English-Video.net comment policy

The comment field is common to all languages

Let's write in your language and use "Google Translate" together

Please refer to informative community guidelines on TED.com

TEDGlobal 2007

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala: Aid versus trade

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala: Bistand kontra handel

Filmed
Views 534,402

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, tidligere finansminister i Nigeria, sammenfatter fire dage med intensive diskussioner om bistand kontra handel, på lukningsdagen for TEDGlobal2007, og deler en personlig historie, som forklarer hendes eget engagement for dette tema.

- Economist
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a respected global economist. Full bio

It's very, very difficult
Det er meget, meget svært
00:25
to speak at the end of a conference like this,
at være den sidste taler
ved en konference som denne,
00:30
because everyone has spoken. Everything has been said.
eftersom alle har talt.
Alt er blevet sagt.
00:33
So I thought that what may be useful is to remind us
Så det kan være nyttigt at påminde os om,
00:36
of some of the things that have gone on here,
nogle af de ting, som er blevet sagt her,
00:40
and then maybe offer some ideas which we can take away,
og måske give nogle idéer,
som vi kan tage med os,
00:43
and take forward and work on.
og arbejde med.
00:46
That's what I'd like to try and do.
Det vil jeg forsøge.
00:51
We came here saying we want to talk about "Africa: the Next Chapter."
Vi ville snakke om
"Afrika: det Næste Kapitel".
00:52
But we are talking about "Africa: the Next Chapter"
Vi taler om "Afrika: det Næste Kapitel",
00:57
because we are looking at the old and the present chapter -- that we're looking at,
fordi vi ser på det tidligere
og nuværende kapitel,
00:59
and saying it's not such a good thing.
og hævder, at det ikke er godt nok.
01:05
The picture I showed you before, and this picture, of drought, death and disease
Det forrige billede
samt dette billede af tørke, død og sygdom
01:08
is what we usually see.
er det vi normalt ser.
01:11
What we want to look at is "Africa: the Next Chapter,"
Det vi vil kigge på er
"Afrika: det Næste Kapitel",
01:15
and that's this: a healthy, smiling, beautiful African.
det er: en sund, smilende, smuk afrikaner.
01:19
And I think it's worth remembering what we've heard
Det er værd at huske det vi har hørt,
01:23
through the conference right from the first day,
i løbet af hele konferencen,
01:26
where I heard that all the important statistics have been given --
al vigtig statistik som er blevet vist,
01:28
about where we are now,
for at vise, hvor vi står nu,
01:31
about how the continent is doing much better.
og at det går så meget bedre
for kontinentet .
01:34
And the importance of that is that we have a platform to build on.
Vi har nu en vigtig platform at bygge på.
01:38
So I'm not going to spend too much time --
Jeg vil ikke bruge for meget tid,
01:41
just to show you, refresh your memories
men blot vise og påminde jer om,
01:44
that we are here for "Africa: the Next Chapter" because for the first time
at vi er her, fordi vi for første gang
01:47
there really is a platform to build on.
har en platform at udgå fra.
01:49
We really do have it going right
Det er korrekt,
01:53
that the continent is growing at rates that people had thought would not happen.
at kontinentet vokser mere
end vi havde kunnet forestille os.
01:56
After decades of 2 percent, we are now at 5 percent,
Efter årtier med 2 procent
er vi nu på 5 procent,
02:00
and it's going to -- projected -- 6 and 7 percent even.
og det anslås
at fortsætte til 6 og 7 procent.
02:03
And inflation has come down.
Og inflationen er faldet.
02:07
External debt -- something that I can tell you a long story about
Udlandsgælden kunne jeg tale længe om,
02:11
because I personally worked on one of the biggest debts on the continent --
eftersom jeg har arbejdet med
en stor gæld på kontinentet,
02:13
has come down dramatically.
og den er også faldet drastisk.
02:17
You know, as you can see,
Som I kan se,
02:20
from almost 50 billion down to about 12 or 13 billion.
fra næsten 50 milliarder
ned til omkring 12-13 milliarder.
02:22
Now this is a huge achievement.
Det er et bemærkelsværdigt resultat.
02:25
You know, we've built up reserves. Why is that important?
Vi har opbygget reserver.
Hvorfor er det vigtigt?
02:28
It's because it shows off our economies, shows off our currencies
Fordi det fremviser vores økonomier
og valutaer
02:32
and gives a platform on which people can plan and build, including businesses.
og giver en platform,
som folk kan bygge på, også firmaer.
02:35
We've also seen some evidence that all this is making a difference
Vi ser også bevis på,
