TED2013

The interspecies internet? An idea in progress

動物種間インターネット?進行中のアイディア

Filmed:

類人猿、イルカ、象には素晴らしいコミュニケーション能力があります。インターネットを、彼らの様な知覚動物も使える規模に出来ないでしょうか。イルカ研究家ダイアナ・ライス、音楽家ピーター・ガブリエル、「モノのインターネット」のビジョンの持ち主ニール・ガーシェンフェルド、インターネットの創始者の一人ヴィント・サーフの偉大なる4人の思想家が、新しい取り組みのアイデアを披露します。

- Cognitive psychologist
Diana Reiss studies animal cognition, and has found that bottlenose dolphins (and Asian elephants) can recognize themselves in the mirror. Full bio

- Musician, activist
Peter Gabriel writes incredible songs but, as the co-founder of WITNESS and TheElders.org, is also a powerful human rights advocate. Full bio

- Physicist, personal fab pioneer
As Director of MIT’s Center for Bits and Atoms, Neil Gershenfeld explores the boundaries between the digital and physical worlds. Full bio

- Computer scientist
Vint Cerf, now the chief Internet evangelist at Google, helped lay the foundations for the internet as we know it more than 30 years ago. Full bio

Diana Reiss: You may think you're looking
皆さんは
00:12
through a window at a dolphin spinning playfully,
クルクル遊んでいるイルカを
ガラス越しに見ているようですが
00:14
but what you're actually looking through
実際は マジックミラーに映る
00:18
is a two-way mirror at a dolphin
回転している自分の姿を
00:20
looking at itself spinning playfully.
見ているイルカを見ているのです
00:23
This is a dolphin that is self-aware.
このイルカは自分を
認識しています
00:26
This dolphin has self-awareness.
自己認識力があるのです
00:28
It's a young dolphin named Bayley.
ベイリーという名の
若いイルカです
00:30
I've been very interested in understanding the nature
私はイルカの知性を理解しようと
00:32
of the intelligence of dolphins for the past 30 years.
30年間研究してきました
00:35
How do we explore intelligence in this animal
人とはとても異なるこの動物の知性の
00:38
that's so different from us?
研究方法をお話しします
00:42
And what I've used is a very simple research tool,
私のシンプルな研究道具は鏡です
00:43
a mirror, and we've gained great information,
鏡は動物の思考を映し出すことによって
00:46
reflections of these animal minds.
多くの貴重な情報を提供してくれるのです
00:49
Dolphins aren't the only animals, the only non-human animals,
イルカだけが鏡の中の自分を
00:52
to show mirror self-recognition.
認識出来る動物ではありません
00:56
We used to think this was a uniquely human ability,
これは人間特有の能力だと
思われていましたが
00:58
but we learned that the great apes, our closest relatives,
私たちに一番近い大型の類人猿にも
01:01
also show this ability.
その能力があります
01:04
Then we showed it in dolphins,
そしてイルカと
01:06
and then later in elephants.
象にもあることがわかりました
01:08
We did this work in my lab with the dolphins and elephants,
私達はイルカと象で研究をしましたが
01:10
and it's been recently shown in the magpie.
最近カササギでも
証明されています
01:12
Now, it's interesting, because we've embraced
面白いことに 私たちは
01:15
this Darwinian view of a continuity in physical evolution,
ダーウィンの説く形状的進化の連続性は
01:17
this physical continuity.
受け入れてきたのですが
01:21
But we've been much more reticent, much slower
動物の認識力や感情
01:23
at recognizing this continuity in cognition,
意識といったものの連続性の認識は
01:26
in emotion, in consciousness in other animals.
かなり遅れています
01:30
Other animals are conscious.
人間以外の動物も意識を持ち
01:33
They're emotional. They're aware.
感情があり 認識力があります
01:36
There have been multitudes of studies with many species
種々の動物を使った数々の研究が
01:39
over the years that have given us exquisite evidence
ここ何年もの間に行われ
01:42
for thinking and consciousness in other animals,
人間以外の動物たちにも
01:46
other animals that are quite different than we are in form.
思考や意識があると証明されてきました
01:48
We are not alone.
私たちだけではありません
01:52
We are not alone in these abilities.
こんな能力を持つのは
私たちだけではないのです
01:55
And I hope, and one of my biggest dreams,
私の大きな夢の一つは
01:59
is that, with our growing awareness
他の動物達にも意識があることや
02:02
about the consciousness of others
人間と他の動物との関係に
02:05
and our relationship with the rest of the animal world,
私達がもっと気づくことで
02:07
that we'll give them the respect and protection
動物を大切にし ふさわしい形で
保護する様になる事です
02:09
that they deserve.
動物を大切にし ふさわしい形で
保護する様になる事です
02:12
So that's a wish I'm throwing out here for everybody,
これが私の夢なんですが
02:13
