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TED2007

Paul Rothemund: Playing with DNA that self-assembles

ポール・ロスマンド「DNAに魔法をかける」

March 3, 2007

ポール・ロスマンドはDNAを星やスマイリーフェイスなどに変形させるコードを書いています。もちろん、それ自体驚くべきことですが、これは将来のモノづくりを示唆するような最小規模での自己組織化のデモンストレーションでもあります。

Paul Rothemund - DNA origamist
Paul Rothemund folds DNA into shapes and patterns. Which is a simple enough thing to say, but the process he has developed has vast implications for computing and manufacturing -- allowing us to create things we can now only dream of. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
There's an ancient and universal concept that words have power,
古来より広く言葉には力が宿り
00:26
that spells exist, and that if we could only pronounce the right words,
魔法は存在して、正しく唱えれば
00:30
then -- whooosh -- you know, an avalanche would come
「ヒュー!」
00:34
and wipe out the hobbits, right? So this is a very attractive idea
雪崩が発生してホビット達を一掃するんです この考えはとても魅力的です
00:36
because we're very lazy, like the sorcerer's apprentice,
なぜなら私達は見習い魔法使いや
00:41
or the world's greatest computer programmer.
世界一のプログラマーの様に怠け者ですから
00:43
And so this idea has a lot of traction with us.
この考えは大きな牽引力を持っています
00:45
We love the idea that words, when pronounced --
言葉を発すると、単なる情報の枠組みを超え
00:47
they're just little more than pure information,
現実世界に物理作用を引き起こし
00:49
but they evoke some physical action
私達を助けてくれる
00:51
in the real world that helps us do work.
考えが好きなんです
00:53
And so, of course, with lots of programmable computers
こういう中、プログラムで動くコンピュータやロボットが
00:54
and robots around this is an easy thing to picture.
周りにあれば、あとのことは、おおよそ想像できますよね
00:57
So how many of you know what I'm talking about?
何人の方が私の話についてこれていますか?
01:00
Raise your right hand. OK. How many of you
右手をあげて下さい はい
01:02
don't know what I'm talking about? Raise your left hand.
何人の方がついてこれていないでしょう?左手をあげて下さい はい
01:03
So that's great. So that was too easy.
そうですか すばらしい 簡単すぎたようですね
01:06
You guys have very insecure computers, OK?
皆さんはとても不安定なコンピュータを持っています
01:09
So now, the thing is that this is a different kind of spell.
要は、これが少し種類の異なる魔法なのです
01:12
This is a computer program made of zeros and ones.
これは0と1で構成された
01:17
It can be pronounced on a computer. It does something like this.
コンピュータプログラムです コンピュータ上でこんなことができます
01:18
The important thing is we can write it in a high-level language.
重要なのは、それを高級言語で書けるということです
01:21
A computer magician can write this thing.
コンピュータのマジシャンなら書くことが出来ます
01:23
It can be compiled into this -- into zeros and ones --
これが0と1へとコンパイルされ、コンピュータによって
01:26
and pronounced by a computer.
処理されます
01:29
And that's what makes computers powerful:
高級言語を
01:30
these high-level languages that can be compiled.
コンパイルできる点がコンピュータの強みです
01:32
And so, I'm here to tell you, you don't need a computer
実は魔法の実現にコンピュータは不要です
01:34
to actually have a spell. In fact, what you can do
事実分子レベルで情報、つまり魔法やプログラムを
01:37
at the molecular level is that if you encode information --
分子へエンコードすれば、物理現象として
01:40
you encode a spell or program as molecules --
実際にその情報を直接読み込み
01:43
then physics can actually directly interpret that information
プログラムを走らせるのです
01:46
and run a program. That's what happens in proteins.
そんなことがタンパク質の中で起こるんです
01:49
When this amino acid sequence gets pronounced as atoms,
このアミノ酸配列を原子として変換すれば
01:52
these little letters are sticky for each other.
この小さな文字は互いに結合します
01:55
It collapses into a three-dimensional shape that turns it into
折り畳まれて三次元形状になり、DNAを切断する
01:57
a nanomachine that actually cuts DNA.
ナノマシンに変形するのです
02:00
And the interesting thing is that if you change the sequence,
そして面白いことに配列を変えてみると
02:02
you change the three-dimensional folding.
三次元の折り畳み構造が変化します
02:05
You get now a DNA stapler instead. These are the kind of
今回はDNAのホッチキスが出来ました
02:07
molecular programs that we want to be able to write,
これが私達の目指す分子プログラミングです
02:10
but the problem is, we don't know the machine language of
しかし私達はタンパク質のマシン語は
02:12
proteins. We don't have a compiler for proteins.
わかりませんし、コンパイラもありません
02:14
So I've joined a growing band of people that try to make
そこで、私はDNAを元にした分子の魔法に
02:17
molecular spells using DNA. We use DNA because it's cheaper.
挑戦している団体に加入しました DNAを使う理由は安くて
02:19
It's easier to handle. It's something that we understand really well.
扱いが楽で、よく理解されているからです
02:23
We understand it so well, in fact, that we think we can actually write
DNAの知見は豊富なため、実際DNAの分子コンパイラと
02:25
programming languages for DNA and have molecular compilers.
プログラミング言語を作れると思っています
02:29
So then, we think we can do that. And my first question doing this --
なので実現は可能だと思っています そこで私が初めに考えた課題は
02:32
or one of my questions doing this -- was how can you make
「どうやって
02:36
an arbitrary shape or pattern out of DNA? And I decided to use
恣意的な形をDNAから生み出すのか?」でした
02:38
a type of DNA origami, where you take a long strand of DNA
そこで私は長いDNA鎖を折畳んで好きな形を作れる
02:41
and fold it into whatever shape or pattern you might want.
DNA折紙のようなものを使うことにしました
02:44
So here's a shape. I actually spent about a year in my home,
これが例です 実は家で一年くらい下着のまま
02:47
in my underwear, coding, like Linus [Torvalds], in that picture before.
