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TEDIndia 2009

Shukla Bose: Teaching one child at a time

シュクラ・ボース:一度に一人の子供を教える

November 6, 2009

“貧しい人々を教育するには数字以上に必要なものがある” とシュクラ・ボースは言います。過去の統計データを振り返り、1人1人の子供を個人として扱うことに重点を置き、インドのスラムに希望をもたらす革新的なパリクラマ慈善財団の物語を語ってくれます。

Shukla Bose - Education activist
Shukla Bose is the founder and head of the Parikrma Humanity Foundation, a nonprofit that runs four extraordinary schools for poor children. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I'm standing in front of you today
今日は私がこの6年間歩んできた
00:15
in all humility,
教育 奉仕という
00:19
wanting to share with you
世界での
00:21
my journey of the last six years
軌跡についてお話ししたくて
00:23
in the field of service
この場に
00:26
and education.
立たせて頂いてます
00:28
And I'm not a trained academic.
私は学者でもなければ
00:30
Neither am I a veteran social worker.
経験豊かなソーシャルワーカーでもありません
00:33
I was 26 years in the corporate world,
企業という世界で26年間
00:36
trying to make organizations profitable.
組織がより有益になるよう努めてきました
00:39
And then in 2003
そして2003年
00:42
I started Parikrma Humanity Foundation
小さな机の上から パリクラマ慈善財団を
00:44
from my kitchen table.
始めたのです
00:48
The first thing that we did was walk through the slums.
まずはスラムを歩き回ることから始めました
00:50
You know, by the way, there are two million people
しかしバンガロールには
00:54
in Bangalore, who live in 800 slums.
800のスラムがあり 200万人が生活をしています
00:57
We couldn't go to all the slums,
私たちは行ける限りのスラムを
01:02
but we tried to cover as much as we could.
訪れました
01:05
We walked through these slums,
学校に通ってない―
01:07
identified houses where children would never go to school.
子供がいる家を見つければ両親と話し
01:09
We talked to the parents,
子供を学校に
01:14
tried to convince them about sending their children to school.
通わせるように説得をしました
01:16
We played with the children,
子供たちと共に遊び
01:20
and came back home really tired,
ヘトヘトになり家に帰っても
01:22
exhausted, but with images
子供たちのイキイキした顔
01:25
of bright faces, twinkling eyes,
キラキラ輝く目を思い浮かべ
01:28
and went to sleep.
眠りにつきました
01:31
We were all excited to start,
みんなワクワクしていました
01:34
but the numbers hit us then:
しかし2億人もの
01:37
200 million children
4歳から14歳の
01:41
between four to 14 that
子供たちは
01:43
should be going to school, but do not;
学校に通っておらず
01:45
100 million children
学校に通う
01:47
who go to school but cannot read;
1億人の子供たちは
01:49
125 million who cannot do basic maths.
文字を読めず 算数の基礎ができません
01:52
We also heard that 250 billion Indian rupees
また学校教育にあてられた2500億ルピーの
01:57
was dedicated for government schooling.
約9割が教師を含む職員の―
02:02
Ninety percent of it was spent on teachers' salary
給料に費やされてるという
02:05
and administrators' salary.
話を聞きます
02:08
And yet, India has nearly
それにも関わらず
02:10
the highest teacher absenteeism
インドの教師欠勤率は
02:12
in the world,
世界トップクラスで
02:15
with one out of four teachers
4人に1人の教師は
02:17
not going to school at all the entire academic year.
1年間 一度も学校に来ないのです
02:19
Those numbers were absolutely mind-boggling,
とても理解しがたいものがあります
02:23
overwhelming, and we were constantly asked,
多くの人から尋ねられました
02:27
"When will you start? How many schools will you start?
“いつ学校を始めるのか?何人受け入れるのか?
02:30
How many children will you get?
何校くらい開校するのか?
02:33
How are you going to scale?
基準をどうやって決めるのか?
02:35
How are you going to replicate?"
どうやって学校を広げていくのか?”
02:37
It was very difficult not to get scared, not to get daunted.