and I hope I can really engage you in this idea.
これについて皆様に
考えて欲しいと願っています
02:15
Now, I want to return to dolphins,
ではイルカに戻ります
02:19
because these are the animals that I feel like
30年間 共に働いて来て
02:21
I've been working up closely and personal with
とても身近に感じる
02:23
for over 30 years.
動物なのです
02:26
And these are real personalities.
彼らは個性を持っています
02:27
They are not persons, but they're personalities
人ではないので人格ではなく
02:29
in every sense of the word.
個性と言っておきますが
02:32
And you can't get more alien than the dolphin.
本当に 異星生物のような動物です
02:33
They are very different from us in body form.
私たちと姿はずいぶん違ってます
02:37
They're radically different. They come from a radically different environment.
私たちとは全く違い
全く違う環境にいます
02:39
In fact, we're separated by 95 million years
事実9,500万年前に人と分岐して
02:42
of divergent evolution.
別の進化の道をたどりました
02:46
Look at this body.
この体を見て下さい
02:49
And in every sense of making a pun here,
彼らは 本当に文字通り
02:50
these are true non-terrestrials.
地上の生き物ではありません
02:54
I wondered how we might interface with these animals.
こんな動物とどう交流したらいいものか
と思いました
02:59
In the 1980s, I developed an underwater keyboard.
私は1980年代に
水中キーボードを考案しました
03:02
This was a custom-made touch-screen keyboard.
これは特製のタッチスクリーンキーボードです
03:05
What I wanted to do was give the dolphins choice and control.
イルカに選択を与え
選べる様にしたのです
03:08
These are big brains, highly social animals,
脳の大きな 非常に社会性のある動物です
03:10
and I thought, well, if we give them choice and control,
そこで考えたのは
イルカが選択肢から選べる装置
03:13
if they can hit a symbol on this keyboard --
キーボードの記号をタッチするものです
03:16
and by the way, it was interfaced by fiber optic cables
この時 使用したのは
光ファイバーケーブルで
03:18
from Hewlett-Packard with an Apple II computer.
HP製のものでAppleⅡと接続していました
03:21
This seems prehistoric now,
今やこれは原始的に見えますが
03:24
but this was where we were with technology.
これが当時のテクノロジーだったのです
03:25
So the dolphins could hit a key, a symbol,
イルカが記号のキーを押すと
03:28
they heard a computer-generated whistle,
コンピューターの発する
ホイッスル音が聞こえ
03:30
and they got an object or activity.
物かアクティビティが与えられます
03:33
Now here's a little video.
これがそのビデオです
03:34
This is Delphi and Pan, and you're going to see Delphi
これはデルファイとパンです
03:36
hitting a key, he hears a computer-generated whistle -- (Whistle) --
デルファイがキーを押すと
人工のホイッスル音が聞こえ(ホイッスル音)
03:39
and gets a ball, so they can actually ask for things they want.
ボールをもらい
何が欲しいのかを伝えられるのです
03:43
What was remarkable is, they explored this keyboard
驚く事にイルカは自ら
このキーボードの使い方を学んだのです
03:47
on their own. There was no intervention on our part.
私たちの手助けもなしにです
03:51
They explored the keyboard. They played around with it.
自分たちでキーボードを
いじり回し遊び
03:54
They figured out how it worked.
その仕組みを理解したのです
03:56
And they started to quickly imitate the sounds
すぐに人工音まで
真似し始めました
03:58
they were hearing on the keyboard.
キーボードから流れる通りに
04:00
They imitated on their own.
自然に真似を始めたのです
04:03
Beyond that, though, they started learning
その上 彼らは記号と音と物とを
04:05
associations between the symbols, the sounds
関連付けられるようになり始めました
04:07
and the objects.
関連付けられるようになり始めました
04:10
What we saw was self-organized learning,
これは自立的学習です
04:12
and now I'm imagining, what can we do
新しいテクノロジーで
一体どんなことが出来るでしょう?
04:16
with new technologies?
新しいテクノロジーで
一体どんなことが出来るでしょう?
04:19
How can we create interfaces, new windows into
どうすれば 互いをつなぐインターフェース
04:21
the minds of animals, with the technologies that exist today?
動物の心を覗く
新しい窓を今の技術で作れるのでしょう
04:24
So I was thinking about this, and then, one day,
これについて考えていたある日のこと
04:29
I got a call from Peter.
ピーターから電話がありました
04:32
Peter Gabriel: I make noises for a living.
ピーター・ガブリエル:
私の仕事は音の製作です
04:38
On a good day, it's music,
運が良ければ音楽になります
04:40
and I want to talk a little bit about
今日お話したいのは
04:42
the most amazing music-making experience I ever had.
生涯最高の「共演」の思い出です
04:44
I'm a farm boy. I grew up surrounded by animals,
私の実家は農場で
動物たちに囲まれて育ちました
04:48
and I would look in these eyes and wonder
彼らの目を見ながら
「何を考えているのだろう」と思っていました
04:51
what was going on there?
