they say, I guess this really isn't a place for boys.
だから少年たちは ここは男性の居場所ではないと思います
06:54
This is a place for girls.
学校は女の子の為の場所なのです
06:57
And I'm not very good at this,
男子は「俺には向いてないな
06:59
so I guess I'd better
じゃあテレビゲームとか
07:01
go play video games or get into sports, or something like that,
スポーツとか なんか別のことしよう
07:03
because I obviously don't belong here.
ここは僕のいる場所じゃないから
07:06
Men don't belong here, that's pretty obvious.
明らかにここは男性の居場所ではありません
07:08
So that may be a very direct way
この見解はとても
07:10
that we see it happen.
直接的に映るかもしれません
07:12
But less directly,
しかしもっと間接的にも
07:14
the lack of male presence in the culture --
男性の不足した場所での
07:16
you've got a teachers' lounge,
休憩室での先生の会話は
07:19
and they're having a conversation
校庭で殴り合いのけんかをした
07:21
about Joey and Johnny who beat each other up on the playground.
ジョイとジョニーについてこう言います
07:23
"What are we going to do with these boys?"
「男子生徒達にはどう対処したらいいのしら?」
07:26
The answer to that question changes depending on who's sitting around that table.
質問の答えは 誰がそこにいるかで変わります
07:28
Are there men around that table?
そこに男性はいるでしょうか?
07:31
Are there moms who've raised boys around that table?
男子生徒の育ての母はいるでしょうか?
07:33
You'll see, the conversation changes
会話の内容自体がその席に
07:36
depending upon who's sitting around the table.
居合わせている人によって変わるのです
07:38
Third reason that boys are out of sync with school today:
男子が学校に馴染めない第三の理由とは
07:40
kindergarten is the old second grade, folks.
幼稚園が以前の2年生であることです
07:43
We have a serious compression of the curriculum happening out there.
私達のカリキュラムは深刻な圧縮を迫られてきました
07:46
When you're three, you better be able to write your name legibly,
3歳で自分の名前をきれいに書けること
07:50
or else we'll consider it a developmental delay.
書けないと発育遅延だと判断されてしまいます
07:52
By the time you're in first grade,
一年生になるまでに
07:55
you should be able to read paragraphs of text
写真はあるかもしれませんが
07:57
with maybe a picture, maybe not,
25から30ページ程の
08:00
in a book of maybe 25 to 30 pages.
文章の読解能力が求められます
08:02
If you don't, we're probably going to be putting you
これを欠くと "Title 1" (米国の特別教育)
08:04
into a Title 1 special reading program.
への参加を検討しなくてはいけません
08:06
And if you ask Title 1 teachers, they'll tell you
Title 1の先生方によると
08:08
they've got about four or five boys for every girl that's in their program,
小学校で このプログラムを受ける男子生徒の割合は
08:10
in the elementary grades.
女生徒1人につき4~5人だそうです
08:13
The reason that this is a problem
これが問題である理由は
08:15
is because the message that boys are getting
男子生徒の受け取るメッセージです
08:18
is "you need to do
「君はいつも先生が
08:21
what the teacher asks you to do all the time."
いうことをしなくちゃいけないんだよ」
08:23
The teacher's salary depends
教員の収入を決める要素は
08:26
on "No Child Left Behind" and "Race to the Top"
落ちこぼれなし 成績優秀
08:29
and accountability and testing
説明責任 テスト
08:31
and all of this.
全部です
08:33
So she has to figure out a way
つまり先生は女子だけでなく
08:35
to get all these boys through this curriculum --
男子もカリキュラムをこなせる方法を
08:37
and girls.
見つけなくてはならないのです
08:40
This compressed curriculum is bad
この圧縮カリキュラムは活発な
08:42
for all active kids.
子供達全員に悪影響を及ぼします
08:44
And what happens is,
そして現状はというと
08:47
she says, "Please, sit down,
「はい 座りましょう
08:49
be quiet, do what you're told, follow the rules,
静かに言われたことをやりましょう ルールを守って
08:52
manage your time, focus,
時間を上手に使って 集中集中
08:55
be a girl."
女の子になりましょう」
08:57
That's what she tells them.
これが彼女の生徒への言葉です
08:59
Indirectly, that's what she tells them.
間接的にこのようなメッセージを投げかけています
09:01
And so this is a very serious problem. Where is it coming from?
これは深刻な問題です 原因はなんでしょうか?
09:04
It's coming from us.
それは私達です
09:06
