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TEDxAmazonia

Antonio Donato Nobre: The magic of the Amazon: A river that flows invisibly all around us

安东尼奥·多纳多·诺布雷: 神奇亚马逊:环绕着我们的无形之河

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亚马逊河就像心脏,自海洋泵水经过它,再把水透过如同肺脏一般的六千亿棵树木送还大气。云朵形成,雨露降下,树林因此茂盛。安东尼奥·多纳多·诺布雷在这场如诗般的演说中,透露了亚马逊地区的生命力,以及它如何为世界环境做出贡献。这是一段讲述大自然超凡和谐的寓言。

- Scientist
Antonio Donato Nobre researches the “ingenious systems” of the Amazon. His work illustrates the beautiful complexity of this region, as well as its fragility against a backdrop of climate change. Full bio

What do you guys think?
你们觉得怎么样?
00:12
For those who watched
Sir Ken's memorable TED Talk,
看过罗兵逊爵士那场
难忘的TED演讲的人
00:14
I am a typical example
of what he describes
都知道,我就是
他说的那种典型的例子
00:19
as "the body as a form
of transport for the head,"
作为一个大学教授
00:22
a university professor.
认为“身体只是运输头脑的工具”
00:25
You might think it was not fair
你可能会想,这实在太不公平了
00:27
that I've been lined up to speak
after these first two talks
因为我被排在这两个人之后
00:31
to speak about science.
来进行关于科学的演讲
00:34
I can't move my body to the beat,
我既不会随着音乐翩翩起舞
00:36
and after a scientist
who became a philosopher,
还居然排在一位
从科学家变成哲学家的人后面
00:40
I have to talk about hard science.
我要谈论一下硬科学
00:43
It could be a very dry subject.
这真是个很枯燥的话题
00:45
Yet, I feel honored.
但是,我仍然感到十分荣幸
00:48
Never in my career,
在我非常漫长的
00:51
and it's been a long career,
职业生涯中
00:53
have I had the opportunity to start a talk
从没有过像这次这样
00:55
feeling so inspired, like this one.
在演讲之前就感到心潮澎湃
00:57
Usually, talking about science
通常,谈论科学
01:00
is like exercising in a dry place.
就如同在干燥的地表运动一样
01:04
However, I've had the pleasure
然后,我非常荣幸
01:08
of being invited to come here
to talk about water.
被邀请到这里来谈一谈“水”
01:11
The words "water" and "dry"
do not match, right?
“水”和“旱”这两个词
完全凑不到一块儿,对吧?
01:15
It is even better to talk about
water in the Amazon,
来谈谈亚马逊的水更好
01:19
which is the splendid cradle
of life. Fresh life.
那是孕育着丰富生命的地方
新的生命
01:22
So this is what inspired me.
这启发了我
01:27
That's why I'm here,
although I'm carrying
也就是我在这儿演讲的原因
01:30
my head over here.
虽然我其实是顶着大头来的
01:32
I am trying, or will try to convey
this inspiration.
我正尝试着,
或者说我会尝试着表达我的感动
01:34
I hope this story will inspire you
and that you'll spread the word.
我希望这个故事也会给你启发,
进而传播我的观点
01:38
We know that there is controversy.
我们都知道有一个争议的存在
01:43
The Amazon is the "lung of the world,"
那就是“亚马逊是世界之肺”
01:47
because of its massive power
to have vital gases exchanged
因为它强大的功能,
在森林和大气之间
01:50
between the forest and the atmosphere.
交换着我们赖以生存的气体
01:56
We also hear about
the storehouse of biodiversity.
我们也听过
亚马逊是物种多样性的宝库
01:58
While many believe it,
虽然很多人都相信这样的说法
02:02
few know it.
却很少有人真正地了解它
02:06
If you go out there, in this marsh,
如果你去到了那里,
在这片沼泽地
02:08
you'll be amazed at the —
你会惊讶地发现
02:10
You can barely see the animals.
其实你看不到太多的动物
02:13
The Indians say, "The forest
has more eyes than leaves."
印第安人说:
“森林里的眼睛要比树叶还多。”
02:15
That is true, and I will try
to show you something.
那倒是真的,
我会试着证明给你看
02:20
But today, I'm going to use
a different approach,
但是今天,
我要从不同的角度来看
02:22
one that is inspired by these
two initiatives here,
这个角度是被两个倡议所激发的
02:26
a harmonic one and a philosophical one.