at alt dette gør en forskel,
02:40
because private investment flows have increased.
for private investeringer er tiltaget.
02:44
I want to remind you again --
Jeg vil endnu engang minde jer om,
02:47
I know you saw these statistics before --
jeg ved i allerede har set
disse statistikker,
02:49
from almost 6 billion we are now at about 18 billion.
at vi er gået fra ca. 6 til 18 milliarder.
02:52
In 2005, remittances -- I just took one country, Nigeria
Tager vi eksemplet Nigeria
og kigger på pengeoverførsler i 2005,
02:55
skyrocketing -- skyrocketing is too dramatic,
skyhøj -- det er for dramatisk,
02:58
but increasing dramatically.
men de steg voldsomt.
03:03
And in many other countries this is happening.
Det samme sker i mange andre lande.
03:06
Why is this important? Because it shows confidence.
Det er vigtigt, fordi det viser tillid.
03:08
People are now confident to bring --
Hvis mennesker i diasporaen
03:10
if your people in the diaspora bring their money back,
tør investere i hjemlandet,
03:13
it shows other people that, look,
viser det andre,
03:16
there is emerging confidence in your country.
at tilliden til dit land er stigende.
03:18
And instead of an outflow, you are now getting a net inflow.
I stedet for udstrømning
opnår man nu en tilstrømning.
03:21
Now, why is all this important, to have to go really fast?
Hvorfor er det vigtigt
for en hurtig udvikling?
03:24
It's important that we build this platform,
Det er vigtigt, at vi bygger platformen,
03:26
that we have the president, Kikwete, and others of our leaders who are saying,
samt at præsidenten, Kikwete,
og andre ledere siger,
03:29
"Look, we must do something different."
"Vi er nød til at foretage ændringer."
03:32
Because we are confronted with a challenge.
For vi er konfronteret med en udfordring.
03:34
62 percent of our population is below the age of 24.
62 procent af vores befolkning
er under 24 år.
03:36
What does this mean?
Hvad betyder det?
03:43
This means that we have to focus on how our youth
Det betyder, at vi er nødt til
at fokusere på, hvordan unge
03:46
are going to be engaged in productive endeavor in their lives.
kan engageres i produktive bestræbelser.
03:49
You have to focus on how to create jobs,
Man er nødt til at skabe jobs,
03:52
make sure they don't fall into disease, and that they get an education.
sikre at de er raske
og bliver uddannet.
03:55
But most of all that they are productively engaged in life,
Men det vigtigste er,
at de er produktivt engageret i livet,
03:57
and that they are creating the kind of productive environment
og at de skaber de produktive miljøer,
04:00
in our countries that will make things happen.
i vores lande, som vil gøre en forskel.
04:03
And to support this, I just recently --
En af de ting, jeg for nylig
har foretaget mig i Nigeria
04:07
one of the things I've done since leaving government
er at starte
04:10
is to start an opinion research organization in Nigeria.
en organisation for opinionsforskning.
04:12
Most of our countries don't even have any opinion research.
De fleste af vores lande
har ingen opinionsforskning.
04:14
People don't have voice.
Folk bliver ikke hørt.
04:18
There is no way you can know what people want.
Man kan umuligt vide, hvad folk ønsker.
04:20
One of the things we asked them recently was what's their top issue.
Vi spurgte dem om deres største problem.
04:22
Like in every other country where this has been done,
Som i alle andre lande,
hvor en sådan undersøgelse er lavet,
04:24
jobs is the top issue.
er arbejde det største problem.
04:27
I want to leave this up here and come back to it.
Jeg vender tilbage til dette.
04:31
But before I get to this slide, I just wanted to run you through this.
Før jeg viser denne side,
vil jeg lige gennemgå dette:
04:36
And to say that for me, the next stage of building this platform
Næste fase for opbygningen
af denne platform,
04:40
that now enables us to move forward --
som nu gør det muligt
at komme fremad
04:43
and we mustn't make light of it.
og vi må tage vare på det.
04:46
It was only 5, 6, 7 years ago
For blot 5, 6, 7 år siden
04:48
we couldn't even talk about the next chapter, because we were in the old chapter.
kunne vi ikke tale om det næste kapitel,
fordi vi stadig var i det gamle.
04:53
We were going nowhere.
Vi kom ingen vegne.
04:57
The economies were not growing.
Økonomierne voksede ikke.
05:00
We were having negative per capita growth.
Vi oplevede negativ vækst per capita.
05:02
The microeconomic framework and foundation for moving forward
Den mikroøkonomiske fundament for udvikling
05:06
was not even there.
eksisterede ikke engang.
05:08
So let's not forget that it's taken a lot to build this,
Vi må ikke glemme kampen for at bygge det,
05:12
including all those things that we tried to do in Nigeria that Dele referred to.
