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TED2005

Paul Sereno: Digging up dinosaurs

ポール・セレノは恐竜を掘る

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Views 768,515

奇抜な風景と、焼けるような暑さ、ときには泥だらけのワニも、進化の奇跡の証拠を求める科学者達の前途を遮ります。古生物学者のポール・セレノは有史以前の生物との遭遇について語り、そんな冒険に加わる生徒達を支援する新しい方法についても触れます。

- Paleontologist
Surely not the only science career based on a museum tour epiphany, Paul Sereno's is almost certainly the most triumphant. He's dug up dinosaurs on five continents -- and discovered the world's largest crocodile, the (extinct) 40-foot Sarchosuchus. Full bio

Sixty-five million years ago, a very important
6500万年前に 極めて重大
00:18
and catastrophic event
かつ破滅的な災害が
00:20
changed the course of life on land.
地上の生命の進路を変えました
00:22
And although we know that the land animals I'm going to talk about
これからお話しする陸上の生物は
00:24
are just the scum of the Earth on the land --
地球に浮かぶ陸地の表面に
張り付くケシ粒ほどですが
00:27
the little bits of land floating around -- but they are important to us
我々にとっては重要です
00:30
because they're sort of in our scale of experience from millimeters to meters.
大きさは我々に近く ミリからメートル程でした
00:32
And these animals disappeared,
その生物達は絶滅してしまい
00:36
and a separate life, mammals,
別の生物である哺乳類が
00:39
radiated out to take their place. And so, we know this
その後を継いだのです
00:43
in extraordinary detail. And so this is a core
災害の様子は詳細まで明らかです
00:45
from near Bermuda. We know that the tsunamis, the earthquakes,
バミューダ近海で採取した地層コア標本です
00:48
and the things that we've experienced
人類の歴史全体の記録に
00:51
in the entire record of humankind history
残る津波や地震等からは
00:53
can't really quite get around the kind of disaster
この災害で地球がこうむった
00:55
that this represented for the Earth.
被害規模は理解できません
00:58
So even before that impact was known,
この衝突について明らかになる前から
01:02
even before scientists in general came to an agreement
また科学者達が進化論について
01:06
over the theory of evolution,
おおむね合意するよりも前から
01:09
scientists and natural historians of all kinds of stripes
あらゆる科学者と自然史研究家は
01:11
actually had divided Earth's life's history
地球の生命史を
01:14
into these two episodes:
二章に分類しています
01:16
Mesozoic, the middle life, and the Cenozoic, the recent life.
中生代と新生代— 古代と最近の生物です
01:18
And as it turns out, it actually corresponds really nicely
実はこの区分は地質学的な歴史と
01:22
with geologic history.
うまく一致しています
01:25
So we have a Mesozoic period,
中世代という時代は
01:27
an age of fragmentation,
分裂の時代でした
01:29
and a Cenozoic period, an age of reconnection --
新生代は 再会の時代でした
01:31
South America to North America, India to Asia.
南アメリカ大陸は北アメリカと
インドはアジアと繋がりました
01:33
And so my work, really, is trying to understand
私は中生代の放散の特性と
01:36
the character of that Mesozoic radiation
新生代の放散の特性を
01:39
compared to the Cenozoic radiation
比較研究しました
01:42
to see what mysteries we can understand from dinosaurs and from other animals
恐竜と他の生物を比較して解明される秘密は何か?
01:44
about what life on drifting continents
移動する大陸に棲む生物から
01:47
really can tell us about evolution.
進化について何が明らかになるか?
01:50
The work immediately begs the question,
この研究からこんな疑問が生じます
01:52
"Why didn't they go into the waters?"
なぜ彼らは水中には進出しなかったのか?
01:55
I mean, certainly mammals did. This is one example.
哺乳類には例えばこんな水生動物がいます
01:57
You can go outside -- see many other examples.
海に行けば 実例がたくさん見つかります
01:59
Within five, 10 million years of the bolide impact
小惑星の衝突から5百から1千万年の内に
02:01
we had a whole variety of animals going into the water. Why didn't they do that?
あらゆる生物種が水中で進化しました
なぜ恐竜は陸地に留まったのか?
02:04
Why didn't they hang around in trees at good size,
なぜ樹上に棲む小さな体の恐竜や
02:08
and why didn't they burrow?
穴に暮らす恐竜がいなかったのか?
02:10
Why didn't they do all these things, and if they didn't do all these things,
何が理由だったのか?
それらの場所には
02:12
what kinds of animals were in those spaces?
どんな生物が棲んでいたのか?
02:14
And if there were no animals in those spaces, what does that tell us
何も棲んでいなかったとしたら
02:16
about, you know, how evolution works on land?
陸上の進化の作用について何を物語るのか?
02:18
Really interesting questions. I think a lot of it has to do with body size.
大変面白い課題です
その多くは体の大きさと関係すると考えます
02:22
In fact, I think that most of it has to do with body size --
大半の課題は体の大きさと関係します
02:26
the size you are when you inherit
あのような自然災害によって生じた
02:30
a vacant ecospace
生態系の空き地を受け継いだときの
02:33
from whatever natural disaster.
哺乳類の大きさです
02:35
Looking at dinosaur evolution
恐竜の進化を見て研究していると
02:37
and studying it, digging it up for many years,
その発掘を何年も行っていると
02:39
I end up looking at the mammal radiation,
最後は哺乳類の多様性を調べる番になります
02:42
and it seems as though everything is quick time, just like technology,
新生代は全ての動きが速いです
02:45
advancing by an order of magnitude.