不安にならなかった と言えば嘘になります
02:39
But we dug our heels
しかし 断固として言いました
02:43
and said, "We're not in the number game.
“私たちは数を気にしているのではありません”
02:45
We want to take one child at a time
一度に一人の子供を
02:48
and take the child right through school,
小学校から大学まで
02:52
sent to college,
確実に送り届け
02:55
and get them prepared for better living,
より良い生活と仕事の為の準備を
02:57
a high value job."
してあげたいのです
03:01
So, we started Parikrma.
そうしてパリクラマを始めました
03:04
The first Parikrma school
最初の学校は
03:07
started in a slum
7万人が―
03:09
where there were 70,000 people
貧困線以下で暮らす―
03:11
living below the poverty line.
スラムから始まりました
03:14
Our first school was
最初の校舎は
03:17
on a rooftop of a building inside the slums,
スラム内に唯一の
03:20
a second story building, the only second story building
二階建ての建物の
03:25
inside the slums.
屋上でした
03:27
And that rooftop did not have
天井はもちろんなく
03:29
any ceiling, only half a tin sheet.
気持ち程度のトタン屋根があるだけでした
03:32
That was our first school. One hundred sixty-five children.
これが最初の学校です 生徒は165人
03:36
Indian academic year begins in June.
インドの新学期は
03:40
So, June it rains, so many a times
雨季である6月に始まります
03:42
all of us would be huddled under the tin roof,
雨が降る度に屋根下に身を寄せ合って―
03:45
waiting for the rain to stop.
雨が止むのを待ちました
03:48
My God! What a bonding exercise that was.
その経験がどれだけ私たちの絆を深めたでしょう
03:50
And all of us
あの時―
03:55
that were under that roof are still here together today.
経験を共にした仲間は今も一緒です
03:57
Then came the second school,
次の学校―
04:01
the third school, the fourth school
3つ目 4つ目の学校
04:03
and a junior college.
そして短大まで設立しました
04:06
In six years now,
6年間で
04:08
we have four schools, one junior college,
4つの学校と短大1校を設立し
04:11
1,100 children
1,100人が28か所のスラムと
04:14
coming from 28 slums
4つの孤児院から
04:16
and four orphanages.
通学しています
04:18
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:20
Our dream is very simple:
目標は至って簡単です
04:23
to send each of these kids, get them prepared
1人1人の子供たちの
04:26
to be educated
これからの人生 教育への準備を手伝い
04:29
but also to live peacefully,
この問題の多い
04:32
contented in this conflict-ridden
混沌とした世界で
04:34
chaotic globalized world.
平和に暮らしていけるようにすることです
04:37
Now, when you talk global
この国際社会に出るには
04:41
you have to talk English.
英語を話さなければなりません
04:43
And so all our schools
したがって 我々の全学校では
04:45
are English medium schools.
授業は全て英語で行われます
04:47
But they know there is this myth
しかしスラム出身の子は
04:50
that children from the slums
家族 又はその世代で
04:52
cannot speak English well.
誰ひとり英語を口にしたことがないため
04:54
No one in their family has spoken English.
英語を上手く話せるようにはならない
04:57
No one in their generation has spoken English.
という迷信がありますが
04:59
But how wrong it is.
大きな間違いです
05:03
Girl: I like adventurous books, and some of my favorites
私はわくわくするような本が好き
05:05
are Alfred Hitchcock and [unclear]
お気に入りは ヒッチコックだとか
05:08
and Hardy Boys.
ハーディー ボーイズ!
05:12
Although they are like
ジャンルの違う本を
05:14
in different contexts,
いろいろ読むわ
05:16
one is magical, the other two are like investigation,
探偵ものから幻想的なものまで
05:18
I like those books because
こういう本が好きなのは
05:21
they have something special in them.
使われている言葉や
05:24
The vocabulary used in those books
文章の書き方とか
05:26
and the style of writing.
何か特別なモノがあるから
05:28
I mean like once I pick up one book
私は一度 本を手にすると
05:31
I cannot put it down until I finish the whole book.