也就是“和谐”与”哲学“
02:29
I'll try to use an approach
that's slightly materialistic,
我要试着用些唯物论的方法
02:31
but it also attempts to convey
that, in nature, there is
但也会试着表达出
02:35
extraordinary philosophy and harmony.
在自然界的确有非凡的哲学与和谐存在
02:39
There'll be no music in my presentation,
我的演讲中没有音乐伴奏
02:42
but I hope you'll all notice the music
of the reality I'm going to show you.
但我希望你们能注意到
我给你们看的现实中的音乐
02:44
I'm going to talk about physiology —
not about lungs,
我要跟各位谈谈生理学,不是肺
02:48
but other analogies with human physiology,
而是一些与人类生理类似的推论
02:51
especially the heart.
特别是心脏
02:54
We'll start
首先,我们把水
02:56
by thinking that water is like blood.
想象成是血液
03:01
The circulation in our body
distributes fresh blood,
我们体内循环输送着的
新鲜血液
03:06
which feeds, nurtures and supports us,
供养并支持着我们
03:11
and brings the used blood back
to be renewed.
并把用过的血液带回去重生
03:13
In the Amazon, things happen similarly.
在亚马逊,
也有很类似的情况
03:18
We'll start by talking about
the power of all these processes.
我们从这些过程的能量开始谈起
03:22
This is an image
这是降雨的影像示意
03:27
of rain in motion.
你在这看到的是以秒计的多年数据
03:32
What you see there
is the years passing in seconds.
全世界的降雨情况
你观察到了什么?
03:35
Rains all over the world.
What do you see?
一般而言,赤道一带
03:39
The equatorial region, in general,
尤其亚马逊地区
03:42
and the Amazon specifically,
对全球气候的影响甚为深远
03:44
is extremely important
for the world's climate.
这是个强有力的引擎
03:45
It's a powerful engine.
超多蒸发作用都在那里发生
03:48
There is a frantic evaporation
taking place here.
如果我们看下这张图
03:50
If we take a look at this other image,
上面显示出水蒸气的流向
03:56
which shows the water vapor flow,
黑的代表干空气
灰的则是湿气
03:58
you have dry air in black,
moist air in gray,
而白的是云
04:01
and clouds in white.
你在上面看到的
是亚马逊地区超大的回潮
04:04
What you see there is an extraordinary
resurgence in the Amazon.
如果这不是沙漠
04:06
What phenomenon — if it's not a desert,
是什么现象能让水从地面涌向大气
04:11
what phenomenon makes water
gush from the ground into the atmosphere
力量如此之大,连在太空中都能观察到?
04:14
with such power
that it can be seen from space?
这是什么现象呢?
04:19
What phenomenon is this?
可能是间歇泉
04:22
It could be a geyser.
间歇泉是地下的水经岩浆加热
04:23
A geyser is underground water
heated by magma,
被喷射到大气中
04:26
exploding into the atmosphere
并将水分转移至大气
04:30
and transferring this water
into the atmosphere.
亚马逊里并没有间歇泉,
除非我弄错了
04:31
There are no geysers in the Amazon,
unless I am wrong.
但据我所知是没有的
04:35
I don't know of any.
但是有种东西扮演者很类似的角色
04:38
But we have something
that plays the same role,
只不过更为优雅
04:40
with much more elegance though:
那就是“树”,我们熟络的伙伴
04:44
the trees, our good old friends
它就像间歇泉一般
04:48
that, like geysers,
可以从地面将巨量水分转移至大气中
04:51
can transfer an enormous amount of water
from the ground into the atmosphere.
亚马逊森林里有六千亿棵树木
04:54
There are 600 billion trees
in the Amazon forest, 600 billion geysers.
也就是六千亿个间歇泉
04:59
That is done with
an extraordinary sophistication.
在被相当复杂的机制操控着
05:04
They don't need the heat of magma.
他们不需要岩浆的热气
05:08
They use sunlight to do this process.
而是用日光来完成这个过程
05:10
So, in a typical sunny day in the Amazon,
所以,在亚马逊某一个
阳光璀璨的普通日子里
05:13
a big tree manages
to transfer 1,000 liters of water
一颗大叔通过它的蒸发作用
05:16
through its transpiration —
能转移一千公升的水--
05:19
1,000 liters.