彼らの目を見ながら
「何を考えているのだろう」と思っていました
04:53
So as an adult, when I started to read about
大人になり 常識を打ち破る
04:55
the amazing breakthroughs with Penny Patterson and Koko,
素晴らしい研究を知りました
ペニー・パターソンとココ
04:57
with Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Kanzi, Panbanisha,
スー・サベージ・ランボーとカンジとパンバニーシャ
05:00
Irene Pepperberg, Alex the parrot,
アイリーンとオウムのアレックス
05:03
I got all excited.
本当に興奮しました
05:06
What was amazing to me also
驚いたことに
05:08
was they seemed a lot more adept
人間が動物の言葉を理解するより
05:10
at getting a handle on our language
動物の方が人間の言葉を
05:14
than we were on getting a handle on theirs.
上手く理解出来るようなんです
05:17
I work with a lot of musicians from around the world,
世界中からの多くの音楽家と仕事をし
05:21
and often we don't have any common language at all,
共通の言語が全くないことが よくあります
05:25
but we sit down behind our instruments,
でも楽器を持って座っていると
05:28
and suddenly there's a way for us to connect and emote.
突然 意思疎通が出来る様になるものです
05:31
So I started cold-calling, and eventually got through
そこで 色々な人に電話をかけ
05:35
to Sue Savage-Rumbaugh,
スーに辿り着いたという訳です
05:37
and she invited me down.
彼女に招待され
05:40
I went down, and the bonobos
行ってみると
このボノボはドラムや
05:42
had had access to percussion instruments,
楽器のおもちゃで
遊んでいましたが
05:46
musical toys, but never before to a keyboard.
キーボードを触った事は
ありませんでした
05:49
At first they did what infants do,
最初彼らは幼児がする様に
05:52
just bashed it with their fists,
握りこぶしで
キーボードを叩きました
05:54
and then I asked, through Sue,
スーを通して パンパニーシャに
05:56
if Panbanisha could try with one finger only.
指一本でやってみる様にと頼みました
05:58
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh: Can you play a grooming song?
スー・サベージ・ランボー:「毛繕いの歌を弾いて
06:02
I want to hear a grooming song.
毛繕いの歌を聴きたいの」
06:08
Play a real quiet grooming song.
「本当に静かな毛繕いの歌を弾いて」
06:10
PG: So groom was the subject of the piece.
PG:毛繕いはの曲の題材です
06:16
(Music)
(音楽)
06:20
So I'm just behind, jamming,
私は裏で即興で音を奏でています
06:37
yeah, this is what we started with.
そうです こうやって始めたのです
06:41
Sue's encouraging her to continue a little more.
スーはパンバニーシャに
もう少しと促しています
06:46
(Music)
(音楽)
06:49
She discovers a note she likes,
彼女は好きな音を見つけます
07:38
finds the octave.
その1オクターブ下の音を
見つけます
07:43
She'd never sat at a keyboard before.
彼女はキーボードの前に
座ったことはありません
07:47
Nice triplets.
いい三連音
07:57
SSR: You did good. That was very good.
SSR:「よくやったわ
とってもよかったわよ」
08:12
PG: She hit good.
PG:上手でしたね
08:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:17
So that night, we began to dream,
その夜 私達は夢を見始めました
08:22
and we thought, perhaps the most amazing tool
今まで人が作った
一番すばらしい道具は
08:27
that man's created is the Internet,
多分インターネットだと思います
08:29
and what would happen if we could somehow
もし私達と一緒に暮らしている
08:31
find new interfaces,
優れた知覚動物が使える
08:35
visual-audio interfaces that would allow
新しいインターフェースを作り
08:37
these remarkable sentient beings
彼らがそこにアクセス出来たら
08:41
that we share the planet with access?
どうなるでしょう
08:43
And Sue Savage-Rumbaugh got excited about that,
スーもその考えに胸躍らせ
08:46
called her friend Steve Woodruff,
友達のスティーブに電話して
08:50
and we began hustling all sorts of people
仲間を集め始めることにしたのです
08:52
whose work related or was inspiring,
専門家や視野を広げてくれる様な人たちです
08:55
which led us to Diana,
それがきっかけでダイアナや
08:58
and led us to Neil.
ニールとつながったのです
09:00
Neil Gershenfeld: Thanks, Peter.
PG: Thank you.
ニール・ガーシェンフェルド:ありがとう ピーター
PG:どうも
09:03
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:05
NG: So Peter approached me.
ピーターがやって来て
09:09
I lost it when I saw that clip.
ビデオを見て 私は度肝を抜かれましたよ
09:11
He approached me with a vision of doing these things
彼にはこれらを進めるビジョンがあって
09:13
not for people, for animals.
人でなく動物の為だと言うのです
09:16
And then I was struck in the history of the Internet.
突然インターネットの歴史を思い起こしました
09:18
This is what the Internet looked like when it was born
これがインターネットが
生まれた時の様子です
09:21
and you can call that the Internet
中年白人男性のインターネットとでも
09:25
of middle-aged white men,
呼びましょうか
09:27
mostly middle-aged white men.
オジさんばっかり
ヴィント・サーフ:(笑)
09:29