それを読み終わるまで 止められないの
05:33
Even if it takes me four and a half hours,
もしそれが 読み終えるのに
05:36
or three and half hours to finish my book, I do it.
何時間もかかるような本でもね
05:38
Boy: I did good research and I got the information
ボク 世界一速いバイクについて―
05:41
[on the] world's fastest cars.
たくさん調査したんだよ!
05:44
I like Ducati ZZ143,
お気に入りは ドゥカティ ZZ143!
05:47
because it is the fastest,
これが世界でイチバン速い―
05:53
the world's fastest bike,
バイクだからね!
05:55
and I like Pulsar 220 DTSI
パルサー 220 DTSI も好きなんだ
05:57
because it is India's fastest bike. (Laughter)
これはインドでイチバン速いんだよ!
06:01
Shukla Bose: Well, that girl that you saw,
あの女の子の父親は
06:04
her father sells flowers on the roadside.
道端で花を売っています
06:08
And this little boy has been coming to school for five years.
男の子は学校に通い始めて5年になります
06:11
But isn't it strange that little boys all over the world
不思議ですよね? 世界中の男の子は
06:15
love fast bikes? (Laughter)
なぜか速いバイクが好きなんですから
06:19
He hasn't seen one, he hasn't ridden one, of course,
そのバイクに乗ったことも 見たこともない
06:22
but he has done a lot of research through Google search.
でもグーグルを使って一生懸命調べたんです
06:25
You know, when we started with our English medium schools
英語で授業を行うシステムを取り入れた時
06:30
we also decided to adopt
ICSEという―
06:33
the best curriculum possible,
最も優れたカリキュラムも
06:35
the ICSE curriculum.
取り入れることにしました
06:37
And again, there were people who laughed at me
しかし 人は笑い こう言いました
06:39
and said, "Don't be crazy
“あの子供たちが
06:42
choosing such a tough curriculum for these students.
そんな厳しいカリキュラムについて行けるワケない
06:44
They'll never be able to cope."
どうかしてるんじゃないか?” と
06:47
Not only do our children cope very well,
しかし ついて行けるどころか
06:49
but they excel in it.
抜きんでているではありませんか
06:52
You should just come across to see
いかに子供たちがよくやっているか―
06:54
how well our children do.
是非 見に来て欲しいものです
06:56
There is also this myth that
またスラムの親たちは
06:59
parents from the slums
“子供を学校に通わせるくらいなら―
07:01
are not interested in their children going to school;
働かせた方が良い”
07:04
they'd much rather put them to work.
と思っていると言われていますが
07:07
That's absolute hogwash.
全くのデタラメです
07:09
All parents all over the world
親であれば誰もが 子供には―
07:11
want their children to lead a better life than themselves,
自分よりも良い人生を送ってもらいたいものです
07:13
but they need to believe that change is possible.
そしてそれが可能であることを信じなければいけません
07:17
Video: (Hindi)
(ヒンディー語)
07:22
SB: We have 80 percent attendance
親と教師の集会は
07:58
for all our parents-teachers meeting.
出席率 80%で
08:01
Sometimes it's even 100 percent,
100%の時だってあります
08:03
much more than many privileged schools.
多くの有名学校よりも高い水準です
08:05
Fathers have started to attend.
父親も参加し始めました
08:08
It's very interesting. When we started our school
興味深いことに 以前は―
08:10
the parents would give thumbprints in the attendance register.
出席確認の際 母印を押していた親たちですが
08:13
Now they have started writing their signature.
今では署名をするようになりました
08:18
The children have taught them.
子供たちが教えたのです
08:22
It's amazing how much children can teach.
子供たちの影響は素晴らしいものです
08:24
We have, a few months ago,
昨年末になります
08:28
actually late last year,
数人の母親たちが―
08:31
we had a few mothers who came to us and said,
やってきて こう言いました
08:33
"You know, we want to learn how to read and write.
“私たちも読み書きを習いたいんだけど 教えてくれないか?”
08:35
Can you teach us?" So, we started an afterschool
そうして 母親たちの為の
08:39
for our parents, for our mothers.