前の写真のリーナスみたいにコーディングしていました
02:50
And this program takes a shape, spits out 250 DNA sequences.
このプログラムは形を認識し、250のDNA配列を表示します
02:54
These short DNA sequences are what are going to fold the long strand
この短いDNA配列が長いDNA鎖に対して作りたい形へと
02:57
into this shape that we want to make. So you send an e-mail
折畳みます そこでこの配列を記載したメールを
03:00
with these sequences in it to a company, and what it does --
業者に送ると、業者はDNAシンセサイザーで
03:03
the company pronounces them on a DNA synthesizer.
魔法を唱えてくれます
03:07
It's a machine about the size of a photocopier. And what happens is,
それはコピー機程の大きさで何が起こるかというと
03:09
they take your e-mail and every letter in your e-mail,
皆さんのメールの全ての文字を読み込み
03:12
they replace with 30-atom cluster -- one for each letter,
DNAのA、T、CとGを一文字ごとに、30の原子クラスターと
03:14
A, T, C, and G in DNA. They string them up in the right sequence,
置き換えます これを正しく配列しFedExを通じ
03:17
and then they send them back to you via FedEx.
皆さんに送り返します
03:21
So you get 250 of these in the mail in little tubes.
すると小さいチューブに
03:23
I mix them together, add a little bit of salt water,
こんなのが250程入ったものが得られます 私がこれを混ぜ
03:25
and then add this long strand I was telling you about,
塩水を少し加え、先ほどお話したウイルスから摘出した
03:28
that I've stolen from a virus. And then what happens is,
長いDNA鎖を入れます そのあとで
03:30
you heat this whole thing up to about boiling. You cool it down
これを沸騰するくらい熱し、室温程度まで冷まします
03:33
to room temperature, and as you do,
するとその都度
03:37
what happens is those short strands, they do the following thing:
この短いDNA鎖が次のような動きを見せます
03:38
each one of them binds that long strand in one place,
それぞれが長いDNA鎖のある一カ所に結合し
03:41
and then has a second half that binds that long strand
もう一方の離れた箇所にも結合することで
03:44
in a distant place, and brings those two parts of the long strand
長い鎖の二つの箇所が結合するように
03:47
close together so that they stick together.
近づけさせます
03:50
And so the net effect of all 250 of these strands is to fold
つまり250ものDNA鎖は長いDNA鎖に対して
03:52
the long strand into the shape that you're looking for.
おおよそ望む形へと折り畳める能力を持っています
03:55
It'll approximate that shape. We do this for real in the test tube.
私達は真剣にチューブ内でこの作業を行っています
03:59
In each little drop of water you get 50 billion of these guys.
水1滴でこのような分子が500億くらい存在します
04:02
You can look with a microscope and see them on a surface.
顕微鏡でこれらの表面を見ることもできます
04:05
And the neat thing is that if you change the sequence
すごいのは
04:08
and change the spell, you just change the sequence of the staples.
DNA配列と魔法を変えれば、得られる形が変わる点です
04:09
You can make a molecule that looks like this, and, you know,
こんな分子を造ることも出来ます
04:13
he likes to hang out with his buddies, right.
ほら彼は友達と遊びたがっているでしょ?
04:16
And a lot of them are actually pretty good.
これらは本当によく出来ています
04:19
If you change the spell again, you change the sequence again.
もう一度DNA配列と魔法を変更すれば
04:21
You get really nice 130 nanometer triangles. If you do it again,
130ナノメータのきれいな三角形が出来ます
04:23
you can get arbitrary patterns. So on a rectangle
もう一度やれば任意の形も作れます
04:27
you can paint patterns of North and South America, or the words, "DNA."
長方形、北米、南米の形やDNAという文字も作れます
04:30
So that's DNA origami. That's one way. There are many ways
これがDNA折紙です これは一つの方法でしかありません
04:35
of casting molecular spells using DNA.
DNA分子の魔法を唱える方法はいくつもあります
04:39
What we really want to do in the end is learn how to program
私達の最終目標はどんなものでも
04:42
self-assembly so that we can build anything, right?
作れるプログラムを確立することです
04:45
We want to be able to build technological artifacts
私達は世界に貢献できるような
04:48
that are maybe good for the world. We want to learn
技術的作品を作りたいと考えています
04:50
how to build biological artifacts, like people and whales and trees.
どうやって人間、鯨、木の様な生命を造れるのか学びたいのです
04:52
And if it's the case that we can reach that level of complexity,
そこで私達がそのような複雑性に達し
04:57
if our ability to program molecules gets to be that good,
分子プログラミング能力を改善できれば
04:59
then that will truly be magic. Thank you very much.
真の魔法となりうるでしょう ご清聴ありがとうございました
05:03
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:06
Translator:Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewer:Yuki Okada

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Paul Rothemund - DNA origamist
Paul Rothemund folds DNA into shapes and patterns. Which is a simple enough thing to say, but the process he has developed has vast implications for computing and manufacturing -- allowing us to create things we can now only dream of.

Why you should listen

Paul Rothemund won a MacArthur grant this year for a fairly mystifying study area: "folding DNA." It brings up the question: Why fold DNA? The answer is -- because the power to manipulate DNA in this way could change the way we make things at a very basic level.

Rothemund's work combines the study of self-assembly (watch the TEDTalks from Neil Gershenfeld and Saul Griffith for more on this) with the research being done in DNA nanotechnology -- and points the way toward self-assembling devices at microscale, making computer memory, for instance, smaller, faster and maybe even cheaper.

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