技術進歩のように何桁も速いです
02:48
Dinosaur evolution proceeded at a stately pace,
恐竜の進化はゆったりとしたペースで進みました
02:50
an order of magnitude slower on any way you want to measure it.
どの面から評価しても桁違いに遅かったのです
02:53
You want to measure it by diversity?
多様性で評価しても
02:56
You want to measure it by
体の大きさの限界に達するまでの
02:58
the time it took to reach maximum body size?
時間で評価しても構いません
03:00
Yes, they do have larger body size,
そう確かに恐竜は巨大でしたが
03:02
but many of them are smaller,
大半の恐竜はもっと小さく
03:04
but we're interested in the time it took them to achieve that.
大きくなるのにかかった時間が大事です
03:06
Fifty million years to achieve this maximum body size.
体のサイズが最大になるのに5千万年かかりました
03:08
And that is 10 times longer than it took the mammals
これは哺乳類の体が最大になり
03:12
to achieve maximum body size
すべての生息環境を侵略するまでに
03:14
and invade all those habitats.
かかった期間の10倍です
03:16
So there's lessons to learn,
ここから分かることがあります
03:18
and there's lessons to learn from the exception,
例外的ケースから分かることがあるのです
03:20
the exception that we know very well today from the discoveries we've made,
その例外は 我々はじめ多くの学者達の発見によって
03:23
and many other scholars have made around the world.
大変有名になったものです
03:26
This slide was shown before. This is the famous Jurassic bird Archaeopteryx.
前にも見た ジュラ紀の鳥として有名な始祖鳥です
03:28
We now know this transition is the one time
ご存知のようにこのときだけは
03:33
that dinosaurs actually went below
恐竜の体が小さくなりました
03:35
that body size --
元となる恐竜の大きさは
03:37
we're going to see where they began in a minute --
これからお見せします
03:39
and it is the one time that they rapidly
そしてこの一度だけは
03:41
invaded all the habitats
かつて恐竜が棲まなかった場所など
03:43
I just told you that dinosaurs weren't in.
あらゆる生息環境を侵略したのです
03:45
They became marine. We now know them today
ご存知のように水棲になり
03:47
from the ice caps.
極地にも棲みました
03:49
There's burrowing birds.
穴に暮らす鳥もいます
03:51
They inhabit the trees at all body sizes,
どんな体のサイズでも樹上に住み
03:53
and, of course, they inhabit the land.
もちろん 地上を制覇しています
03:55
So we were the first to actually name a bird from the famous series
私たちが最初にこれが鳥だと言い始め
03:57
that later exploded onto the pages of Science and Nature.
やがて皆がネイチャーやサイエンスに投稿を始めました
04:01
We called this bird Sinornis. It's a little bit more advanced than Archaeopteryx,
この鳥をシノミスといい
始祖鳥よりも進化しています
04:05
and if you go to different layers, you find things
別の地層からは始祖鳥より原始的なものや
04:08
that are less advanced than Archaeopteryx, and every grade in between,
あらゆる階層が見つかります
04:10
so that if you find something today, we're usually splitting hairs --
今何か見つけたとしたら
髪をかきむしって
04:13
or, more appropriately, feathers -- as to decide whether it's actually
というよりは羽根を裂くように調べて
04:17
a non-avian or an avian.
鳥か鳥でないかを決定するのです
04:19
It is the greatest transition that we have, actually,
我々の知る最も壮大なこの遷移によって
04:21
on land from one habitat to another,
陸上に棲む生物が別の種類に
04:23
bar none,
例外なく変わりました
04:25
to understand how a bony,
骨格もしっかりとした
04:27
fairly heavy, kilogram or a couple-of-kilogram animal
2~3キロの動物がどう変化したか
04:29
could make such a transition.
理解できています
04:32
It is really our greatest -- one of our greatest -- evolutionary sequences.
実にすばらしい進化のつながりです
04:34
Now, my work began at the beginning.
私はこれを最初から研究していました
04:37
I thought if I'm going to understand dinosaur evolution,
恐竜の進化を理解しようとしたら
04:39
I'd have to go back to those beds
この地層まで戻るべきだと考えました
04:41
where they had picked up fragments, go back to a time and a place
かけらがみつかって時間と空間を遡れれば
04:43
where the earliest dinosaurs existed.
最古の恐竜にまで遡れるのです
04:46
I'd like to call for this little video clip
我々が直面する課題を理解してもらうために
04:48
to give you some idea of, sort of, what we face. Normally, we get asked a lot of questions:
短いビデオをご覧ください
よく受ける質問があります
04:51
"Well, how do you find fossils in areas that look like this?"
「こんな所で どうやって化石を見つけるのですか?」
04:54
If we could roll that first video clip.
このビデオが答えになります
04:58
This is sort of a nice helicopter ride
最古の地層を
05:01
through those early beds,
ヘリコプターから眺めたところです
05:03
and they're located in Northeastern Argentina.
これはアルゼンチンの北東部
05:05
And we're coming over a cliff, and at the top of that cliff,
眼下の崖 この崖の上端より後は
05:07
dinosaurs had basically taken over.
恐竜の天下となったのでした
05:10
At the bottom of the cliff, we find that they're rare as hens' teeth.
崖の下で恐竜を見つけるのは至難の業ですが
05:12
That's where dinosaur origins is to be found: at the bottom of the cliff.
原始の恐竜を探す場所はここ 崖の下です
05:15
You go into an area like this, you get a geologic map,
さて現場に出たら
05:18
you get a topographic map,
地質学的な地図を把握します 地形図です
05:19
and the best, most-inspired team you can bring to the area.