アフタースクールを始めたのです
08:42
We had 25 mothers who came regularly
毎日 25人の母親たちが―
08:44
after school to study.
放課後 勉強しに学校に来ます
08:46
We want to continue with this program
今後もこれを続け―
08:49
and extend it to all our other schools.
他の学校にも広げていきたいです
08:51
Ninety-eight percent of our fathers are alcoholics.
98%の父親はアルコール依存症です
08:55
So, you can imagine how traumatized
子供たちの生活環境が
08:58
and how dysfunctional the houses are where our children come from.
いかに大変か想像できます
09:00
We have to send the fathers to de-addiction labs
私たちは父親たちを更生施設に送らなければなりません
09:04
and when they come back,
そして戻ってきたら
09:09
most times sober, we have to find a job for them
再びお酒に走らないよう
09:11
so that they don't regress.
彼らの仕事を見つける必要があります
09:15
We have about three fathers who have been trained to cook.
これまで3人の父親が調理の訓練を受けました
09:17
We have taught them nutrition, hygiene.
栄養 衛生面について教え―
09:21
We have helped them set up the kitchen
キッチンの設置も手伝い―
09:26
and now they are supplying food to all our children.
今では 子供たちの給食をつくっています
09:28
They do a very good job because
とてもいい仕事をしていますよ
09:31
their children are eating their food,
自分の料理を 子供たちが食べるわけですからね
09:34
but most importantly this is the first time
何よりも重要なのは
09:36
they have got respect,
初めて子供から尊敬され―
09:38
and they feel that they are doing something worthwhile.
自分がしていることの価値を実感することです
09:40
More than 90 percent of our non-teaching staff
教師以外の職員の9割以上は
09:44
are all parents and extended families.
両親と その家族や親戚などです
09:47
We've started many programs
子供たちが 学校に来れるよう―
09:51
just to make sure that the child comes to school.
多くのプログラムを始めました
09:53
Vocational skill program for the older siblings
年上の子供には職業訓練を受けさせ―
09:57
so the younger ones are not stopped from coming to school.
子供たちが通学を止められないようにするのです
10:00
There is also this myth that children from the slums
スラム出身の子供は 他の学校の子供と
10:04
cannot integrate with mainstream.
馴染めないと言われていますが
10:07
Take a look at this little girl
こちらをご覧ください
10:11
who was one of the 28 children
彼女はアフマダーバードにある
10:13
from all privileged schools,
インド経理大学で行われた
10:16
best schools in the country
デューク大学の
10:18
that was selected for the Duke University
人材育成プログラムに選ばれた
10:20
talent identification program
28人の―
10:23
and was sent to IIM Ahmedabad.
生徒の内の1人なのです
10:25
Video: Girl: Duke IIMA Camp. Whenever we see that IIMA,
このプログラムに参加できて
10:28
it was such a pride for us to go to that camp.
とても光栄でした
10:31
Everybody was very friendly,
みんな仲良くしてくれて
10:34
especially I got a lot of friends.
たくさん友達ができたの!
10:37
And I felt that my English has improved a lot
友達やそこで会う人たちと話すことで
10:40
going there and chatting with friends.
英語も上達したと思うの
10:42
There they met children who are
違う社会からの生徒
10:45
with a different standard and
物の考え方や水準が違う―
10:49
a different mindset, a totally different society.
生徒に会うことができたし
10:53
I mingled with almost everyone.
みんな すごくやさしくて
10:56
They were very friendly.
ほとんどの人と仲良くできたわ!
10:59
I had very good friends there,
デリーやムンバイから来た―
11:01
who are from Delhi, who are from Mumbai.
生徒とすごく仲良くなって
11:03
Even now we are in touch through Facebook.
今でもFacebookで連絡を取ってるわ
11:07
After this Ahmedabad trip
このプログラムに参加して
11:11
I've been like a totally different
多くの人と交流したことで
11:15
mingling with people and all of those.
とても変わったような気がするの
11:18
Before that I feel like I wasn't like this.