整整一千公升的水
05:22
If we take all the Amazon,
如果我们把整个亚马逊
05:23
which is a very large area,
这么一个硕大的地方
05:28
and add it up to all that water
that is released by transpiration,
里面所有经过蒸发作用的水
都集合起来
05:30
which is the sweat of the forest,
那也就是森林流下的汗水
05:33
we'll get to an incredible number:
我们会得到一个很吓人的数字:
05:36
20 billion metric tons of water.
两百亿公吨水
05:38
In one day.
这只是一天的量
05:41
Do you know how much that is?
你知道这到底是多大的量吗?
05:43
The Amazon River,
the largest river on Earth,
亚马逊河,全球最大河流
05:45
one fifth of all the fresh water
占了全球五分之一的淡水
05:48
that leaves the continents of the
whole world and ends up in the oceans,
就是从各个大陆流入海洋的淡水
05:49
dumps 17 billion metric tons
of water a day in the Atlantic Ocean.
每天有十七亿公吨的水流入大西洋
05:53
This river of vapor
而这源于森林排入大气的
05:57
that comes up from the forest
and goes into the atmosphere
水汽之河
05:58
is greater than the Amazon River.
要比亚马逊河还大
06:01
Just to give you an idea.
给你一点概念
06:03
If we could take a gigantic kettle,
假设我们拿一个巨大的水壶
06:05
the kind you could plug into
a power socket, an electric one,
能直接插电的那种电热壶
06:08
and put those 20 billion
metric tons of water in it,
把那二百亿公吨的水倒进去
06:11
how much power would you need
to have this water evaporated?
你要花多少电力才能让这些水蒸发掉呢?
06:14
Any idea? A really big kettle.
有概念吗?一个很大的水壶
06:17
A gigantic kettle, right?
超大的水壶,对吧?
06:20
50 thousand Itaipus.
五万座伊泰普水电站
06:22
Itaipu is still the largest
hydroelectric plant in the world.
那仍是世界上最大的水力发电站
06:24
and Brazil is very proud of it
巴西十分引以为豪
06:28
because it provides more
than 30 percent of the power
因为它提供的电力
06:29
that is consumed in Brazil.
超过巴西总用电量的30%
06:32
And the Amazon is here,
doing this for free.
亚马逊就在这里免费做这个事情
06:34
It's a vivid and extremely powerful plant,
providing environmental services.
这是个充满生机又极其强大的发电站
提供着环境服务
06:38
Related to this subject,
与这个主题有关
06:46
we are going to talk about
what I call the paradox of chance,
我们要谈谈我称之为“机会的悖论”
06:47
which is curious.
这很奇特
06:50
If you look at the world map —
如果你看到这幅世界地图
06:52
it's easy to see this —
你很容易看到
06:54
you'll see that there are forests
in the equatorial zone,
在赤道带有片片森林
06:55
and deserts are organized
at 30 degrees north latitude,
而沙漠则聚集在北纬30°
06:58
30 degrees south latitude, aligned.
以及南纬三十°,排成了一条线
07:02
Look over there, in the southern
hemisphere, the Atacama;
看这儿,在南半球,阿塔卡马沙漠
07:05
Namibia and Kalahari in Africa;
the Australian desert.
非洲的纳米比亚和克拉哈利,
澳洲的沙漠
07:08
In the northern hemisphere,
the Sahara, Sonoran, etc.
在北半球,撒哈拉、
索诺兰沙漠,等等
07:10
There is an exception, and it's curious:
只有一个例外,
这很奇特
07:13
It's the quadrangle that ranges from
Cuiabá to Buenos Aires,
这是个四边形,
从库亚巴到布宜诺斯艾利斯
07:18
and from São Paulo to the Andes.
从圣保罗到安第斯
07:21
This quadrangle
was supposed to be a desert.
这个四边形本应是一座沙漠
07:23
It's on the line of deserts.
它就位于沙漠带上
07:26
Why isn't it? That's why
I call it the paradox of chance.
但为什么事实并非如此?
这就是为何我称之为“机会的悖论”
07:28
What do we have in South America
that is different?
我们在南美有什么不一样的东西呢?
07:32
If we could use the analogy
如果我们能拿
07:36
of the blood circulating in our bodies,
我们体内的血液循环
07:38
like the water
circulating in the landscape,
就像是水在大地的循环
07:42
we see that rivers are veins,
我们就能视河流为静脉
07:45
they drain the landscape,
they drain the tissue of nature.