そして最高の やり手のメンバーを集めます
05:21
And the rest is up to you. You've got to find fossils.
あとはあなた次第 化石を見つけるのです
05:25
You've got to dig a hole that's usually quite a bit bigger than that
化石を掘り出すには 本体よりもずっと大きな穴を
05:28
to get it out; you've got to climb those cliffs
掘らなければいけません
05:31
and find, really, everything that existed --
崖をよじ登って かつて存在したものを全て
05:33
not just the dinosaurs, but the entire story. If you're lucky,
恐竜に限らず探します
05:37
and you dig a place like that,
こんな場所も堀ります
05:39
you actually find the ash bed to dig it, and we did.
火山灰の層を見つけて掘っています
05:41
228 million years old, we found
2億2800万年前の地層から
05:44
what really is the most primitive dinosaur:
極めて原始的な恐竜を発見しました
05:48
that's the Ur-dinosaur.
アーディノサウルスです
05:50
A three-and-a-half foot thing,
1 メートルほどの種類です
05:52
beautiful skull, predator,
きれいな頭蓋をもつ
05:54
meat-eater, a two-legged animal.
二足歩行の肉食獣です
05:56
So, all the other dinosaurs that you know,
皆さんや子どもたちが知っている
05:58
or your kids know, at least, on four legs.
他の恐竜は四足歩行です
06:00
This is sort of a look at the skull,
頭蓋はこんなふうです
06:02
and it's an absolutely fantastic thing about five or six inches long.
まったく素敵な形で 15センチほどの長さ
06:04
It looks rather bird-like because it is.
見ての通りで 鳥に近いのです
06:07
It's bird-like and hollow.
鳥のように骨には空洞があります
06:10
A predator. Maybe 25 pounds,
おそらく 25ポンド 10キロの
06:12
or 10 kilograms.
捕食恐竜です
06:14
That's where dinosaurs began. That's where the radiation began.
ここから恐竜の放散が始まりました
06:16
That is 10 times larger
四足歩行の哺乳類と比べて
06:18
than the mammal radiation, which was a four-legged radiation.
10倍大きくなりました
06:20
We are extremely dinosaur-like,
私たちは極めて恐竜と似ています
06:23
and unusual in our two-legged approach to life.
二足歩行の生物は例外的です
06:25
Now, if you want to understand what happened
大陸が分裂すると
06:29
then when the continents broke apart,
地上生活者の恐竜は
06:31
and dinosaurs found -- landlubbers, as they are --
各大陸と共に
06:33
found themselves adrift. There's some missing puzzle pieces.
漂流を始めますが その情報は不足しています
06:35
Most of those missing puzzle pieces are southern continents,
南半球の大陸の
06:41
because it was those continents that are least explored.
探査がまだ進んでいないのです
06:42
If you want to add to this picture and try and sketch it globally,
地球の全体像を描くために手を加えたいなら
06:45
you really have to force yourself to go down
行くべきは南半球の4ヵ所
06:48
to the four corners of the Earth --
アフリカとインド
06:50
Africa, India, Antarctica, Australia --
南極とオーストラリアです
06:52
and start putting together some of these pieces.
発見は相次いでいます
06:55
I've been to some of those continents, but Africa was,
私もそこに行きました
06:58
in the words of Steven Pinker, was a blank slate, largely.
スティーブン・ピンカーいわく アフリカはムクの板
07:01
But one with an immense chalkboard in the middle,
その真ん中を占める大きな黒板への
07:04
with lots of little areas of dinosaur rock
探検に耐えられれば
07:07
if you could survive an expedition.
至る所に恐竜の化石が散在しています
07:09
There's no roads into the Sahara. It's an enormous place.
サハラへ続く道路はなく ただ広大な場所です
07:12
To be able to excavate
サハラで見つけた80トンの恐竜を
07:15
the 80 tons of dinosaurs that we have in the Sahara
掘り起こして持ち帰るためには
07:17
and take them out, you really have to put together
そんな悪条件に負けない
07:20
an expedition team that can handle the conditions.
探検隊を組織しなければなりません
07:23
Some of them are political. Many of them are physical.
政治的条件や物理的条件も多く
07:26
Some of them -- the most important -- are mental.
心理的な要因も重要です
07:29
And you really have to be able to withstand conditions --
これらの条件をクリアして
07:32
you have to drive into the desert,
砂漠に乗り込むのです
07:34
you will see landscapes in many cases --
多くの場合 目にする風景は
07:36
you can see from what we've discovered --
ご覧のように
07:39
that nobody else has ever seen.
他には誰も目にしたことの無い風景
07:40
And the kinds of teams they bring in?
どんなチームが
07:42
Well, they're
そんな世界に順応できるのか?
07:44
composed of
チームのメンバーは
07:48
people who understand science as adventure with a purpose.
科学が目的を掲げた冒険だと捉えます
07:50
They're usually students who've never seen a desert.
たいていの学生は砂漠を見たこともありません
07:53
Some of them are more experienced.
中にはもう少し経験のある者もいます
07:55
Your job as a leader -- this is definitely a team sport --
間違いなくチーム種目であり
07:57
your job as a leader is to try to inspire them
リーダーの役目はメンバーを鼓舞し
07:59
to do more work than they've ever done in their life
想像も絶する環境下で
08:02
under conditions that they can't imagine.
人生において かつてないほどの仕事をさせること
08:04
So, 125 degrees is normal.