Vint Cerf: (Laughs)
オジさんばっかり
ヴィント・サーフ:(笑)
09:30
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:32
NG: Speaking as one.
私もその一人ですが
09:35
Then, when I first came to TED,
最初TEDに来た時
09:37
which was where I met Peter, I showed this.
私はピーターにこれを見せました
09:40
This is a $1 web server,
これは1ドルのウェブサーバーです
09:42
and at the time that was radical.
当時はこれでも急進的でした
09:44
And the possibility of making a web server for a dollar
ウェブサーバーを1ドルで作れるという可能性は
09:47
grew into what became known as the Internet of Things,
「モノのインターネット」として
知られるようになり
09:50
which is literally an industry now with tremendous implications
すでに産業として発展し
医療や省エネの分野で
09:54
for health care, energy efficiency.
期待されています
09:57
And we were happy with ourselves.
よくやったと思います
10:00
And then when Peter showed me that,
でもピーターのビデオで
10:01
I realized we had missed something,
何かを忘れている
10:02
which is the rest of the planet.
他の動物たちの事を
忘れていると気付きました
10:04
So we started up this interspecies Internet project.
それで異種間ネット計画を始めたのです
10:06
Now we started talking with TED
TEDと話し合い イルカと
10:09
about how you bring dolphins and great apes and elephants
類人猿 象を連れてこようとしたのですが
10:11
to TED, and we realized that wouldn't work.
それは出来ないと解ったので
10:13
So we're going to bring you to them.
皆さんを彼らの所へお連れします
10:16
So if we could switch to the audio from this computer,
このコンピューターで
10:18
we've been video conferencing with cognitive animals,
認知能力のある動物と
ビデオカンファレンスをしています
10:20
and we're going to have each of them
それぞれを簡単に
ご紹介します
10:24
just briefly introduce them.
それぞれを簡単い
ご紹介します
10:25
And so if we could also have this up, great.
ちゃんと見えましたね
10:27
So the first site we're going to meet
最初の場所は
10:29
is Cameron Park Zoo in Waco, with orangutans.
ウェーコのキャメロンパーク動物園の
オランウータンです
10:31
In the daytime they live outside. It's nighttime there now.
日中は野外ですが
今 夜なので屋内です
10:34
So can you please go ahead?
どうぞお願いします
10:36
Terri Cox: Hi, I'm Terri Cox
私はテリー・コックスです
10:40
with the Cameron Park Zoo in Waco, Texas,
テキサス州キャメロンパーク動物園で
10:42
and with me I have KeraJaan and Mei,
私と一緒にいるのは ケラジャンとメイです
10:45
two of our Bornean orangutans.
ボルネオオランウータンです
10:49
During the day, they have a beautiful, large outdoor habitat,
日中は 屋外の広く適した環境で過ごします
10:51
and at night, they come into this habitat,
夜はここに来ます
10:56
into their night quarters,
ここが夜の休息場所で
10:58
where they can have a climate-controlled
湿度や温度は調整されていて
11:00
and secure environment to sleep in.
安全に眠ることが出来ます
11:02
We participate in the Apps for Apes program
私達は「Apps for Apes(サル用アプリ)」に
参加しています
11:04
Orangutan Outreach, and we use iPads
「オランウータン・アウトリーチ」
主催のこのプロジェクトは
11:08
to help stimulate and enrich the animals,
iPadで動物の生活を刺激して豊かにし
11:12
and also help raise awareness
同時に近絶滅種に対する人の認識を
11:14
for these critically endangered animals.
高める取り組みをしています
11:16
And they share 97 percent of our DNA
彼らのDNAの97%は人間と同じです
11:18
and are incredibly intelligent,
信じられない程知的です
11:22
so it's so exciting to think of all the opportunities
インターネットのテクノロジーを使い
11:24
that we have via technology and the Internet
彼らの世界を豊かにして世界を広げる
11:28
to really enrich their lives and open up their world.
そんなことを考えるだけで興奮します
11:31
We're really excited about the possibility
動物種間ネットの可能性を
11:35
of an interspecies Internet,
本当に楽しみにしています
11:37
and K.J. has been enjoying the conference very much.
KJはカンファレンスを
とても楽しんでいますよ
11:38
NG: That's great. When we were rehearsing last night,
良かった 昨日のリハーサルで
11:43
he had fun watching the elephants.
KJは象を見て楽しそうでしたね
11:45
Next user group are the dolphins at the National Aquarium.
次のグループは
国立水族館のイルカです
11:47
Please go ahead.
どうぞお願いします
11:50
Allison Ginsburg: Good evening.
こんばんは アリソン・ギンスバーグです
11:53
Well, my name is Allison Ginsburg,
こんばんは アリソン・ギンスバーグです
11:54
and we're live in Baltimore at the National Aquarium.
ボルチモアの国立水族館にいます
11:55
Joining me are three of our eight Atlantic bottlenose dolphins:
私達と一緒にいるのは8頭中の
3頭のバンドウイルカです
11:58
20-year-old Chesapeake, who was our first dolphin born here,
ここで最初に生まれた20歳のチェサピーク