它们耗尽大地,
耗尽自然的组织
07:49
Where are the arteries?
那么动脉又在哪里?
07:54
Any guess?
猜到了吗?
07:56
What takes —
什么能够--
07:58
How does water get to irrigate
the tissues of nature
水如何能灌溉大自然的组织
08:00
and bring everything back through rivers?
然后把所有东西经河流带回去?
08:05
There is a new type of river,
有一种新型河流
08:08
which originates in the blue sea,
发源于蓝色大海
08:11
which flows through the green ocean —
流过绿色的林海
08:14
it not only flows, but it is also
pumped by the green ocean —
不只是流过而已,
绿色的林海还要抽取它
08:18
and then it falls on our land.
然后掉落在我们的土地上
08:21
All our economy, that quadrangle,
我们所有的经济,那片四边形
08:24
70 percent of South America's
GDP comes from that area.
70%南美的国内生产毛额
都从那面四边形地区而来
08:26
It depends on this river.
它依赖着这条河
08:31
This river flows invisibly above us.
这条河也在我们头顶无形地流过
08:32
We are floating here
on this floating hotel,
我们就漂在一条河上方,
这旅馆也漂流在上方
08:34
on one of the largest rivers on Earth,
the Negro River.
漂在全世界最大河流之一,
尼罗河上方
08:36
It's a bit dry and rough,
but we are floating here,
现在是有点干,
但我们是在其上方漂浮着
08:39
and there is this
invisible river running above us.
而且还有这条看不见的河流
在我们上方流过
08:43
This river has a pulse.
这条河流有脉搏
08:46
Here it is, pulsing.
就在这儿,跳动着
08:49
That's why we also talk about the heart.
这就是为什么我们也要谈谈心脏
08:51
You can see the different seasons there.
你们可以看见那些有季节变迁
08:54
There's the rainy season. In the Amazon,
we used to have two seasons,
这里有雨季,在亚马逊
我们习惯于两种季节
08:56
the humid season
and the even more humid season.
湿季和更潮湿的湿季
08:59
Now we have a dry season.
现在我们居然有干季了
09:02
You can see the river covering that region
你可以看见流经那片区域的河流
09:03
which, otherwise, would be a desert.
And it is not.
那片地区本应是沙漠,
但却并没有成为沙漠
09:06
We, scientists —
You see that I'm struggling here
我们科学家...
你看,我在这儿挣扎着
09:13
to move my head
from one side to the other.
要把头从这边转向那边
(注,罗兵逊爵士的演讲)
09:17
Scientists study how it works, why, etc.
科学家研究这如何运作,
为何发生等等
09:19
and these studies
are generating a series of discoveries,
而这些研究会产生一系列
09:25
which are absolutely fabulous,
美妙非凡的发现
09:29
to raise our awareness of the wealth,
提高我们对财富、复杂性、
09:31
the complexity,
and the wonder that we have,
以及我们所有用奇迹的意识
09:34
the symphony we have in this process.
我们在这过程中所拥有的和谐上
09:36
One of them is: How is rain formed?
其中之一的研究是:
“雨是如何形成的?”
09:39
Above the Amazon, there is clean air,
在亚马逊之上是干净的空气
09:41
as there is clean air above the ocean.
就像海洋上有干净的空气一样
09:45
The blue sea has clean air above it
and forms pretty few clouds;
蔚蓝的海洋上方有着干净的空气
很少有云形成
09:47
there's almost no rain there.
那里几乎没有雨
09:50
The green ocean has the same clean air,
but forms a lot of rain.
绿色的林海一样有着干净的空气,
但会形成很多雨
09:51
What is happening here that is different?
是什么导致了不一样的结果?
09:56
The forest emits smells,
森林排放气味
09:58
and these smells are condensation nuclei,
这些气味是云凝结核
10:00
which form drops in the atmosphere.
在大气中形成雨滴
10:03
Then, clouds are formed
and there is torrential rain.
云因此形成,
产生暴雨
10:05
The sprinkler of the Garden of Eden.