気温50度はあたり前です
08:07
The ground surface at 150 -- typical.
地表は65度まで熱くなるので
08:09
So, you can't leave your normal metal tools out
金属の工具を外に放置してはいけません
08:13
because you'll get a first-degree burn if you grab them sometimes.
触ったとたんに第一度の火傷になるからです
08:16
So, you are finding yourself also in an amazing cultural milieu.
またここでは文化的な面でも驚かされます
08:19
You're really rubbing shoulders
世界で最後の偉大な
08:23
with the world's last great nomadic people.
遊牧民たちと寝食を共にします
08:25
These are the Tuareg nomads, and they're living their lives
トゥアレグ族は何世紀も
08:29
much as they have for centuries.
同じスタイルの暮らしを続けています
08:31
Your job is to excavate things like this in the foreground,
地表から発掘したこんな物が
08:34
and make them enter the pages of history.
歴史の1ページを成すのです
08:36
To do that, you've got to actually transport them
そのためには まずは輸送です
08:38
thousands of miles out of the desert.
砂漠から何千キロも運ぶのです
08:40
We're talking about Ethiopia, but let's talk about Niger --
エチオピアの次はニジェールの話です
08:42
or Niger, in our English language -- north of Nigeria --
ナイジェリアの北の国です
08:44
that's where this photograph was taken.
現地での写真です
08:47
Basically you're talking about a country that,
今話しているこの国で
08:49
when we started working there, did not have container traffic.
我々が作業を始めたとき
コンテナ輸送はできませんでした
08:51
You transported the bones out yourself
骨は海岸の船まで
08:55
to the coast of Africa,
自分で輸送しました
08:57
onto a boat, if you wanted to get them out of the middle of the Sahara.
サハラの真ん中から運び出そうとすれば
09:00
That's a 2,000 mile journey.
約3千キロの道のりです
09:02
So enormous excavations and a lot of work,
埋蔵物は膨大で 仕事は山ほどあります
09:04
and out of essentially a partial herd of dinosaurs
ここに埋まっていた恐竜の群れの一部は
09:08
that you saw buried there -- 20 tons of material --
全部で20トンにもなりました
09:10
we erect Jobaria,
ジョバリアは立たせてみました
09:14
a sauropod dinosaur like we haven't seen on some other continents.
他の大陸では目にしたことのない竜脚類です
09:16
It really is a little bit out of place temporally.
今のところ同類が見つかりません
09:18
It looks nothing like what we would find
北米の同時代の地層を掘っても
09:20
if we dug in contemporary beds in North America.
似たものが見つかるとは思えません
09:22
Here's the animal that was causing it trouble.
ジョバリアを捕食していた恐竜です
09:25
And, you know, on and on --
動物園みたいです
09:29
a whole menagerie. When you pick up something like this --
こういう骨を見たり
09:31
and some of you have had the chance to touch it --
触れたことがある方もいるでしょう
09:33
this is a piece of history. You're touching something that's 110 million years old.
1億1千万年前の歴史に触れているのです
09:35
This is a thumb claw. There it was, moments after it was discovered.
これは親指のかぎ爪を見つけた直後の写真です
09:37
It is an incredible view of life,
生命のこんな驚異が語られるようになったのは
09:40
and it really began when we began to understand
我々が時間の深みを
09:42
the depth of time.
理解し始めてから後のことです
09:44
It's only been with us for less than a century,
過去の時間を刻めるようになってから
09:46
and in that time, that fourth dimension,
まだ1世紀も経っていません
09:48
when radioactive dating came about, less than a century ago,
放射性年代測定法の登場によって
09:50
and we could actually tell how old some of these things were,
標本の年代を正確に
測定できるようになったのが
09:53
is probably the most profound transformation,
最大の転機だったといえるでしょう
09:57
because it changes the way we look at ourselves
我々自身に対する見方も変わりました
09:59
and the world dramatically.
世界の見方も劇的に変わりました
10:01
When you pick up a piece of history like that,
こんな歴史の一片を手にすれば
10:03
I think it can transform
若者たちは科学にもっと
10:05
kids that are possibly interested in science.
興味を覚えることでしょう
10:07
That's the animal that thumb claw came from: Suchomimus.
親指の爪はこの恐竜スコミムスのものです
10:09
Here's some others.
他にもあります
10:12
This is something we found in Morocco, an immense animal.
モロッコで見つけた巨大な動物です
10:14
We prototyped by CAT-scanning the brain out of this animal.
CT スキャンしてこの動物の脳を再現しました
10:17
It turns out to have a forebrain
前頭葉はヒトの
10:20
one-fifteenth the size of a human.
15分の1しかなかったことが分かりました
10:22
This was the cover of Science, because they thought
これはサイエンス誌の表紙を飾りました
10:25
that humans were more intelligent than these animals,
ヒトは恐竜より賢いと思ったからでしょう
10:27
but we can see by some in our administration
でも人間社会を見ると
10:29
that despite
たとえ
10:31
the enormous advantage in brain volume
脳の容積で大いに勝っていても
10:34
some of the attitudes remain the same. Anyway,
気質は昔と同じかもしれません
10:36
smaller raptors.
さて 小さなラプトルです
10:40
All the stuff from Jurassic Park that you know of --
ジュラシックパークに出てきました
10:43
all those small animals --
みなさんもご存知でしょう
10:45
they all come from northern continents.
これまでは北半球で見つかっており
10:47
This is the first skeleton from a southern continent,
この骨が南半球で最初の骨です
10:49
and guess what? You start preparing it.