12:02
her four-year-old daughter Bayley,
彼女の4歳の娘 ベイリー
12:05
and her half sister, 11-year-old Maya.
そして彼女の異父姉 11歳のマヤです
12:08
Now, here at the National Aquarium
ここ国立水族館では
12:11
we are committed to excellence in animal care,
動物の保護 研究 管理保全に
12:13
to research, and to conservation.
最善の力を尽くしています
12:16
The dolphins are pretty intrigued as to what's going on here tonight.
イルカは今何が起きているのかと
興味津々です
12:19
They're not really used to having cameras here
珍しいんです カメラが
12:22
at 8 o'clock at night.
夜の8時にあるなんて
12:24
In addition, we are very committed to doing
そしてまた私達は あらゆる研究に
12:26
different types of research.
取り組んでいます
12:28
As Diana mentioned, our animals are involved
ダイアナが言ったとおり ここの動物は
12:30
in many different research studies.
色んな研究に参加しています
12:32
NG: Those are for you.
以上ですね
12:46
Okay, that's great, thank you.
ありがとうございました
12:50
And the third user group, in Thailand,
三番目のグループはタイの
12:51
is Think Elephants. Go ahead, Josh.
「Think Elephants」です ジョシュどうぞ
12:55
Josh Plotnik: Hi, my name is Josh Plotnik,
ジョシュ・プロトニック: こんにちは
12:59
and I'm with Think Elephants International,
「Think Elephants International」にいます
13:01
and we're here in the Golden Triangle of Thailand
ここはタイのゴールデン・トライアングルで
13:04
with the Golden Triangle Asian Elephant Foundation elephants.
一緒にいるのは「アジア象保護基金」の象です
13:06
And we have 26 elephants here,
26頭の象がここにはいます
13:09
and our research is focused on the evolution of intelligence with elephants,
私達の研究の焦点は
象の知性の進化ですが
13:11
but our foundation Think Elephants is focused
私達の団体「Think Elephants」は
13:16
on bringing elephants into classrooms around the world
カメラを通して 世界中の教室で象を見せ
13:18
virtually like this and showing people
この動物がどんなにすごいかを
13:21
how incredible these animals are.
人々に知らせています
13:23
So we're able to bring the camera right up to the elephant,
カメラを持って 象のすぐ近くに寄り
13:25
put food into the elephant's mouth,
口に食べ物を入れ
13:27
show people what's going on inside their mouths,
口の中で何が起きているかを見せ
13:30
and show everyone around the world
世界中の人々に
13:32
how incredible these animals really are.
この動物の素晴らしさを紹介しています
13:34
NG: Okay, that's great. Thanks Josh.
それは良いですね
ありがとうジョシュ
13:37
And once again, we've been building great relationships
リハーサル以来 彼らとは
13:40
among them just since we've been rehearsing.
良い関係を築き上げ続けています
13:42
So at that point, if we can go back to the other computer,
さて 別のコンピューターに戻り
13:44
we were starting to think about how you integrate
地球の残りの生物を
13:47
the rest of the biomass of the planet into the Internet,
インターネットでつなぐとなると
13:49
and we went to the best possible person
そんなことが出来る人は
13:52
I can think of, which is Vint Cerf,
ヴィント・サーフです
13:55
who is one of the founders who gave us the Internet. Vint?
彼はインターネットの
創始者の一人です
13:57
VC: Thank you, Neil.
ニールありがとう
14:00
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:03
A long time ago in a galaxy — oops, wrong script.
昔々 はるかかなたの銀河系で -
おっと 台本が違った
14:06
Forty years ago, Bob Kahn and I
40年前 ボブ・カーンと私は
14:11
did the design of the Internet.
インターネットを設計しました
14:14
Thirty years ago, we turned it on.
30年前それは公に使われ始め
14:15
Just last year, we turned on the production Internet.
去年 製品版インターネットを開始しました
14:18
You've been using the experimental version
30年間 皆さんが使っていたのは
14:21
for the last 30 years.
実験版です
14:23
The production version, it uses IP version 6.
製品版はIPバーション6を使い
14:25
It has 3.4 times 10 to the 38th possible terminations.
約3.4X10の38乗の
IPアドレスが可能です
14:28
That's a number only that Congress can appreciate.
感謝してくれるのは
アメリカ連邦議会くらいかな
14:33
But it leads to what is coming next.
しかしこれで
これからの事が出来るのです
14:36
When Bob and I did this design,
ボブと私はコンピューター同士を
14:41
we thought we were building a system to connect computers together.
繋げるシステムを
設計しているつもりでした
14:43
What we very quickly discovered
でもすぐに解った事ですが
14:47
is that this was a system for connecting people together.
人と人を繋げるシステムだったのです
14:49
And what you've seen tonight
今夜の話を聞いて皆さんも
14:52
tells you that we should not restrict this network