deriblandt alt det vi forsøgte i Nigeria.
05:15
Creating our own program to solve problems, like fighting corruption,
Skabe et program for problemløsning,
for korruptionsbekæmpning,
05:17
building institutions, stabilizing the micro economy.
bygge institutioner,
stabilisere mikroøkonomien.
05:24
So now we have this platform we can build on.
Nu har vi platformen,
som vi kan bygge videre på.
05:29
And it brings us to the debate that has been going on here:
Det fører os til debatten,
der er foregået her:
05:33
aid versus private sector, aid versus trade, etc.
bistand kontra den private sektor,
bistand kontra handel osv.
05:37
And someone stood up to say that one of the frustrating things
Nogen sagde, at en frustrerende ting er,
05:42
is that it's been a simplistic debate.
at det har været en forenklet debat.
05:47
And that's not what the debate should be about.
Det er ikke det debatten bør handle om.
05:49
That's engaging in the wrong debate.
Det tager debatten i en forkert retning.
05:54
The issue here is how do we get a partnership that involves government donors,
Målet er samarbejde
mellem regeringsdonorer,
05:58
the private sector and ordinary African people
den private sektor
og normale mennesker i Afrika
06:00
taking charge of their own lives?
til at tage kontrol over deres liv.
06:04
How do we combine all this?
Hvordan kombinerer vi dette?
06:07
To move our continent forward, to do the things that need doing
At udvikle vores kontinent
06:12
that I talked about -- getting young people employed.
og få unge i arbejde.
06:14
Getting the creative juices flowing on this continent,
At få kreativiteten til at flyde
på dette kontinent,
06:17
much of what you have seen here.
som vi har set her.
06:20
So I'm afraid we've been engaging a little bit in the wrong debate.
Vi har været engageret i en forkert debat.
06:23
We need to bring it back to say,
Vi er nød til at spørge os selv,
06:26
what is the combination of all these factors
hvordan vi kombinerer
alle disse faktorer,
06:28
that is going to yield what we want? (Applause)
så vi opnår det vi ønsker? (Bifald)
06:31
And I want to tell you something.
Jeg vil fortælle jer noget.
06:35
For me, the issue about aid --
Når det handler om problemet med bistand,
06:40
I don't think that Africans need to now go all the way over to the other side
så mener jeg ikke,
at afrikanere bør gå i den anden grøft
06:43
and feel bad about aid.
og have dårlig samvittighed over bistand.
06:47
Africa has been giving the other countries aid.
Afrika har skænket bistand
til andre lande.
06:50
Mo Ibrahim said at a debate we were at that
Mo Ibrahim sagde i en debat,
06:53
he dreams one day when Africa will be giving aid.
at han drømmer om
når Afrika giver bistand.
06:58
And I said, "Mo, you're right. We have -- no, but we've already been doing it!
Jeg sagde, "Mo, du har ret.
Men vi har allerede gjort det!
07:00
The U.K. and the U.S. could not have been built today without Africa's aid."
Storbritannien og USA var aldrig
blevet bygget uden Afrikas bistand."
07:03
(Applause)
(Bifald)
07:09
It is all the resources that were taken from Africa,
Alle ressourcer
som blevet taget fra Afrika,
07:17
including human, that built these countries today!
heriblandt mennesker,
som hjalp med at bygge disse lande!
07:20
So when they try to give back, we shouldn't be on the defensive.
Så når de forsøger at give noget tilbage,
bør vi ikke være defensive.
07:24
The issue is not that.
Det er ikke problemet.
07:30
The issue is how are we using what has been given back.
Udfordringen er, hvordan vi bruger det,
som vi får tilbage.
07:33
How are we using it?
Hvordan anvender vi det?
07:37
Is it being directed effectively?
Bliver det brugt på en effektiv måde?
07:40
I want to tell you a little story.
Jeg vil fortælle en lille historie.
07:45
Why I don't mind if we get aid, but we use it well.
Hvorfor jeg ikke er imod bistand,
så længe vi bruger det fornuftigt.
07:48
From 1967 to '70, Nigeria fought a war -- the Nigeria-Biafra war.
Fra 1967 til 1970 var Nigeria i krig.
07:57
And in the middle of that war, I was 14 years old.
Jeg var 14 år gammel på det tidspunkt.
08:00
We spent much of our time with my mother cooking.
Vi brugte meget tid på madlavning, sammen med min mor.
08:04
For the army -- my father joined the army as a brigadier -- the Biafran army.
Min far gik ind i Biafran-hæren
som brigadechef.
08:06
We were on the Biafran side.
Vi var på Biafrans side.
08:09
And we were down to eating one meal a day, running from place to place,
Vi spiste kun et måltid om dagen,
mens vi løb fra sted til sted,
08:11
but wherever we could help we did.
men hvor end vi kunne så hjalp vi.
08:14
At a certain point in time, in 1969, things were really bad.
I 1969 var det rigtig slemt.
08:18