そして大事なことがあります
いいですか
10:51
It has no big claw on its hind foot. It doesn't look like a Velociraptor.
後ろ足にはかぎ爪がなく
ヴェロキラプトルとは違うのです
10:54
It's really a wholly separate radiation.
これは全く別の放散です
10:57
So what we're trying to piece together here is a story.
全体像の把握を目指しています
10:59
It involves flying reptiles like this Pterosaur
このプテロサウルスのような翼竜もいます
11:01
that we reconstructed from Africa.
アフリカで発掘したものです
11:04
Crocodiles, of course,
ワニももちろん
11:06
and that's a nasty one we haven't named yet.
これはまだ命名していない見事な一体です
11:08
And huge things -- I mean, this is a
こんなに大きいのです
11:11
lower jaw just laying there in the desert
この砂漠に横たわっているのは
11:14
of this enormous crocodile.
巨大なワニの下あご
11:16
The crocodile is technically called Sarcosuchus.
専門家はこのワニをサルコスクスと呼びます
11:18
That's an adult Orinoco crocodile in its jaws.
あごの中にオリノコのワニを置いてみました
11:21
We had to try and reconstruct this.
この復元に取り組みました
11:24
We had to actually look at recent crocodiles
最近のワニを徹底的に調べ
11:26
to understand how crocodiles scale.
ワニを拡大するとどうなるかを考えました
11:28
Could I have the second little video clip?
さて短いビデオをもう一本いいですか?
11:31
Now, this field is just -- and, of course, science in general -- is just -- adventure.
科学の中でもこの分野はまさに冒険です
11:33
We had to find and measure
現在生息している最大のワニを
11:39
the largest crocodiles living today.
見つけて計測する必要がありました
11:41
Narrator: ... as long as their boat.
ボートと同じほどの大きさです
11:43
Man: Look at that set of choppers! Yeah, he's a big one.
背びれを見ろ これは大物だ
11:45
Narrator: If they can just land it,
これを陸に上げられれば
11:48
this croc will provide useful data,
このワニから有益な情報が得られます
11:50
helping Paul in his quest to understand Sarcosuchus.
サルコスクスの謎を解く上で有用です
11:52
Man: OK, hand me some more here. Man 2: OK.
よし もう少しよこせ ほら
11:56
Narrator: It falls to Paul to cover its eyes.
ワニを目隠しするのはポール・セレノ
12:00
Man: Watch out! Watch out! No, no, no, no. You're going to have to get on the back legs.
気をつけて 危ない危ない
後ろ足を頼んだぞ
12:06
Man: I got the back legs.
後ろ足を捕まえた
12:10
Man 2: You have the back legs? No, you have the front legs, my friend.
後ろ足は? おい それは前足だ
12:12
I've got it. I've got the back legs.
つかんだ 後ろ足だ
12:14
Somebody get the front legs.
だれか前足を押さえろ
12:17
Paul Sereno: Let's get this tape measure on him. Put it right there.
さて巻き尺で測るのです そこだ
12:24
Wow.
おおー
12:29
Sixty-five. Wow.
1.7メートルだ
12:31
That's a big skull.
これは大きな頭だ
12:34
Narrator: Big, but less than half the size
大きいとはいっても
12:36
of supercroc's skull.
サルコスクスの頭の半分以下です
12:38
Man: Enormous. PS: You've got a ... 14-foot croc.
大きいね
4メートルのワニとはね
12:40
Man: I knew it was big.
思ったとおりだ
12:44
PS: Don't get off. You don't get off, but don't worry about me.
降りるな まだ降りるな
オレに任せろ
12:49
Narrator: Paul has his data, so they decide
身体計測を終えたので
12:53
to release the animal back into the river.
ワニを川に帰すことにしました
12:55
PS: Don't get off! Don't get off! Don't get off!
降りるな 降りるな 降りるなよ
13:02
Narrator: Paul has never seen a fossil do that.
化石が相手ならこんな危険はありません
13:07
PS: Okay, when I say three, we move.
よし 3つ数えたら降りるぞ
13:11
One, two, three!
1 2 3
13:13
Whoa!
よし
13:18
So -- there were --
こんなふうに
13:20
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:23
Well, you know, the -- the fossil record is truly amazing
面白いことに 化石として残った物が
現在の生物に対する
13:28
because it really forces you to look at living animals in a new way.
新たな見方を迫ります
13:31
We proved with those measurements
こういった測定を通じて
13:33
that crocodiles scaled isometrically.
ワニと相似形だとわかりました
13:35
It depended on the shape of their skull, though,
頭蓋の形状がカギです
13:38
so we had to actually get those measurements
実際にこういう計測で確かめ
13:39
to be sure that we had reconstructed and could prove to the scientific world
正しく復元できたことを確認し この巨大ワニは
13:41
that supercroc in fact is a 40-foot crocodile, probably a male.
12メートルでおそらくオスだと 科学界に示しました
13:44
Anyway, you find other things, too.
他にも発見はありました
13:47
I'm going to lead an expedition to the Sahara
アフリカ最大の新石器時代の遺跡を
13:49
to dig up Africa's largest neolithic site.
発掘するためにサハラへの遠征隊を編成します
13:51
We found this last year.
これは昨年発見したものです
13:55
Two hundred skeletons, tools, jewelry.
200 体もの骨格 道具 宝石
13:57
This is a ceremonial disk.
これは儀式用の円盤
13:59
An amazing record of the colonization of the Sahara
5千年前にサハラに定住した驚くべき足跡が
14:02
5,000 years ago is been sitting out there
そこにそのまま残って 我々の
14:05
waiting for us to go back. So, really exciting.