このネットワークは
私達人間だけに
14:54
to one species,
限られるべきでなく
14:58
that these other intelligent, sentient species
他の知的な生けるもの全ても 
このシステムに
15:00
should be part of the system too.
参加させるべきだと思われたでしょう
15:04
This is the system as it looks today, by the way.
これは現在のシステムの様子です
15:07
This is what the Internet looks like to a computer
信号の送り先を
15:09
that's trying to figure out where the traffic
探している
15:12
is supposed to go.
インターネットの様子です
15:14
This is generated by a program
これはインターネットの接続や
15:16
that's looking at the connectivity of the Internet,
ネットワーク同士の接続状態を見る
15:19
and how all the various networks are connected together.
プログラムで作成しています
15:21
There are about 400,000 networks, interconnected,
約40万のネットワークがつながっていますが
15:24
run independently by 400,000 different operating agencies,
40万もの個々の機関で 運営していものです
15:28
and the only reason this works
それが可能なのは
15:33
is that they all use the same standard TCP/IP protocols.
全て同じTCP/IPプロトコルを
使っているからです
15:34
Well, you know where this is headed.
これからどうなるか解りますね
15:38
The Internet of Things tell us
「モノのインターネット」では
15:40
that a lot of computer-enabled appliances and devices
コンピューターで動く多くの
電化製品やデバイス装置も
15:43
are going to become part of this system too:
このシステムの一部になるでしょう
15:47
appliances that you use around the house,
それは家やオフィスで使う
15:50
that you use in your office,
電化製品だったり
15:52
that you carry around with yourself or in the car.
携帯したり車に使ったりするものでしょう
15:54
That's the Internet of Things that's coming.
それが将来の
「モノのインターネット」です
15:56
Now, what's important about what these people are doing
今日ご紹介した人たちがやっているのは
15:59
is that they're beginning to learn
同じ感覚を共有する
16:01
how to communicate with species
人以外の種との
コミュニケーション方法を
16:04
that are not us
人以外の種との
コミュニケーション方法を
16:07
but share a common sensory environment.
解明し始めているという事です
16:08
We're beginning to explore what it means
私達は模索し始めているのは
16:12
to communicate with something
人とは違う他の何かとの交流に
16:14
that isn't just another person.
どんな意味があるのかということです
16:15
Well, you can see what's coming next.
では将来どうなると思いますか
16:18
All kinds of possible sentient beings
あらゆる知覚のある動物は
16:20
may be interconnected through this system,
このシステムでつながるかもしれません
16:23
and I can't wait to see these experiments unfold.
この実験がどのように
展開して行くか楽しみです
16:25
What happens after that?
それからどうなるでしょう
16:28
Well, let's see.
そうですね
16:31
There are machines that need to talk to machines
機械が話しかける機械
人が話しかける機械
16:33
and that we need to talk to, and so as time goes on,
そんな機械がありますが 次第に
16:36
we're going to have to learn
コンピューターと意思疎通する方法を
16:40
how to communicate with computers
学び コンピューターにも
16:41
and how to get computers to communicate with us
私たちのやり方で意思疎通をする方法を
16:43
in the way that we're accustomed to,
教えなくてはいけません
16:46
not with keyboards, not with mice,
キーボードやマウスではなく
16:48
but with speech and gestures
話し方やジェスチャーで
16:50
and all the natural human language that we're accustomed to.
私達が通常使う
自然な言葉を使ってです
16:53
So we'll need something like C3PO
機械と共に暮らすには
16:55
to become a translator between ourselves
C3POの様な通訳装置が
16:58
and some of the other machines we live with.
必要になるでしょう
17:01
Now, there is a project that's underway
「惑星間インターネット」と呼ばれる
17:03
called the interplanetary Internet.
プロジェクトが今進行中です
17:06
It's in operation between Earth and Mars.
地球と火星との間では既に実施され
17:07
It's operating on the International Space Station.
国際宇宙ステーションにも
導入されています
17:10
It's part of the spacecraft that's in orbit around the Sun
太陽を回っている
宇宙探査機でもテストされ
17:13
that's rendezvoused with two planets.
地球と火星を結びました
17:17
So the interplanetary system is on its way,
惑星間システムはまだ途中ですが
17:19
but there's a last project,
DARPAの最新プロジェクトがあります
17:21
which the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,
DARPA (防衛高等研究企画庁) は
17:23
which funded the original ARPANET,
ARPANETや インターネットや
17:25
funded the Internet, funded the interplanetary architecture,
惑星間アーキテクチャーに
投資した政府機関ですが
17:27
is now funding a project to design a spacecraft
今は 一番近い星に行くための
17:31
to get to the nearest star in 100 years' time.