We were down to almost nothing in terms of a meal a day.
Vi spiste stort set ingenting.
08:22
People, children were dying of kwashiorkor.
Folk, børn døde af kwashiorkor.
08:26
I'm sure some of you who are not so young
Jeg er sikker på, at I som ikke er unge
08:28
will remember those pictures.
kan huske disse billeder.
08:30
Well, I was in the middle of it.
Jeg var i midten af det hele.
08:33
In the midst of all this, my mother fell ill with a stomach ailment for two or three days.
Samtidig fik min mor en mavesygdom
i to eller tre dage.
08:35
We thought she was going to die.
Vi troede hun skulle dø.
08:39
My father was not there.
Min far var der ikke.
08:41
He was in the army.
Han var i hæren.
08:43
So I was the oldest person in the house.
Så jeg var den ældste person i huset.
08:44
My sister fell very ill with malaria.
Min søster blev alvorlig syg af malaria.
08:48
She was three years old and I was 15.
Hun var tre år gammel og jeg var 15.
08:53
And she had such a high fever. We tried everything.
Hun havde meget høj feber. Vi prøvede alt.
08:58
It didn't look like it was going to work.
Det så ikke ud til at virke.
09:00
Until we heard that 10 kilometers away there was a doctor, who was
Så hørte vi om en læge
der var 10 kilometer væk,
09:04
looking at people and giving them meds.
som tog imod folk og gav dem medicin.
09:08
Now I put my sister on my back -- burning --
Jeg tog min søster på ryggen,
i den brændende hede,
09:10
and I walked 10 kilometers with her strapped on my back.
og gik 10 kilometer med hende på ryggen.
09:14
It was really hot. I was very hungry.
Det var utrolig varmt.
Jeg var meget sulten.
09:17
I was scared because I knew her life depended on my getting to this woman.
Jeg var bange, fordi jeg vidste,
at hendes liv afhængte af mig.
09:22
We heard there was a woman doctor who was treating people.
Vi hørte om en kvindelig læge.
09:25
I walked 10 kilometers, putting one foot in front of the other.
Jeg gik 10 kilometer.
09:27
I got there and I saw huge crowds.
Jeg kom frem og så en enorm folkemængde.
09:30
Almost a thousand people were there, trying to break down the door.
Der var næsten tusind mennesker,
som alle ville ind.
09:33
She was doing this in a church. How was I going to get in?
Lægen befandt sig i kirken.
Hvordan kunne jeg komme ind?
09:36
I had to crawl in between the legs of these people
Jeg kravlede ind mellem benene på folk,
09:42
with my sister strapped on my back,
med min søster på ryggen,
09:45
find a way to a window.
for at finde et vindue.
09:49
And while they were trying to break down the door,
Mens de forsøgte at bryde døren ind,
09:50
I climbed in through the window, and jumped in.
klatrede jeg ind gennem vinduet.
09:53
This woman told me it was in the nick of time.
Kvinden fortalte mig,
at det var lige på målstregen.
09:57
By the time we jumped into that hall, she was barely moving.
Da vi hoppede ind gennem vinduet
bevægede hun sig knapt.
10:00
She gave a shot of her chloroquine -- what I learned was the chloroquine then --
Lægen gav hende,
hvad jeg senere fandt ud af, var chloroquin,
10:04
gave her some -- it must have been a re-hydration --
og hvad må have være rehydrering,
10:08
and some other therapies, and put us in a corner.
og nogle andre behandlinger
og placerede os i et hjørne.
10:11
In about two to three hours, she started to move.
Efter to til tre timer bevægede hun sig.
10:18
And then they toweled her down because she started sweating,
De tørrede hende af, eftersom hun svedte,
10:23
which was a good sign.
hvilket var et positivt tegn.
10:26
And then my sister woke up.
Pludselig vågnede min søster.
10:31
And about five or six hours later, she said we could go home.
Fem til seks timer senere,
sagde hun, at vi kunne gå hjem.
10:35
I strapped her on my back.
Jeg spændte hende fast på ryggen.
10:38
I walked the 10 kilometers back and it was the shortest walk I ever had.
Jeg gik de 10 kilometer tilbage
og det var den korteste tur nogensinde.
10:41
I was so happy -- (Applause) -- that my sister was alive!
Jeg var så glad (Bifald),
at min søster var i live!
10:45
Today she's 41 years old, a mother of three,
I dag er hun 41 år og mor til tre,
10:52
and she's a physician saving other lives.
og hun er læge og redder andres liv.
10:54
Why am I telling that? I'm telling you that because --
Hvorfor fortæller jeg jer dette?
10:57
when it is you or your person involved --
Fordi hvis det er dig
eller en af dine kære, det drejer sig om,
10:59
you don't care where -- whether it's aid.
så er du ligeglad med om det er bistand.
11:05
You don't care what it is! (Applause)
Du er ligeglad med, hvad det er! (Bifald)
11:10
You just want the person to be alive!
Du vil bare, at personen skal overleve!
11:18
And now let me become less sentimental, and say that saving lives --
Det at redde liv,
11:23
