Miguel Nicolelis: Brain-to-brain communication has arrived. How we did it
Miguel Nicolelis - Neuroscientist
Miguel Nicolelis explores the limits of the brain-machine interface. Full bio
in São Paulo, Brazil,
that you see celebrating here
accomplished a magnificent deed.
from mid-chest to the tip of his toes
that killed his brother
that left Juliano in a wheelchair,
and on this day did something
in the six years deemed impossible.
World Soccer Cup here
needed to kick a ball.
He's a para-athlete right now.
I hope, in a couple years.
did not rob from Juliano
for a stadium of about 75,000 people
watching on TV.
30 years of basic research
that we have between our ears
that we have above our head
through electrical brainstorms,
took 30 years to imagine in laboratories
15 years ago, proposed in a paper
that we called a brain-machine interface,
could just move these devices,
from their own bodies,
we actually needed professional help,
a Scot and a Brazilian persevered,
in our respective countries,
suggesting that this was possible.
is not rocket science,
that a brain is producing
to the spinal cord,
of these brain cells simultaneously,
that the brain is generating
these signals into digital commands
or even a virtual device can understand
what he, she or it wants to make move,
with lots of different types of sensors,
back to the brain to confirm
was being enacted, no matter where --
or across the planet.
back to the brain,
to make us move.
that we published a few years ago,
of an avatar arm,
is the sound of the brain of this monkey
visually identical spheres
a drop of orange juice that monkeys love,
select one of these objects
touches one of the objects,
to the brain of the animal
of the surface of this object,
the correct object that he has to grab,
without moving a muscle.
and getting your orange juice.
that we had published 15 years ago.
a human being that is paralyzed
interface to regain mobility.
transforms your life completely.
of the spinal cord,
cannot reach your muscles.
continue to be generated in your head.
dream about moving every night.
to get that code out of it
let's create a new body.
kick that ball just by thinking,
the first brain-controlled robotic vest
quadriplegic patients to move
156 people from 25 countries
of this beautiful Earth,
dropped their patents,
kids, school, jobs,
for 18 months to actually get this done.
was awarded the World Cup,
wanted to do something meaningful
and perfected soccer
needs to talk about that.
is to showcase
25 million people around the world
because of a spinal cord injury.
and to FIFA and proposed,
of the 2014 World Cup
that allows him to kick the ball
thought that we were completely nuts,
from zero, from scratch.
in a routine of training
exoskeleton to be built
Brazilian scientist ever,
created and flew himself
in Paris for a million people to see.
before the Wright Brothers flew
this exoskeleton together,
to imagine the movements
to the controls, the motors,
with an artificial skin
one of my greatest friends, in Munich,
and the foot touching the ground
through a vest, a shirt.
with micro-vibrating elements
and fools the patient's brain
a machine that is carrying him,
and what you'll see here
Bruno, actually walked.
because we are setting everything,
cutting in front of the helmet
the movement that needs to be performed,
Bruno is going to certify it,
under the command of Bruno's brain.
and now he starts walking.
being able to move,
on the sand of Santos,
before he had the accident.
a new sensation in Bruno's head.
I am running out of time already --
when I get married,
be there by myself.
whenever he wants.
during the World Cup, and couldn't,
FIFA cut its broadcast in half.
is Juliano Pinto in the exo doing the kick
in front of the entire crowd,
just describe the operation.
indicate that the exo is ready to go.
and it can deliver feedback,
makes the decision to kick the ball,
two streams of green and yellow light
and going to the legs,
that were taken by the exo
the ball is set, and he kicks.
and looked at us on the pitch,
of your imagination.
published this a year ago,
to exchange mental messages
coming from the environment
a torpedo, a neurophysiological torpedo,
the act that he needed to perform
the environment was sending as a message,
from the first animal's brain.
because I want to show you the latest.
is the first rat getting informed
on the left of the cage
to basically get a reward.
he is sending a mental message
that didn't see any light,
in 70 percent of the times
and get a reward
the light in the retina.
to a little higher limit
mentally in a brain net,
the virtual arm that I showed you before,
the two monkeys combine their brains,
to get this virtual arm to move.
is controlling the y dimension.
when you get three monkeys in there
play the game together,
to get the famous Brazilian orange juice.
of all these brains working
of a biological computer,
and achieving a motor goal.
and discover what is out there.
surf the Net just by thinking,
to an autistic kid who cannot see,
of a brain-to-brain bypass,
that it all started on a winter afternoon
with an impossible kick.
thank you for sticking to your time.
a couple more minutes,
we want to develop, and, of course,
brains to figure out where this is going.
is actually getting a signal
is reacting to that signal
and transmitting the neurological impulse.
No, it's a little different.
of the other two monkeys.
to accomplish is 3D.
in three dimensions.
the two dimensions on the video screen
to synchronize their brains,
when one monkey starts slacking down,
enhance their performance
without telling the monkey
has to control,
forgets about the old dimensions
on the new dimensions.
that no Turing machine,
what a brain net will do.
as part of us.
have you succeeded versus failed?
Oh, several times.
unless I had done it a few times.
a European group
man-to-man brain-to-brain connection.
big ideas start in a humble way --
of one subject
all non-invasive technology.
like our rats, a visual message,
a magnetic pulse in the visual cortex,
two different pulses.
he saw something different.
the first subject was sending
Okay, that's where we are going.
at the next conference.
MN: Thank you, Bruno. Thank you.
About the speaker:Miguel Nicolelis - Neuroscientist
Miguel Nicolelis explores the limits of the brain-machine interface.
Why you should listen
At the Nicolelis Laboratory at Duke University, Miguel Nicolelis is best known for pioneering studies in neuronal population coding, Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) and neuroprosthetics in human patients and non-human primates.His lab's work was seen, famously though a bit too briefly, when a brain-controlled exoskeleton from his lab helped Juliano Pinto, a paraplegic man, kick the first ball at the 2014 World Cup.
But his lab is thinking even bigger. They've developed an integrative approach to studying neurological disorders, including Parkinsons disease and epilepsy. The approach, they hope, will allow the integration of molecular, cellular, systems and behavioral data in the same animal, producing a more complete understanding of the nature of the neurophysiological alterations associated with these disorders. He's the author of the books Beyond Boundaries and The Relativistic Brain.
Miguel was honored as one of Foreign Policy's 2015 Global Thinkers.
Miguel Nicolelis | Speaker | TED.com