宇宙船を設計する
100年計画に出資しています
17:34
What that means is that what we're learning
ですから 人以外の種と関わりから
17:38
with these interactions with other species
今私達が学んでいる事は
17:41
will teach us, ultimately,
究極的には 異星生物との
17:43
how we might interact with an alien from another world.
コミュニケーションの助けとなるでしょう
17:45
I can hardly wait.
待ちきれません
17:49
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:52
June Cohen: So first of all, thank you,
ジュン・コーエン:まずは
17:59
and I would like to acknowledge that four people
ここに居る4人の方々が
18:00
who could talk to us for full four days
丸4日もかかる様な話を
18:03
actually managed to stay to four minutes each,
4分で済ませて下さり
18:05
and we thank you for that.
感謝致します
18:07
I have so many questions,
色々質問があります
18:08
but maybe a few practical things that the audience might want to know.
皆さんが知りたいと思われる質問をします
18:09
You're launching this idea here at TED —
PG: Today.
TEDでこのアイデアが着手されたのは・・ -
今日です
18:12
JC: Today. This is the first time you're talking about it.
今日が初めてですね
18:15
Tell me a little bit about where you're going to take the idea.
今後の展開をお聞かせ下さい
18:17
What's next?
どうなんでしょう?
18:19
PG: I think we want to engage as many people
出来るだけ多くの方に参加してもらい
18:21
here as possible in helping us
お手伝いいただいて
18:24
think of smart interfaces that will make all this possible.
これらを可能にする有能な
インターフェースを作りたいですね
18:26
NG: And just mechanically,
技術的には
18:30
there's a 501(c)(3) and web infrastructure
非営利機関の設立や
ウェブインフラなど
18:32
and all of that, but it's not quite ready to turn on,
まだ十分に準備出来ていません
18:34
so we'll roll that out, and contact us
その事について情報が必要なら
18:36
if you want the information on it.
ご連絡ください
18:38
The idea is this will be -- much like the Internet functions
ヴィントの主な貢献であった
ネットワークを総括するネットワークである
18:40
as a network of networks,
インターネット機能のようなものになり
18:43
which is Vint's core contribution,
インターネット機能のようなものになり
18:44
this will be a wrapper around all of these initiatives,
これらの新たな
素晴らしい取り組みをまとめ
18:45
that are wonderful individually, to link them globally.
世界的に繋げる事となるでしょう
18:48
JC: Right, and do you have a web address
この事についての
18:51
that we might look for yet?
サイトはありますか
18:52
NG: Shortly.
JC: Shortly. We will come back to you on that.
まもなく出来ます
ではまた後ほど
18:53
And very quickly, just to clarify.
ちょっと確かめたいのですが
18:56
Some people might have looked at the video that you showed
ここでお見せしたビデオを見て 中には
18:59
and thought, well, that's just a webcam.
ウェブカメラと何が違うんだ と
19:02
What's special about it?
思う人もいるかも
19:03
If you could talk for just a moment
それ以上特別な事は出来ますか?
19:04
about how you want to go past that?
それ以上特別な事は出来ますか?
19:06
NG: So this is scalable video infrastructure,
これは拡張可能なビデオインフラで
19:08
not for a few to a few but many to many,
多数間でのコネクションが
可能ですので
19:11
so that it scales to symmetrical video sharing
地球上何処にいても
ビデオやコンテンツの共有を
19:14
and content sharing across these sites around the planet.
双方向 全く同じ様に出来る訳です
19:17
So there's a lot of back-end signal processing,
バックエンドシグナルプロセスが多く
19:20
not for one to many, but for many to many.
1ヶ所から複数へではなく 全体が繋がり合うのです
19:22
JC: Right, and then on a practical level,
現実的には
19:25
which technologies are you looking at first?
どんな技術に注目していますか
19:27
I know you mentioned that a keyboard is a really key part of this.
キーボードが鍵だと
仰ったのは知ってますが
19:28
DR: We're trying to develop an interactive touch screen for dolphins.
イルカの使える
タッチスクリーンを開発中です
19:32
This is sort of a continuation of some of the earlier work,
これは前の企画の
続きの様な物なんですが
19:35
and we just got our first seed money today towards that,
今日これを始める為の
最初の資金を得ました
19:37
so it's our first project.
ここからスタートです
19:40
JC: Before the talk, even.
DR: Yeah.
スピーチ前に?
そう
19:42
JC: Wow. Well done.
わあ よかったですね
19:43
All right, well thank you all so much for joining us.
TEDに参加して下さり感謝しています
19:45
It's such a delight to have you on the stage.
ここにお招き出来 本当に光栄です
19:47
DR: Thank you.
VC: Thank you.
ありがとうございました
19:49
(Applause)
(拍手)
19:51
Translated by Reiko O Bovee
Reviewed by Yuriko Hida