which some of the aid we get does on this continent --
hvilket noget af bistanden gør
på dette kontinent,
11:26
when you save the life of anyone, a farmer, a teacher, a mother,
for hvem som helst,
en bonde, en lærer, en mor,
11:29
they are contributing productively into the economy.
der bidrager produktivt til økonomien.
11:32
And as an economist, we can also look at that side of the story.
Vi kan således også se på historien
fra en økonoms perspektiv.
11:34
These are people who are productive agents in the economy.
De er produktive agenter i økonomien.
11:43
So if we save people from HIV/AIDS, if we save them from malaria,
Hvis vi redder folk fra HIV/AIDS
og fra malaria,
11:45
it means they can form the base of production for our economy.
betyder det, at de kan være base
for produktion i økonomien.
11:49
And by the same token --
Og omvendt, som nogen sagde i går,
11:52
as someone said yesterday -- if we don't and they die,
hvis vi ikke redder dem og de dør,
11:56
their children will become a burden on the economy.
vil deres børn blive en byrde i samfundet.
11:58
So even from an economic standpoint,
Så selv fra et økonomiskt synspunkt,
12:00
if we leave the social and the humanitarian,
uden at indregne et socialt og humanitært,
12:04
we need to save lives now.
så er vi nødt til at redde liv nu.
12:06
So that's one of the reasons, from a personal experience, that I say
Det er en af grundene til,
fra et personligt perspektiv,
12:09
let's channel these resources we get into something productive.
hvorfor vi bør bruge ressourcerne,
som vi modtager til noget produktivt.
12:12
However, I will also tell you that I'm one of those
Jeg vil dog også fortælle jer,
at jeg er en af dem,
12:18
who doesn't believe that this is the sole answer.
der ikke tror,
at dette er den eneste løsning.
12:22
That's why I said the debate has to get more sophisticated.
Debatten bør blive mere sofistikeret.
12:25
You know, we have to use it well.
Vi er nødt til
at bruge bistand fornuftigt.
12:28
What has happened in Europe?
Hvad er der sket i Europa?
12:34
Do you all know that Spain -- part of the EU --
Vidste I, at Spanien, som er en del af EU,
12:38
got 10 billion dollars in aid from the rest of the EU?
modtog 10 milliarder dollars i bistand
fra resten af EU?
12:42
Resources that were transferred to them --
Ressourcer blev overført til dem
12:46
and were the Spanish ashamed of this? No!
og skammede Spanien sig over dette? Nej!
12:50
The EU transferred 10 billion. Where did they use it?
Hvad blev de 10 milliarder brugt til?
12:53
Have you been to southern Spain lately? There are roads everywhere.
Har I været i Sydspanien for nylig?
Der er veje overalt.
12:55
Infrastructure everywhere.
Infrastruktur over det hele.
13:00
It is on the back of this that the whole of southern Spain
Det er på grund af dette, at Sydspanien
13:03
has developed into a services economy.
har udviklet sig til en serviceøkonomi.
13:05
Did you know that Ireland got 3 billion dollars in aid?
Også Irland modtog 3 milliarder dollars.
13:08
Ireland is one of the fastest-growing economies in the European Union today.
Irland er i dag
en af de hurtigst voksende økonomier i EU.
13:10
For which many people, even from other parts of the world,
Mange, fra andre dele af verden,
13:14
are going there to find jobs.
tager dertil for at finde arbejde.
13:20
What did they do with the 3 billion dollars in aid?
Hvad gjorde de med
de 3 milliarder dollars i bistand?
13:22
They used it to build an information superhighway,
De brugte dem til at bygge
en informationsmotorvej,
13:25
gain infrastructure that
opnå infrastruktur,
som gør det muligt for dem
13:28
enables them to participate in the
at deltage i
13:32
information technology revolution,
den teknologiske informationsrevolution
13:34
and to create jobs in their economy.
og til at skabe jobs.
13:36
They didn't say, "No, you know, we're not going to take this."
De sagde ikke, "Det tager vi ikke imod".
13:39
Today, the European Union is busy transferring aid.
I dag har EU travlt med at give bistand.
13:41
My frustration is if they can build infrastructure in Spain --
Hvis de kan bygge infrastruktur i Spanien,
13:44
which is roads, highways, other things that they can build --
som veje, motorveje osv.,
13:46
I say then, why do they refuse to use the same aid
hvorfor nægter de så at bruge bistand
13:50
to build the same infrastructure in our countries? (Applause)
til infrastruktur i vores lande? (Bifald)
13:52
When we ask them and tell them what we need,
Når vi nu fortæller dem,
hvad vi har brug for.
13:54
one of my worries today is that we have many foundations now.
Jeg er urolig over
de mange fonde vi har.
14:05
Now we talk about the World Bank, IMF, and accountability, all that
Vi taler om Verdensbanken, IMF,
ansvarlighed
14:07