再訪を待っています ワクワクします
14:07
And then work later is going to take us to Tibet.
またその次の研究ではチベットに向かう予定です
14:09
Now, we normally think of Tibet as a highland.
普通はチベットは高地だと思われますが
14:12
It's really an island continent.
実は島だらけの大地です
14:14
It was a precursor to India,
インドの露払いとして送られた
14:16
a messenger from Gondwana --
ゴンドワナ大陸からの伝令は
14:18
a lost paradise of dinosaurs
失われた恐竜の楽園として
14:21
isolated for millions of years.
何百万年も孤立してきました
14:23
No one's found them. We know where they are,
まだ未発見ですが 所在地は分かっており
14:25
and we're going to go and get them next year.
来年にはそこで発掘をする予定です
14:27
They're only between 13 and 14,000 feet,
目的地の標高は 4000から4300メートルです
14:29
but if you go in the warm part of the year, it's O.K.
暖かい季節に行けば問題ありません
14:32
Now, I tried to suture together a dinosaur evolutionary history
さて 恐竜の進化の歴史を繋ぎ合わせて
14:35
so that we can try to understand
進化の基本的なパターンを理解しようと
14:38
some basic patterns of evolution.
試みてきました
14:40
I've talked about a few of them. We really need to take that further.
ほんの数例をお話ししました
研究テーマは膨大です
14:42
We need to delve into this mass of anatomy
この骨格の山を徹底的に調べ
14:45
that we've been compiling
どの変化が何を意味するのか
14:47
to understand where the changes are occurring and what this means.
理解しなければなりません
14:49
We can't predict, necessarily, what will happen in evolution,
進化の将来は予測できませんが
14:52
but we can learn some of the rules of the game,
その規則を学ぶことはできます
14:54
and that's really what we're trying to do.
それが目指すところです
14:56
With regard to the biogeographic question,
生物地理学の見方では
14:58
the Earth is dividing.
地球は分裂しています
15:00
These are all landlubbing animals. There's a couple of choices.
これらはみな地表の生物で二分割できます
15:02
You get divided, and a continent's division
すべてが二分割され大陸の分裂が
15:04
corresponds to a fork in the evolutionary tree,
進化の系統樹の枝分かれに対応します
15:07
or you're crafty, and you manage to escape
うまく他の大陸に逃げ出せた種類は
15:09
from one to the other and erase that division,
この分裂の影響を受けず
15:12
or you're living peacefully on each side,
どちら側でも無事に生き延びたものや
15:15
and on one side you just go extinct,
一方では滅亡したものもいます
15:18
and you survive on the other side and create a difference.
反対側で生き残れば違いが生じます
15:20
And the fourth thing is that you actually did one or the other
あるいは3パターンのいずれにしても
15:23
of those three things, but the paleontologist never found you.
まだ未発見の場合もあるでしょう
15:25
And you take those four instances
こんな4つのパターンがあって
15:28
and you realize you have a complex problem.
問題がいかに複雑か分かるでしょう
15:31
And so, in addition to digging, I think we have some answers
発掘するだけではなく 恐竜の記録を調べて
15:34
from the dinosaur record. I think these dinosaurs migrated --
ある程度の答えが分かります
恐竜は移住したのです
15:37
we call it dispersal -- around the globe, with the slightest land bridge.
「散布」と呼びます
細い地峡を通じて散布しました
15:40
They did it within two or three degrees of the pole,
南極から2−3度の緯度を通る経路です
15:43
to maintain similarity between continents.
大陸間の類似性が維持されました
15:47
But when they were divided, indeed they were divided,
しかし分離してしまえば 実状のとおり
15:49
and we do see the continents
大陸の違いが恐竜の違いを
15:52
carving differences among dinosaurs.
作り出すことが分かります
15:54
But there's one thing that's even more important, and I think that's extinction.
さらに大事なことがあります 絶滅です
15:56
We have downgraded this factor.
この要素は軽視されてきました
15:59
It carves up the history of life,
絶滅が生命の歴史を形づくり
16:01
and gives us the differences that we see
恐竜世界の最期に向けて
16:03
in the dinosaur world towards the end,
彗星衝突の直前までの違いを
16:05
right before the bolide impact.
生みだしたのです
16:07
The best way to test this is to actually create a model.
モデルを作ることが最良のテスト方法です
16:09
So if we move back, this is a two-dimensional typical tree of life.
この生命系統樹を遡れば これは二次元ですが
16:11
I want to give you three dimensions.
三次元で示しましょう
16:15
So you see the tree of life,
生命の系統樹をご覧ください
16:17
but now I've added the dimension of area.
ここに 地域の次元を加えました
16:20
So the tree of life is normally divergence over time.
普通の系統樹は時間とともに広がりますが
16:23
Now we have divergence over time, but we've created the third dimension of area.
時間とともに広がるだけではなく地域の次元を加えたのです
16:27
This is a computer program
こんなコンピュータープログラムです
16:30
which has three knobs.
三つの変数を操作できます
16:32
We can control those things that we're worried about:
調整可能な項目は
16:34
extinction, sampling, dispersal --
絶滅と抽出と分散です
16:36
going from one area to another.
ある地域から別の地域へ広がることです
16:40
And ultimately we can control the branching
究極的には分岐も制御すれば
16:42
to mimic what we think the continents were like,
大陸移動を想定しながら試すことができます
16:44
and run it a thousand times, so we can estimate the parameters,
これを何千回も実行すればパラメータを推測し
16:47
to answer the question whether we are on the mark or not,
正解かどうかはともかくとして
16:51
at least to know the barriers of the problems. So that's a little bit about the science.