伊甸园的湿气机
10:10
This relation between a living thing,
which is the forest,
生物,即森林
10:13
and a nonliving thing,
which is the atmosphere,
与无生物,即大气,
两者之间的关系
10:18
is ingenious in the Amazon,
在亚马逊是无比奇妙的
10:21
because the forest provides
water and seeds,
因为森林提供水和种子
10:24
and the atmosphere forms the rain
and gives water back,
而大气形成雨,
再把水输送回来
10:29
guaranteeing the forest's survival.
保障了森林的存活
10:32
There are other factors as well.
还有其他的因素
10:36
We've talked a little about the heart,
我们谈了谈心脏
10:37
and let's now talk about
another function: the liver!
现在我们谈谈另一个器官:肝脏
10:39
When humid air, high humidity
and radiation are combined
当湿空气、高湿度和辐射
10:42
with these organic compounds,
与这些有机化合物结合到一起
10:47
which I call exogenous vitamin C,
generous vitamin C in the form of gas,
我称之为外生的维他命C,
大量的维他命C以气体形式存在
10:49
the plants release antioxidants
植物就释放抗氧化剂
10:55
which react with pollutants.
和污染物相互作用
10:58
You can rest assured
你大可放心
11:00
that you are breathing the purest air
on Earth, here in the Amazon,
你在亚马逊这儿吸入的
是世界上最纯净的空气
11:02
because the plants take care
of this characteristic as well.
因为植物也照顾了这一特性
11:05
This benefits the very way plants work,
这对植物本身的工作也非常有益
11:09
which is another ingenious cycle.
而这又是另一个巧妙的循环
11:11
Speaking of fractals,
说道分形学
11:13
and their relation with the way we work,
以及它们与身体运作方式的关联
11:17
we can establish other comparisons.
我们还能做出其他的比较
11:19
As in the upper airways of our lungs,
就像我们肺的上呼吸道
11:22
the air in the Amazon
gets cleaned up from the excess of dust.
亚马逊也要清除空气中过量的粉尘
11:26
The dust in the air that we breathe
is cleaned by our airways.
我们的气道会清除吸入的空气粉尘
11:29
This keeps the excess of dust
from affecting the rainfall.
如此一来,过量的粉尘才不会影响降雨
11:33
When there are fires in the Amazon,
亚马逊发生火灾时
11:37
the smoke stops the rain,
it stops raining,
烟雾灰阻挡降雨,
就无法成雨了
11:39
the forest dries up and catches fire.
森林会干枯,起火
11:42
There is another fractal analogy.
还有一个分形类比
11:44
Like in the veins and arteries,
雨水就像静脉和动脉一样
11:47
the rain water is a feedback.
也是一种反馈
11:49
It returns to the atmosphere.
它回到大气
11:51
Like endocrinal glands and hormones,
就像内分泌腺与荷尔蒙
11:53
there are those gases
which I told you about before,
我刚刚提到过,有一些气体
11:58
that are formed and released
into the atmosphere, like hormones,
会在大气中形成、释放,
就像荷尔蒙一样
12:00
which help in the formation of rain.
它们会帮助成雨
12:04
Like the liver and the kidneys,
as I've said, cleaning the air.
又好比肝与肾,像我之前说的,
会净化空气
12:07
And, finally, like the heart:
而最后,就像心脏,
12:11
pumping water from outside, from the sea,
从外面,也就是海洋,泵水
12:13
into the forest.
注入森林
12:18
We call it the biotic moisture pump,
我们称它为生物性水气泵
12:20
a new theory that is explained
in a very simple way.
是一种新的理论,
可以用非常简单的方法解释
12:23
If there is a desert in the continent
如果大陆上有一片沙漠
12:27
with a nearby sea,
那附近有一片海洋
12:30
evaporation's greater on the sea,
海面上的蒸发作用会比较大
12:32
and it sucks the air above the desert.
并且会从沙漠上方的空气吸水
12:34
The desert is trapped in this condition.
It will always be dry.
困在这种情况下的沙漠
永远都很干燥
12:37
If you have
the opposite situation, a forest,
假设情况相反,
森林的蒸发作用来得更大
12:40
the evaporation, as we showed,
is much greater, because of the trees,
正如我们之前展示的,
因为这些树木的关系
12:43
and this relation is reversed.
那么这种关系就会反过来
12:47
The air above the sea
is sucked into the continent
海洋上方的空气会被吸入大陆
12:48
and humidity is imported.