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:08
We want our babies to read when they are six months old.
生後6か月の子供に読書を求めているのは私達です
09:11
Have you seen the ads?
この広告を見たことがありますか?
09:14
We want to live in Lake Wobegon
「子供達みんなが賢い
09:16
where every child is above average,
レイク・ウーバゴンに暮らしたいな」
09:18
but what this does to our children is really not healthy.
しかし赤ん坊にとってこれは健康的ではありません
09:21
It's not developmentally appropriate,
自然な発達過程には不適切であり
09:24
and it's particularly bad for boys.
とりわけ少年に悪影響を与えます
09:26
So what do we do?
そこで 何をしたらいいのでしょうか?
09:28
We need to meet them where they are.
本当の彼らと向き合うべきです
09:30
We need to put ourselves into boy culture.
少年達の文化に身を置く必要があります
09:32
We need to change the mindset
小学校での男子生徒を受け入れる
09:35
of acceptance in boys in elementary schools.
私たちの考え方を改める必要があります
09:38
More specifically, we can do some very specific things.
はっきり言うと 具体的な解決策があります
09:42
We can design better games.
よりよりゲームを作ることです
09:45
Most of the educational games that are out there today
学習教材として今出回っているものの
09:47
are really flashcards.
大半はフラッシュカードです
09:49
They're glorified drill and practice.
美化されたドリル形式の練習です
09:51
They don't have the depth, the rich narrative
これには少年たちが熱を入れる面白いゲームがもつ
09:53
that really engaging video games have,
深みや 物語などの
09:56
that the boys are really interested in.
要素に欠けています
09:58
So we need to design better games.
もっと優れたゲームの開発が必要です
10:00
We need to talk to teachers and parents
教員や両親 教育委員会や
10:02
and school board members and politicians.
政治家とも話をする必要があります
10:04
We need to make sure that people see that we need more men in the classroom.
クラスにもっと男性が必要だと認識させるべきです
10:06
We need to look carefully at our zero tolerance policies.
ゼロ容認政策にも注意を払うべきです
10:09
Do they make sense?
道理にかなっていますか?
10:11
We need to think about
可能ならば圧縮された
10:13
how to uncompress this curriculum if we can,
カリキュラムを元に戻して 男子生徒に
10:15
trying to bring boys back into a space
居心地の良い空間へと
10:18
that is comfortable for them.
戻す検討も必要です
10:20
All of those conversations need to be happening.
このような話し合いが必要なのです
10:22
There are some great examples out there
模範となる素晴らしい
10:24
of schools --
学校がいくつかあります
10:26
the New York Times just talked about a school recently.
New York Timesはある学校を取り上げました
10:28
A game designer from the New School
その学校のゲームデザイナーは
10:30
put together a wonderful video gaming school.
素晴らしいゲームを導入したそうです
10:33
But it only treats a few kids,
しかし少人数でしか遊べずに
10:36
and so this isn't very scalable.
実用性に乏しいようです
10:39
We have to change the culture and the feelings
政治家や教育委員会
10:41
that politicians and school board members and parents have
両親が持っている学校での容認の方法やその対象
10:43
about the way we accept and what we accept
に関する感情や文化を
10:46
in our schools today.
変えていく必要があります
10:48
We need to find more money for game design.
ゲーム制作への資金を確保するべきです
10:51
Because good games, really good games, cost money,
本当にいいゲームはお金がかかるからです
10:53
and World of Warcraft has quite a budget.
World of Warcraftの資金も莫大です
10:55
Most of the educational games do not.
学習用ゲームの問題は資金不足です
10:57
Where we started:
まず同僚のマイク・ペトナー
10:59
my colleagues -- Mike Petner, Shawn Vashaw, myself --
ショーン・ヴァショーンと私が共同で
11:01
we started by trying to look at the teachers' attitudes
教師達の態度 ゲームについての
11:04
and find out how do they really feel about gaming,
どう感じているのか どんな会話を
11:06
what do they say about it.
するのか観察してみました
11:08
And we discovered
そこで分かったことは
11:10
that they talk about the kids in their school,
ゲームについて話をする
11:12
who talk about gaming,
子供達への彼らの態度は
11:14
in pretty demeaning ways.
ひどく軽蔑的だということです
11:16
They say, "Oh, yeah. They're always talking about that stuff.