少なくとも何が障壁なのかは分かります
ここまでは科学的な話でした
16:54
Today I'm going to spend the rest of my few minutes up here
残りの時間では
16:58
talking about the other stuff that I do in Chicago,
シカゴで行っているプロジェクトについて少し話します
16:59
which is related to the fact that I never --
それは多くのTED 仲間と
17:03
and actually, in talking to a lot of TEDsters,
話したりして気付いたことに関連します
17:05
there's a number of you out there -- I don't know that I'd get an answer
実際に挙手をお願いしても正直に
17:08
honestly, if I asked you to raise your hand,
答えてもらえないかもしれません
17:11
but there are a number of you out there that started your
ともかく多くの人は
17:13
scientific, technical, entertainment career
科学 技術 娯楽分野の仕事に就いていても
17:15
as failures, by society's standards, as failures by schools.
社会的な基準では落伍者
学校では落ちこぼれでした
17:18
I was one of those. I was failed by my school -- my school failed me.
私もそうでした 学校では落ちこぼれ
落第しました
17:22
Who's pointing fingers?
だれの責任か
17:25
Several teachers nearly killed me.
何人かの教師は私を殺そうとました
17:27
I found myself in art.
私は芸術に目覚めました
17:30
I was a total failure in school, not really headed to graduate high school.
完全な落ちこぼれで高校卒業もあやしい中
17:32
And I went on -- that's my first painting on canvas.
キャンバスに描いた初の作品です
17:35
I read a dictionary. I got into college.
辞書を読んで 大学に潜り込みました
17:37
I became an artist. O.K., and started drawing.
芸術家になって描き始めました
17:39
It became abstract.
抽象画を ポートフォリオにまとめると
17:41
I worked up a portfolio, and I was headed to New York.
ニューヨークを目指したのです
17:43
Sometimes I would see bones when there was a body there.
時折 体の中に見える骨を描きました
17:45
Something was going on in the background. I headed to New York to a studio.
そして見えざる何かに導かれ
ニューヨークのスタジオへの途中で
17:48
I took a side trip to the American Museum, and I never recovered.
アメリカ自然史博物館に寄ったのを
きっかけに芸術活動を終えました
17:52
But really it's the same discipline -- they're kindred disciplines.
実は同じ原則です
類似の原則です
17:56
I mean, is there anything
見えない物を見通す力には
17:59
that is not visualizing what can't be seen,
何か類似点があるのです
18:01
in terms of discovering this dinosaur bone from a small piece of it
小さな骨のかけらを恐竜の骨と見通す力
18:04
that's out there, or seeing the distortion
ある種から別の種への進化を
18:07
that we try to see
歪みとして捉え
18:09
as evolutionary distortion in one animal to another?
進化の過程を見通す力です
18:11
This is a very extraordinarily visual.
この絵は極端ですが 人の顔であれば
18:13
I give you a human face because you're experts at that.
誰もが専門家並みの力を発揮できます
18:15
It takes us years to understand how to do that with dinosaurs.
これが恐竜相手だと何年も掛かります
18:17
They're really kindred disciplines.
原則は似たものなのです
18:21
But what we're trying to create in Chicago
シカゴで始めたプロジェクトでは
18:23
is a way to get,
科学や技術分野の評価が低い学生を
18:26
collect together, those students
集めて一旗あげようと
18:29
who are least represented in our science and technology spheres.
目論んでいます
18:31
We all know, and there's been several allusions to it,
そんなことでは 必要な人数の科学者 技術者
18:34
that we are failing in our ability to produce
専門家は育たないと言う
18:37
enough scientists, engineers and technicians.
見解があることも知っています
18:40
We've known that for a long time. We've gone through the Sputnik phase,
ずっと前 スプートニクの時期から言われ続ける課題です
18:43
and now, as you see the increase
ようやく今この取り組みの
18:46
in the pace of what we're doing,
成果が出始め
18:48
it becomes even more prominent.
Where are all these people going to come from?
重視され始めました
人材をどこで集めるべきか?
18:50
And a more general question for our society is,
そして広く社会へ問うべきなのは
18:53
what's going to happen to all the rest that are left behind?
学校でつまずいた人々はどうなるのか?
18:55
What about all the kids like me that were in school --
自分のように学校に通った子供達です
18:58
kids like some of you out there --
皆さんの中にもいるでしょう
19:00
that were in school and didn't get a chance and will never get a chance
学校では評価されず
19:02
to participate in science and technology?
科学や技術に疎い子供達
19:05
Those are the questions I ask. And we talk about Ethiopia, and it's very important.
それが問題です
先程の話のエチオピアでも重大です
19:07
Niger is equally important, and I'm trying desperately
ニジェールでも同様に重大で
19:10
to do something in Niger.
何か成果を挙げたいと懸命です
19:12
They have an AIDS problem. I asked --
エイズの問題もありますが
19:14
the U.S. State Department asked the government recently,
アメリカ国務省がニジェールに何が問題かと尋ねたところ
19:16
What do you want to do? And they gave them two problems.
2つの問題が指摘されました
19:19
Dinosaurs was one of them.
その1つは恐竜でした
19:21
Give us a museum of dinosaurs,
恐竜の博物館があれば
19:23
and we will attract tourists, which is our number two industry.