and the EU.
og om EU.
14:10
We also have private citizens now who have a lot of money --
Vi har også velhavende private medborgere,
14:12
some of them in this audience, with private foundations.
nogle er i publikum, og private fonde.
14:17
And one day, these foundations have so much money,
En dag vil disse fonde
have så mange penge,
14:19
they will overtake the official aid that is being given.
så de vil overgå den officielle bistand.
14:22
But I fear -- and I'm very grateful to all of them
Jeg er urolig,
selvom jeg også er taknemmelig
14:25
for what they are trying to do on the continent --
for det de forsøger at opnå.
14:30
but I'm also worried. I wake up with a gnawing in my belly
Jeg vågner med en uro indeni,
14:32
because I see a new set of aid entrepreneurs on the continent.
for jeg ser en ny gruppe
bistandsiværksættere på kontinentet.
14:39
And they're also going from country to country,
De rejser også fra land til land
14:42
and many times trying to find what to do.
og forsøger tit at finde ud af,
hvad de skal foretage sig.
14:46
But I'm not really sure that their assistance
Jeg er ikke helt sikker på, at deres hjælp
14:51
is also being channeled in the right way.
altid sker på den rigtige måde.
14:54
And many of them are not really familiar with the continent.
Mange er ikke bekendt med kontinentet.
14:58
They are just discovering.
De er først ved at opdage det.
15:00
And many times I don't see Africans working with them.
Og ofte samarbejder de ikke
med afrikanere.
15:03
They are just going alone! (Applause)
De gør bare tingene selv! (Bifald)
15:06
And many times I get the impression that they are not really even interested
Det er mit indtryk, at de tit ikke
15:09
in hearing from Africans who might know.
er særlig intresserede i
at høre fra dygtige og erfarne afrikanere.
15:11
They want to visit us,
De ønsker at besøge os,
15:15
see what's happening on the ground and make a decision.
se hvad der foregår og tage beslutninger.
15:18
And now I'm maybe being harsh.
Nu er jeg måske lidt hård.
15:20
But I worry because this money is so important.
Jeg er urolig, fordi pengene er vigtige.
15:22
Now, who are they accountable to?
Hvem er disse mennesker
ansvarlige overfor?
15:25
Are we on their boards when they make decisions
Indgår vi i deres overvejelser,
15:30
about where to channel money? Are we there?
når de tager beslutninger om pengene?
15:32
Will we make the same mistake that we made before?
Vil de samme fejltagelser ske igen?
15:35
Have our presidents and our leaders -- everyone is talking about --
Har vores præsidenter og ledere
15:38
have they ever called these people together and said,
nogensinde kaldt dem sammen og sagt,
15:40
"Look, your foundation and your foundation --
"Jeres fonde har mange penge
15:42
you have so much money, we are grateful.
og vi er taknemmelige for jeres støtte.
15:45
Let's sit down and really tell you where the money should be channeled
Lad os sætte os ned,
så vi kan fortælle jer,
15:47
and where this aid should go."
hvad pengene bør bruges til."
15:50
Have we done that? The answer is no.
Har vi gjort det? Svaret er nej.
15:53
And each one is making their own individual effort.
Alle gør deres individuelle indsats.
15:58
And then 10 years from now, billions will again have gone into Africa,
Og om 10 år vil milliarder
være blevet brugt i afrika,
16:01
and we would still have the same problems.
men vi vil stadig have de samme problemer.
16:04
This is what gives us the hopeless image.
Det skaber det hjælpeløse billede.
16:08
Our inability to take charge and say to all these people bringing their money,
Vores manglende evne til at tage ansvar
og sige til dem,
16:11
"Sit down."
"Sæt jer ned."
16:15
And we don't do it because there are so many of us. We don't coordinate.
Vi er så mange og vi organiserer os ikke.
16:17
We've not called the Bill Gates, and the Soros,
Vi har ikke sagt til Bill Gates, Soro
16:19
and everybody else who is helping and say,
og alle andre som hjælper,
16:25
"Sit down. Let's have a conference with you.
"Sæt jer ned. Lad os have en konference.
16:30
As a continent, here are our priorities.
Som et kontinent her er vores prioriteter.
16:33
Here is where we want you to channel this money."
Her er, hvor vi ønsker at bruge pengene."
16:36
Each one should not be an entrepreneur
Alle bør ikke være en entreprenør,
16:40
going out and finding what is best.
som går ud og finder det bedste.
16:42
We're not trying to stop them at all! But to help them help us better.
Vi ønsker at hjælpe dem
med at blive bedre til at hjælpe os.
16:45
And what is disappointing me is that we are not doing this.
Det skuffer mig, at vi ikke gør det.
16:49
Ten years from now we will have the same story,
Om 10 år vil vi være i samme situation
16:52
and we will be repeating the same things.