湿气从外部输入
12:51
This satellite image
was taken one month ago —
这张卫星图是一个月前拍摄的
12:54
that's Manaus down there,
we're down there —
下面那个是玛瑙斯市,
我们就在下方那儿
12:58
and it shows this process.
这张照片显示了这个过程
13:01
It's not a common little river
that flows into a canal.
这可不是一条流入渠道的普通小河流
13:02
It's a mighty river
that irrigates South America,
这是条大河,灌溉着整个南美洲
13:05
among other things.
当然还有别的(原因)
13:10
This image shows those paths,
这张照片显示了所有
13:12
all the hurricanes
that have been recorded.
已被记录的飓风路径
13:14
You can see that, in the red square,
there hardly are any hurricanes.
你可以看到在这个红框内,
几乎没有飓风
13:17
That is no accident.
这可不是什么巧合
13:22
This pump that sucks
the moisture into the continent
这个泵吸水气进入大陆
13:23
also speeds up the air above the sea,
同时加快了海洋上方的空气流动
13:27
and this prevents hurricane formations.
这会阻挡飓风的形成
13:29
To close this part and sum up,
要结束并总结这一部分
13:33
I'd like to talk about
something a little different.
我想讲一点不太一样的东西
13:37
I have several colleagues
我有几个同事
13:40
who worked in the development
of these theories.
从事这些理论的发展和研究
13:42
They think, and so do I,
他们认为,我也这么认为
13:44
that we can save planet Earth.
我们能够拯救地球
13:48
I'm not talking only about the Amazon.
我不只是在说亚马逊
13:50
The Amazon teaches us a lesson
亚马逊给我们上了堂课
13:53
on how pristine nature works.
那就是,原始大自然是如何运作的
13:55
We didn't understand
these processes before
我们之前并不了解这些过程
13:59
because the rest of the world
is messed up.
因为世界上其他地方乱七八糟的
14:02
We could understand it here, though.
我们本来是能在这儿搞明白的
14:05
These colleagues propose
that, yes, we can
这些同事建议,没错
14:06
save other areas,
我们可以拯救其他地区
14:10
including deserts.
包括沙漠
14:12
If we could establish forests
in those other areas,
假如我们可以在其他地区造林
14:14
we can reverse climate change,
我们就能扭转气候变迁
14:17
including global warming.
包括全球变暖
14:19
I have a dear colleague in India,
我在印度有个关系很好的同事
14:22
whose name is Suprabha Seshan,
and she has a motto.
她的名字是希珊,她有句格言
14:24
Her motto is,
"Gardening back the biosphere,"
格言说道:
“Gardening back the biosphere.”
14:27
"Reajardinando a biosfera" in Portuguese.
葡萄牙语里的意思就是
“在生物圈内重新造园。”
14:31
She does a wonderful job
rebuilding ecosystems.
她在重建生态系统方面表现突出
14:34
We need to do this.
我们需要做这个
14:37
Having closed this quick introduction,
要结束这段简单的介绍
14:39
we see the reality that we have out here,
我们看到了在那里的现实
14:44
which is drought, this climate change,
就是干旱,这一气候变迁
14:47
things that we already knew.
是我们早就知道的事
14:50
I'd like to tell you a short story.
我想跟你说一个小故事
14:52
Once, about four years ago,
有一次,在大约四年前
14:56
I attended a declamation,
of a text by Davi Kopenawa,
我参加了大卫·柯本那瓦起草的宣言
15:00
a wise representative
of the Yanomami people,
他是位有智慧的亚诺玛米代表
15:04
and it went more or less like this:
宣言的内容大致是:
15:07
"Doesn't the white man know
“难道白人不知道
15:09
that, if he destroys the forest,
there will be no more rain?
如果他毁掉了森林,就不再会有降雨?
15:12
And that, if there's no more rain,
如果不再有降雨,
15:15
there'll be nothing to drink, or to eat?"
就没有东西可供吃喝?”
15:17
I heard that, and my eyes welled up
我听了以后,眼里噙着泪水
15:20
and I went, "Oh, my!
我说,“哦!天哪!
15:23
I've been studying this for 20 years,
with a super computer,
我花了20年时间研究这个,
用超级电脑,
15:24
dozens, thousands of scientists,
成千上万的科学家都在研究
15:28
and we are starting to get to this
conclusion, which he already knows!"
然后我们才开始得出这样的结论,
可他早就知道了!”