前までは 人とうまく交流できなかったし
11:20
I don't even mingle, or start speaking with someone so quickly.
初対面の人と すぐ話すなんてできなかった
11:23
My accent with English improved a lot.
英語の発音もすごく良くなったと思うの
11:27
And I learned football, volleyball,
サッカーやバレーやフリスビーなんかの
11:32
Frisbee, lots of games.
ゲームもたくさん習ったわ
11:35
And I wouldn't want to go to Bangalore. Let me stay here.
バンガロールに戻りたくなかったの
11:37
Such beautiful food,
ここに居させて! と思ったわ
11:40
I enjoyed it. It was so beautiful.
食べ物がすごく美味しくて
11:42
I enjoyed eating food like
サイコーだったの!
11:45
[unclear] would come and ask me,
店員の“お嬢さん 何にしましょう?”
11:47
"Yes ma'am, what you want?" It was so good to hear!
っていうのも聞けてうれしかったわ
11:52
(Laughter)
(笑い)
11:54
(Applause)
(拍手)
11:56
SB: This girl was working as a maid
この子は学校に来る前は
12:00
before she came to school.
メイドとして働いていました
12:02
And today she wants to be a neurologist.
今では神経科医を目指しています
12:04
Our children are doing brilliantly in sports.
子供たちはスポーツでも大活躍しています
12:08
They are really excelling.
とても優秀なんですよ
12:12
There is an inter-school athletic competition
バンガロールで毎年開催される
12:14
that is held every year
140校 5000人が参加する
12:17
in Bangalore, where 5,000 children participate
対校運動競技会で
12:20
from 140 best schools in the city.
最優秀校に―
12:24
We've got the best school award for three years successively.
3年連続で選ばれているのです
12:27
And our children are coming back home
メダルに賞賛―
12:34
with bags full of medals, with lots of admirers and friends.
友達をたくさん手に入れて帰ってきました
12:36
Last year there were a couple of kids
昨年は エリート校から
12:40
from elite schools that came
数人の生徒がやって来て
12:44
to ask for admissions in our school.
転入させて欲しいと
12:46
We also have our very own dream team.
言って来ました
12:48
Why is this happening? Why this confidence?
この現象 自信の理由は何でしょう?
12:53
Is it the exposure? We have professors
学校にはMIT
12:55
from MIT, Berkeley, Stanford,
バークレー スタンフォード インド理科大学などから
12:59
Indian Institute of Science
教授がやって来ては―
13:02
who come and teach our children lots of scientific formulas,
化学公式や実験から
13:04
experiments, much beyond the classroom.
表現の手段 癒しにもなる―
13:08
Art, music are considered
音楽や芸術と 勉強以外のことも―
13:11
therapy and mediums of expression.
たくさん教えてくれます
13:14
We also believe that
重要なのは
13:18
it's the content that is more important.
その内容 その学校で―
13:21
It is not the infrastructure,
実際に起こっていることであり
13:25
not the toilets, not the libraries,
図書館やトイレなどの
13:29
but it is what actually happens in this school
施設や設備ではないということを―
13:32
that is more important.
信じています
13:35
Creating an environment of learning,
本当の教育というものは
13:37
of inquiry, of exploration
子供たちが探求心を追求できる学習環境を―
13:40
is what is true education.
整えてあげることだと思います
13:43
When we started Parikrma
パリクラマを始めた時―
13:45
we had no idea which direction we were taking.
何処に辿り着くのか見当もつきませんでした
13:47
We didn't hire McKinsey to do a business plan.
計画を練るのに専門家に尋ねたわけでもありません
13:50
But we know for sure that
けれども私たちが
13:53
what we want to do today is
やりたいことは明確です
13:56
take one child at a time,
数にとらわれず
14:00
not get bogged with numbers,
一人一人の子供を
14:02
and actually see the child complete
確実に見届け
14:04
the circle of life,
子供が持つ可能性を
14:08
and unleash his total potential.
最大限に引き出してあげることです
14:10
We do not believe in scale
量ではなく質が大事なのです
14:14
because we believe in quality,
そうすれば
14:18
and scale and numbers will automatically happen.