og gentage de samme ting.
16:54
So our problem right now is, how can we leverage
Vores problem her og nu er,
hvad vi skal gøre
16:59
all this good will that is coming towards our way?
med al den gode vilje,
som kommer i vores retning.
17:04
How can we get government to combine properly
Hvordan kan vi få regeringer
til at samarbejde ordentligt
17:10
with these private foundations, with the international organizations,
med private fonde,
med internationelle organisationer
17:14
and with our private sector.
og med vores private sektor.
17:17
I firmly believe in that private sector thing too.
Jeg tror stærkt på den private sektor.
17:20
But it cannot do it alone.
Men ikke alene.
17:24
So there might be a few ideas we could think of that could work.
Der er nogle overvejelser vi kan gøre os.
17:26
They said this is about proliferating and sharing ideas.
De siger det handler om
at sprede og dele idéer.
17:29
So why don't we think of using some of this aid?
Hvorfor overvejer vi ikke
at bruge noget af bistanden?
17:32
Well, why don't we first say to those helping us out,
Hvorfor starter vi ikke med at sige,
17:37
"Don't be shy about infrastructure.
"Hold ikke tilbage med infrastruktur.
17:40
That health that you're working on cannot be sustainable without infrastructure.
Sundhedssektoren er ikke holdbar
uden infrastruktur.
17:42
That education will work better
Uddannelse vil fungere bedre,
17:49
if we've got electricity and railroads, and so on.
hvis vi har elektricitet og veje osv.
17:54
That agriculture will work better if there are railroads to get the goods to market.
Landbruget vil have gavn af veje,
for at få varer til markedet.
17:57
Don't be shy of it.
Hold ikke tilbage med det.
18:00
Invest some of your resources in that, too."
Invester nogle af jeres ressourcer i det."
18:05
And then we can see that this is one combination
Det er en kombination af private,
18:08
of private, international, multilateral money,
internationale og multilaterale penge,
18:13
private sector and the African that we can put together as a partnership,
den private sektor og den afrikanske,
som vi kan sammenføre,
18:17
so that aid can be a facilitator.
så bistand kan blive en facilitator.
18:20
That is all aid can be.
Det er det bistand kan gøre.
18:25
Aid cannot solve our problems, I'm firmly convinced about that.
Bistand kan ikke løse problemer,
18:28
But it can be catalytic. And if we fail to use it as catalytic,
men den kan være katalysator.
Hvis vi ikke lykkes udnytte bistanden,
18:30
we would have failed.
så mislykkes vi.
18:34
One of the reasons why China is a bit popular with Africans now --
Kinas agtelse i Afrika handler ikke om,
18:39
one of the reasons is not only just that, you know, these people are stupid
at folk er dumme
18:42
and China is coming to take resources.
og Kina udnytter deres ressourcer.
18:47
It's because there's a little more leverage in terms of the Chinese.
Men den skyldes deres handlekraft.
18:50
If you tell them, "We need a road here,"
Hvis du siger, "Vi har brug for en vej,"
18:56
they will help you build it.
vil de hjælpe med at bygge den.
19:01
They don't shy away from infrastructure.
De favner infrastruktur.
19:03
In fact, the Chinese minister of finance said to me,
Den kinesiske finansminister sagde,
19:04
when I asked him what are we doing wrong in Nigeria.
da jeg spurgte,
hvad vi gør forkert i Nigeria,
19:06
He said, "There are two things you need only.
"I har kun brug for to ting.
19:08
Infrastructure, infrastructure, infrastructure and discipline.
Infrastruktur, infrastruktur,
infrastruktur og disciplin.
19:11
You are undisciplined." (Applause)
I er udisciplinerede." (Bifald)
19:14
And I repeat it for the continent.
Jeg gentager det for kontinentet.
19:23
It's the same. We need infrastructure, infrastructure and discipline.
Vi har brug for
infrastruktur og disciplin.
19:27
So we can make a catalytic to help us provide some of that.
Vi kan skabe en katalysator
for at opnå noget af det.
19:28
Now I realize -- I'm not saying -- health and education --
Jeg har ikke nævnt
sundhed og uddannelse,
19:31
no, you can also provide that as well.
det kan man også opnå.
19:35
But I'm saying it's not either or.
Men det er ikke enten eller.
19:38
Let's see how aid can be a facilitator in partnership.
Lad os se på bistand som katalysator.
19:41
One idea.
En idé.
19:43
Second thing, for the private sector,
Når det gælder den private sektor,
19:46
people are afraid to take risks on the continent.
er folk bange for de
løber en risiko på kontinentet.
19:49
Why can't some of this aid be used as a kind of guarantee mechanisms,
Hvorfor ikke bruge en del af bistanden
19:53
to enable people to take risk?
som garantimekanisme?
Så folk kan tage chancer.
19:55
(Applause)
(Bifald)
19:59