15:31
A critical point is the Yanomami
have never deforested.
重点是亚诺玛米族人从不毁林
15:34
How could they know the rain would end?
他们怎么知道毁林后就不再有雨?
15:39
This bugged me and I was befuddled.
这个问题困扰着我,我大惑不解
15:42
How could he know that?
他是怎么知道的?
15:46
Some months later,
I met him at another event and said,
几个月前,我在另一场活动上
遇到他,我问:
15:47
"Davi, how did you know that if the forest
was destroyed, there'd be no more rain?"
“大卫,你怎么知道森林一旦毁了,
就不再有雨?”
15:51
He replied:
"The spirit of the forest told us."
他答到:“森林的精灵告诉我们的。”
15:57
For me, this was a game changer,
对我而言,这改变了我的想法
16:02
a radical change.
彻彻底底的改变了
16:06
I said, "Gosh!
我说:“天哪!
16:08
Why am I doing all this science
为什么我搞了半天的科学研究
16:09
to get to a conclusion
that he already knows?"
只得到他早就知道的事情?”
16:14
Then, something
absolutely critical hit me,
然后我突然想到一件很关键的事
16:17
which is,
那就是
16:23
seeing is believing.
眼见为信
16:27
Out of sight, out of mind.
眼不见为净
16:31
This is a need the previous speaker
pointed out:
上一位演讲者指出了这件事的必要性
16:35
We need to see things —
我们必须亲眼见到...
16:39
I mean, we, Western society,
我是说,我们西方社会
16:42
which is becoming global, civilized —
越来越全球化、文明程度更高
16:44
we need to see.
我们非得亲眼见到
16:47
If we don't see,
we don't register the information.
如果我们没有亲眼见到,
就不会注意这些资讯
16:48
We live in ignorance.
我们生活在无知之中
16:51
So, I propose the following —
所以,我要提出以下--
16:52
of course, the astronomers
wouldn't like the idea —
当然,天文学家不会喜欢这个想法--
16:54
but let's turn the Hubble telescope
upside down.
但让我们把哈勃望远镜倒过来
16:57
And let's make it look down here,
倒过来往下看看这儿
17:00
rather than to the far reaches
of the universe.
不是望向远处的宇宙
17:02
The universe is wonderful,
宇宙是很奇妙的
17:04
but we have a practical reality,
但我们还有现实要面对
17:06
which is we live in an unknown cosmos,
就是我们住在未知的小宇宙里
17:08
and we're ignorant about it.
去对此置之不理
17:12
We're trampling on this wonderful cosmos
我们蹂躏着这片奇妙的小宇宙
17:14
that shelters us and houses us.
庇护着我们,让我们安居的小宇宙
17:17
Talk to any astrophysicist.
去问问任何一位天文物理学家
17:19
The Earth is a statistical improbability.
地球的存在在统计学上是不可能的
17:21
The stability and comfort that we enjoy,
despite the droughts of the Negro River,
我们所享受的安定与舒适,
尽管有尼罗河的干旱
17:24
and all the heat and cold
and typhoons, etc.,
还有那些冷热飓风
17:28
there is nothing like it in the universe,
that we know of.
但地球是我们所知的宇宙里
绝无仅有的一个星球
17:31
Then, let's turn Hubble in our direction,
所以,让我们把哈勃转向自己
17:34
and let's look at the Earth.
让我们看看地球
17:36
Let's start with the Amazon!
让我们从亚马逊开始看
17:41
Let's dive,
让我们潜心钻研
17:43
let's reach out the reality
we live in every day,
让我们面对每天生活的现实
17:44
and look carefully at it,
since that's what we need.
仔细看,因为那才是我们所需要的
17:49
Davi Kopenawa doesn't need this.
大卫·柯本那瓦不需要这些
17:52
He has something already
that I think I missed.
他早就有了我未曾想到的东西
17:54
I was educated by television.
我的知识来自于电视
17:57
I think that I missed this,
我想我从没想过这个
17:58
an ancestral record,
先人代代相传的记录
18:00
a valuation of what I don't know,
what I haven't seen.
是我不知道,从未见过的评估
18:02
He is not a doubting Thomas.
他不是圣经中多疑的托马斯
18:06
He believes,
with veneration and reverence,
他以崇敬和敬畏之心,单纯地相信
18:08
in what his ancestors
and the spirits taught him.