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About the Speakers:

Diana Reiss - Cognitive psychologist
Diana Reiss studies animal cognition, and has found that bottlenose dolphins (and Asian elephants) can recognize themselves in the mirror.

Why you should listen

Diana Reiss’s research focuses on the cognition and communication of marine animals, with an emphasis on comparative animal cognition. Essentially, she studies the evolution of intelligence. Reiss pioneered the use of underwater keyboards with dolphins to investigate their communicative abilities and provide them with more degrees of choice and control. Reiss and her colleagues demonstrated that bottlenose dolphins and an Asian elephants possess the rare ability for mirror self-recognition previously thought to be restricted to humans and great apes. She wrote about this work in her recent book, The Dolphin in the Mirror.

Reiss' efforts also involve the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded marine mammals, including the successful rescue of Humphrey, the humpback whale, from San Francisco Bay waters. Her advocacy work in conservation and animal welfare includes the protection of dolphins in the tuna-fishing industry and efforts to bring an end to the killing of dolphins in the drive hunts in Japan. 

Reiss is a cognitive psychologist and professor in the Department of Psychology at Hunter College and the Biopsychology and Behavioral Neuroscience subprogram at the Graduate Center, CUNY. She directs a dolphin cognitive research program at the National Aquarium in Baltimore and is a research associate at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo in DC, where she investigates elephant cognition.

More profile about the speaker
Diana Reiss | Speaker | TED.com
Peter Gabriel - Musician, activist
Peter Gabriel writes incredible songs but, as the co-founder of WITNESS and TheElders.org, is also a powerful human rights advocate.

Why you should listen

Peter Gabriel was a founding member of the extraordinarily successful progressive rock band Genesis. He left the band in 1975 to go solo and, in 1980, set up the international arts festival WOMAD (which stands for World of Music, Arts and Dance) and the record label Real World, both to champion music and artistic innovation from all over the world. Gabriel's stop motion video for "Sledgehammer" has been named the most-played music video in the history of MTV.  

Gabriel is also very interested in human rights. In 1992, he co-founded WITNESS.org, an organization that helps human rights activists and citizen witnesses worldwide make change happen through the use of video. The organization not only distributes digital cameras to empower people to document human-rights abuses, but provides a platform for the spread of video that reveals what is really going on in places all over the globe.

In 2007, Gabriel also co-founded theElders.org with Richard Branson and Nelson Mandela, an independent group of global leaders working together for peace and human rights.

More profile about the speaker
Peter Gabriel | Speaker | TED.com
Neil Gershenfeld - Physicist, personal fab pioneer
As Director of MIT’s Center for Bits and Atoms, Neil Gershenfeld explores the boundaries between the digital and physical worlds.

Why you should listen

MIT's Neil Gershenfeld is redefining the boundaries between the digital and analog worlds. The digital revolution is over, Gershenfeld says. We won. What comes next? His Center for Bits and Atoms has developed quite a few answers, including Internet 0, a tiny web server that fits into lightbulbs and doorknobs, networking the physical world in previously unimaginable ways.

But Gershenfeld is best known as a pioneer in personal fabrication -- small-scale manufacturing enabled by digital technologies, which gives people the tools to build literally anything they can imagine. His famous Fab Lab is immensely popular among students at MIT, who crowd Gershenfeld's classes. But the concept is potentially life-altering in the developing world, where a Fab Lab with just $20,000 worth of laser cutters, milling machines and soldering irons can transform a community, helping people harness their creativity to build tools, replacement parts and essential products unavailable in the local market. Read more in Fab: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop.

More profile about the speaker
Neil Gershenfeld | Speaker | TED.com
Vint Cerf - Computer scientist
Vint Cerf, now the chief Internet evangelist at Google, helped lay the foundations for the internet as we know it more than 30 years ago.

Why you should listen

TCP/IP. You may not know what it stands for, but you probably use it every day -- it's the set of communications protocols that allows data to flow from computer to computer across the internet. More than 30 years ago, while working at DARPA, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn developed TCP/IP, and in so doing, they gave rise to the modern Internet. In 2004, Cerf was the recipient of the ACM Alan M. Turing award (sometimes called the “Nobel Prize of Computer Science”), and in 2005 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Cerf is a vice president and chief Internet evangelist at Google, and chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), an organization he helped form; he was also recently elected president of the ACM Council. He served as founding president of the Internet Society from 1992 to 1995. He's an advocate for a truly free internet, speaking out in the face of increasing government demands to limit free speech and connection.

More profile about the speaker
Vint Cerf | Speaker | TED.com