And finally, because they are both standing at my -- I'm out of time.
Og her til sidst.
20:00
Am I out of time?
Har jeg ikke mere tid?
20:06
OK, so let me not forget my punchline.
Lad os ikke glemme min pointe.
20:09
One of the things I want everybody to collaborate on is
Jeg vil, at alle samarbejder
20:12
to support women, to create jobs. (Applause)
omkring at støtte kvinder, skabe jobs.
(Bifald)
20:15
A lot has been said here about women, I don't need to repeat it.
Meget er blevet sagt om kvinder.
20:24
But there are people -- women -- creating jobs.
Men der er folk, kvinder, som skaber jobs.
20:26
And we know, studies have shown
Studier har vist,
20:29
that when you put resources in the hand of the woman --
at når du placerer ressourcer
i hænderne på en kvinde,
20:31
in fact, there's an econometric study,
faktisk viser et økonometrisk studie,
20:34
the World Bank Review, done in 2000, showing that
The World Bank Review, fra 2000,
20:36
transfers into the hands of women result
at pengeoverførsler til kvinder
20:39
in healthier children, more for the household, more for the economy and all that.
betyder sundere børn, mere til
husholdning, økonomien etc.
20:42
So I'm saying that one of the takeaways from here --
Noget vi kan tage med os fra i dag,
20:47
I'm not saying the men are not important --
jeg siger ikke, at mænd ikke er vigtige,
20:50
obviously, if you leave the husbands out, what will they do?
for hvad ville der ske,
hvis man ikke indregnede mændene?
20:51
They'll come back home and get disgruntled,
De vil komme hjem og være utilfredse,
20:54
and it will result in difficulties we don't want.
og det vil resultere i problemer,
vi ikke ønsker.
20:56
We don't want men beating their wives
Vi vil undgå, at mænd slår deres koner,
21:00
because they don't have a job, and so on.
fordi de ikke har et arbejde etc.
21:02
But at the margin, we also -- I want to push this,
Jeg vil løfte frem, at i periferien
21:05
because the reason is the men automatically --
får mænd ofte
21:08
they get -- not automatically, but they tend to get more support.
mere støtte end kvinder.
21:12
But I want you to realize that resources
Ressourcer i hænderne
på afrikanske kvinder
21:17
in the hands of African women is a powerful tool.
er et mægtigt værktøj.
21:20
There are people creating jobs.
Der er mennesker, der skaber jobs.
21:24
Beatrice Gakuba has created 200 jobs from her flower business in Rwanda.
Beatrice Gakuba har skabt jobs i Rwanda.
21:28
We have Ibukun Awosika in Nigeria, with the chair company.
Ibukun Awosika har gjort det i Nigeria.
21:30
She wants to expand.
Hun ønsker at ekspandere.
21:35
She needs another 20 million.
Hun har brug for yderligere 20 millioner.
21:37
She will create another 100, 200 more jobs.
Hun kan skabe yderligere 100, 200 jobs.
21:39
So take away from here is how are you going to put together
Så hvordan kan vi tage ressourcer
21:43
the resources to put money in the hands of women in the middle
og placere i hænderne på kvinder,
21:47
who are ready --
forretningskvinder, der er klare
21:49
business people who want to expand and create more jobs.
og ønsker at udbygge og skabe flere jobs.
21:53
And lastly, what are you going to do
Til sidst, hvad har I tænkt jer at gøre,
for at være en del af samarbejdet
21:56
to be part of this partnership of aid, government, private sector
mellem bistand, regering,
den private sektor
22:01
and the African as an individual?
og det afrikanske individ?
22:06
Thank you. (Applause)
Tak. (Bifald)
22:09
Translated by Anne Svenstrup Mogensen
Reviewed by Jette Derriche

▲Back to top

About the speaker:

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala - Economist
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a respected global economist.

Why you should listen

Okonjo-Iweala was the Finance Minister of Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy, from 2003 to 2006, and then briefly the country’s Foreign Affairs Minister, the first woman to hold either position. From 2011 to 2015 she was again named Minister of Finance and Coordinating Minister for the Economy of Nigeria. Between those terms, from 2007 to 2011, she was one of the managing director of the World Bank and a candidate to the organization’s presidency. She is now a senior advisor at financial advisory and asset management firm Lazard, and she chairs the Board of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. At the World Bank, she worked for change in Africa and assistance for low-income countries. As Finance Minister, she attacked corruption to make Nigeria more transparent and desirable for investment and jobs, an activism that attracted criticism from circles opposed to reform.

More profile about the speaker
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala | Speaker | TED.com