観光客を呼べます 観光は国内第二の産業です
19:25
And I hope to God the United States government, me, or TED,
神様でもアメリカ政府でもTEDでも誰でも
19:28
or somebody helps us do that, because that would be an incredible thing for their country.
ニジェールのために我々の活動を支援して下さい
19:32
But when we look back at our own country, we're looking back at our cities,
自分の祖国や故郷を顧みると—
19:35
the cities where most of you come from -- certainly the city I come from --
みなさんの故郷や私の故郷です
19:38
there's legions of kids out there
こんな若者が多数います
19:40
like these.
こんな若者が多数います
19:42
And the question is -- and we started to address this question for centuries --
若者を科学に引きつける方法とは…
19:44
as to how we get these kids involved in science.
これは長年の懸案でした
19:47
We've started in Chicago
我々はシカゴで
19:50
an organization -- a non-profit organization --
プロジェクト・エクスプロレーションという
19:52
called Project Exploration.
NPO を始めました
19:54
These are two kids from Project Exploration.
プロジェクトの仲間2人です
19:56
We met them in their early stages in high school. They were --
高校1年のときに出会いましたが
19:58
failing to poor students,
成績はよくありませんでした
20:00
and they are now -- one at the University of Chicago, another in Illinois.
今では1人はシカゴ大学
もう1人はイリノイ大学に進みました
20:02
We've got students at Harvard. We're six years old.
ハーバードに進んだ生徒もいます
20:06
And we created a track record.
これまで6年の記録が残っています
20:08
Because when you go out there as a scholar, and you try to find out longitudinal studies,
学者がこのようなことに長期的に取り組んだ
20:10
track records like that, there essentially are very few, if none.
記録はほとんど見当たりません
20:13
So, we've created an incredible track record of 100 percent graduation,
我々の実績では100パーセントが卒業し
20:17
90 percent going to college, many first-generation,
90パーセントが大学進学し ― その多くは家族で初めて―
20:21
90 percent of those choosing science as a career.
90パーセントは科学を職業として選びました
20:24
It's an impressive track record, and so we look back and we say,
実に素晴らしい実績です
今振り返って言えることは
20:27
well, we didn't really exactly work this out theoretically from the start,
最初から確実な理論があったのではありません
20:30
but when we look back, there are theoretical movements in science education.
ただ理科教育に関しては理論的活動がありました
20:33
It's gone through science as an inquiry,
それは科学を探求と捉えるもので
20:36
which was a big advance,
大きな進歩となりました
20:38
and Dewey back at Chicago --
シカゴにいたデューイが
20:41
you learn by doing.
実践により学ぶと述べたように
20:43
To -- you learn by envisioning yourself
自分を科学者と思って学ぶのです
20:45
as a scientist,
自分を科学者と思って学ぶのです
20:50
and then you learn to envision yourself as a scientist.
次に自分が科学者になることを学ぶのです
20:52
The next step is to learn the capability
その段階では科学者になるための
20:55
to make yourself a scientist.
能力について学びます
20:57
You have to have those steps. If you have --
段階を踏むことが重要です そうすれば
21:00
It's easy to get kids interested in science.
若者を科学へ引付けるのは簡単です
21:02
It's hard to get them to envision themselves as a scientist,
大変なのは彼らに科学者の自覚を持たせることです
21:04
which involves standing up in front of people like we're doing here at this symposium
このシンポジウムのように聴衆の前で話して
21:07
and presenting something as a knowledgeable person,
第一人者として何かを伝えること
21:11
and then seeing yourself in the role as a scientist
そのように科学者の役を演じ
21:13
and giving yourself the tools to pursue that.
それを極めるためのスキルを獲得すること
21:16
And so, that's what we're going to do. We're planning a permanent home in Chicago.
今そんな活動をしています
シカゴは永続的拠点にするつもりです
21:19
We have lots of ideas, but I guarantee you this one thing --
色んなアイデアがある中で目指すのは
21:22
and I've talked to some people here at TED --
この TED でも誰かに言いましたが
21:24
it's not going to look like anything you've seen before.
これまでに無かった物を作ることです
21:26
It's going to be part-school, part-museum hall,
学校のようでもあり博物館のようでもあり
21:28
part-conservatory, part-zoo,
貯蔵庫でもあり動物園でもあります
21:30
and part of an answer to the problem
若者を科学好きにするという問題に対する答でもあります
21:33
of how you interest kids in science.
若者を科学好きにするという問題に対する答でもあります
21:36
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
21:37
Translated by Natsuhiko Mizutani
Reviewed by Akira Kan

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About the speaker:

Paul Sereno - Paleontologist
Surely not the only science career based on a museum tour epiphany, Paul Sereno's is almost certainly the most triumphant. He's dug up dinosaurs on five continents -- and discovered the world's largest crocodile, the (extinct) 40-foot Sarchosuchus.

Why you should listen

Paul Sereno sees paleontology as "adventure with a purpose." How else, after all, to describe a science that "allows you to romp in remote corners of the globe, resurrecting gargantuan creatures that have never been seen?" His travels in the search for the bones of ancient reptiles and birds have taken him through India, Argentina, Mongolia and, most fruitfully, the 125-degrees-Farenheit Saraha Desert, where he uncovered the giant skeletons of several 30-plus-foot meat-eaters and a few yet-larger prehistoric vegetarians.

Sereno is also president and co-founder of Project Exploration, an organization which aims to bring the wonders of science professions to the public -- especially minority youth and girls. He teaches at the University of Chicago and is one of National Geographic's Explorers-in-Residence.

More profile about the speaker
Paul Sereno | Speaker | TED.com