数字は勝手についてきます
14:20
We have corporates that have stood behind us,
現在 企業の協力のおかげで
14:24
and we are able to, now, open more schools.
次の そしてその次の開校も可能ですが
14:27
But we began with the idea
今でも一度に一人
14:30
of one child at a time.
という考えは変わってません
14:32
This is five-year-old Parusharam.
5歳のパルシュラムは
14:34
He was begging
数年前 バス停で―
14:37
by a bus stop a few years ago,
物乞いをしていたところを拾われ―
14:39
got picked up and is now in an orphanage,
今は孤児院に住んでます
14:41
has been coming to school for the last four and a half months.
学校に通い出して4カ月半
14:44
He's in kindergarten.
幼稚園に通っていて
14:48
He has learned how to speak English.
英語を習っています
14:50
We have a model by which kids can speak English
ここでは3カ月間で
14:52
and understand English
英語を話せて理解できるようになる
14:55
in three month's time.
課程があります
14:57
He can tell you stories in English
パルシュラムは カラスの物語や
14:59
of the thirsty crow, of the crocodile
ワニさん キリンさんのお話も
15:02
and of the giraffe.
英語で教えてくれます
15:04
And if you ask him what he likes to do
何をするのが好きかと質問すれば
15:06
he will say, "I like sleeping.
“食べることでしょ 寝ることでしょ―
15:08
I like eating. I like playing."
あと遊ぶこと!” と答えるでしょう
15:10
And if you ask him what he wants to do,
何をしてみたいかを聞けば
15:13
he will say, "I want to horsing."
“馬がしたい!” と言うでしょう
15:15
Now, "horsing" is going for a horse ride.
これは “乗馬がしたい” という意味です
15:17
So, Parusharam comes to my office every day.
パルシュラムは私の部屋に毎日やってきて
15:20
He comes for a tummy rub,
お腹をさすってくれます
15:23
because he believes that will give me luck. (Laughter)
それが私に幸福をもたらせてくれると信じているからです
15:26
When I started Parikrma
パリクラマを始めた時
15:28
I began with a great deal of arrogance
世界を変えてみせる! という―
15:31
of transforming the world.
傲慢な考えがありました
15:35
But today I have been transformed.
しかし気付くと 私自身が変わっていました
15:37
I have been changed with my children.
子供たちから多くのことを学んだのです
15:40
I've learned so much from them:
想像力や創造力―
15:42
love, compassion, imagination
思いやりの気持ち―
15:45
and such creativity.
そして愛情を
15:48
Parusharam is Parikrma
パルシュラムこそ パリクラマなのです
15:51
with a simple beginning but a long way to go.
始まりは簡単ですが その道のりはとても長いのです
15:55
I promise you, Parusharam
数年後 このTEDの舞台に―
15:58
will speak in the TED conference a few years from now.
私たちのパルシュラムが立っていることでしょう
16:00
Thank you.
ありがとうございます
16:04
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:06
Translator:Taro Yoda
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Shukla Bose - Education activist
Shukla Bose is the founder and head of the Parikrma Humanity Foundation, a nonprofit that runs four extraordinary schools for poor children.

Why you should listen

The word "Parikrma" implies a full revolution, a complete path around -- and Shukla Bose's Parikrma Humanity Foundation offers literally that to kids in poor urban areas around Bangalore. Parikrma's four Schools of Hope teach the full, standard Indian curriculum to children who might not otherwise see the inside of a classroom, with impressive results. Equally important, the schools build an "end-to-end" environment that supports learning -- offering lunch every day, health-care and family support. Beyond these schools, Parikrma has inaugurated several afterschool programs and has plans for setting up a central teacher-training hub.

Bose left behind a corporate career in 1992 to found Parikrma with a small group of friends. The nonprofit holds itself to formal business goals and strict accountability, and has developed some clever fundraising and marketing campaigns. As Bose puts it, the goal of Parikrma is to help build a better India by tapping its greatest strength: the vitality and potential of its people.

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