「あぁ そうだ いつもゲームのことばっかり
11:18
They're talking about their little action figures
なんかキャラクタとかバッジ
11:21
and their little achievements or merit badges,
もしくはちょっとした達成とか収獲物とか
11:23
or whatever it is that they get.
いつもこんな話ばかりだよ」
11:26
And they're always talking about this stuff."
といった具合です
11:28
And they say these things as if it's okay.
これが当然かのように振舞いまうのです
11:30
But if it were your culture,
あなたの文化がこんな言われようをしたら
11:32
think of how that might feel.
どう感じるか考えてみてください
11:34
It's very uncomfortable to be on the receiving end
このような言葉を受ける立場なら
11:36
of that kind of language.
とても不快になることでしょう
11:38
They're nervous about anything
教師たちはゼロ容認政策のせいで
11:40
that has anything to do with violence
暴力に関連すること全てに
11:42
because of the zero tolerance policies.
神経質になっています
11:44
They are sure that parents and administrators will never accept anything.
両親も学校側もなにも許容はしないと思っているのです
11:46
So we really need to think about looking at teacher attitudes
そこで私達は教師達がよりオープンになり
11:49
and finding ways to change the attitudes
学校においても男子の文化を尊重できるように
11:52
so that teachers are much more open
彼らの態度を変える方法を
11:55
and accepting of boy cultures in their classrooms.
見出す必要があるのです
11:57
Because, ultimately, if we don't,
これを怠ると最終的には
12:00
then we're going to have boys who leave elementary school saying,
男子生徒が学校をやめて「まぁ ここは女の
12:02
"Well I guess that was just a place for girls.
「ここは女の場所だよな
12:05
It wasn't for me.
僕のいる場所じゃない
12:07
So I've got to do gaming, or I've got to do sports."
ゲームかスポーツでもしてたほうがいいや」
12:09
If we change these things, if we pay attention to these things,
注意を払い 変化を起こし 再び学習に
12:12
and we re-engage boys in their learning,
従事させれば「俺って頭いい」
12:15
they will leave the elementary schools saying, "I'm smart."
と少年達が小学校を巣立っていけるでしょう
12:17
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
12:20
(Applause)
(拍手)
12:22
Translator:Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewer:Kayo Mizutani

sponsored links

Ali Carr-Chellman - Instructional designer
Ali Carr-Chellman is an instructional designer and author who studies the most effective ways to teach kids and to make changes at school.

Why you should listen

A former third-grade teacher, Ali Carr-Chellman realized that traditional elementary classrooms weren't for her, in part because she was frustrated by the lack of innovation, agility, and readiness to change in traditional schools. She's now an instructional designer, author and educator, working on how to change and innovate within schools to make education work better for more kids. She teaches at Penn State University in the College of Education, working primarily with doctoral-level students to help produce the next generation of faculty with inspired research ideas and methods. Carr-Chellman also teaches online courses focused on helping practicing teachers learn how to improve their own instructional design practices and how to improve their classrooms.

Her recent research projects include "Bring Back the Boys," looking at ways gaming can be used to re-engage boys in their elementary education. Another projects asks prisoners and homeless people to think about how to reform schools, bringing new voices to the policy-making table.






sponsored links

If you need translations, you can install "Google Translate" extension into your Chrome Browser.
Furthermore, you can change playback rate by installing "Video Speed Controller" extension.

Data provided by TED.

This website is owned and operated by Tokyo English Network.
The developer's blog is here.