他的祖先和精灵教给他的事
18:12
We can't do it,
so let's look into the forest.
我们做不到这一点,
所以让我们深入地看森林
18:15
Even with Hubble up there —
即使有哈勃在上面看
18:18
this is a bird's-eye view, right?
这只是个鸟瞰图,对吧?
18:21
Even when this happens,
即使只是个鸟瞰图
18:23
we also see something that we don't know.
我们仍能看到我们不知道的事
18:25
The Spanish called it the green inferno.
西班牙人称它为绿色地狱
18:28
If you go out there
into the bushes and get lost,
如果你去哪里深入森林迷路了
18:31
and, let's say, if you head west,
然后,随便一说,如果你向西走
18:34
it's 900 kilometers to Colombia,
你要走900公里才能到达哥伦比亚
18:36
and another 1,000 to somewhere else.
还要再走1000公里才能到别的地方
18:38
So, you can figure out
why they called it the green inferno.
所以你知道为什么
西班牙人称亚马逊为绿色地狱了吧
18:40
But go and look at what is in there.
但是去看看那里面究竟有什么
18:43
It is a live carpet.
那是一张活地毯
18:46
Each color you see is a tree species.
你看到的每一种颜色
都代表一个树种
18:48
Each tree, each tree top,
每棵树,每支树梢
18:50
has up to 10,000 species of insects in it,
都有多达一万种昆虫在里面
18:52
let alone the millions of species
of fungi, bacteria, etc.
更别说数都数不清的真菌、细菌等等
18:56
All invisible.
那都是看不见的
19:00
All of it is an even stranger cosmos to us
这些对我们而言是更奇怪的宇宙
19:02
than the galaxies billions
of light years away from the Earth,
比离地球是百万年元的银河更奇怪
19:05
which Hubble brings
to our newspapers everyday.
而哈勃每天在报纸上带来新消息
19:08
I'm going to end my talk here —
我就此打住
19:12
I have a few seconds left —
因为我只剩几秒钟
19:14
by showing you this wonderful being.
要给你们看看这奇妙的生物
19:16
When we see the morpho butterfly
in the forest,
当我们在森林里看到闪蝶
19:18
we feel like someone's left open
the door to heaven,
我们就觉得好像
有人打开了通往天堂的大门
19:21
and this creature escaped from there,
because it's so beautiful.
这个生物是从天堂逃出来的
因为它太美了
19:24
However, I cannot finish
但我实在无法就这样
19:27
without showing you a tech side.
没让你们看到它的科技面
就结束演讲
19:30
We are tech-arrogant.
我们以科技挂帅
19:32
We deprive nature of its technology.
我们剥夺了大自然的科技
19:35
A robotic hand is technological,
机械手是科技
19:39
mine is biological,
我的手则是生物体
19:40
and we don't think about it anymore.
所以就不值得再去深入研究了
19:42
Let's then look at the morpho butterfly,
让我们再来看看闪蝶吧
19:43
an example of an invisible
technological competence of life,
极微小的生物
却是个充满科技潜能的例子
19:46
which is at the very heart of our
possibility of surviving on this planet,
是让我们能在这星球上
继续生存的最佳机会
19:51
and let's zoom in on it.
Again, Hubble is there.
让我们拉近焦距放大来看,
再来看,哈勃在这儿
19:56
Let's get into the butterfly's wings.
让我们看看蝴蝶的翅膀
19:58
Scholars have tried to explain:
Why is it blue?
学者试图解释,
它为什么是蓝色的?
20:00
Let's zoom in on it.
放大来看
20:04
What you see is that the architecture
of the invisible humiliates
你看见的是肉眼看不见的结构
20:05
the best architects in the world.
会让世界上最牛的建筑师都蒙羞
20:11
All of this on a tiny scale.
这一切都在极小的比例内
20:14
Besides its beauty and functioning,
there is another side to it.
除了美丽和功效,它还有另一面
20:16
In nature,
在自然界
20:19
all that is organized in extraordinary
structures has a function.
所有组织在非凡结构体中的东西
都有其功能性
20:22
This function of the morpho butterfly —
it is not blue;
闪蝶的功能...它本身不是蓝色
20:26
it does not have blue pigments.
它没有蓝色素
20:31
It has photonic crystals on its surface,
according to people who studied it,
据研究者说,它表面有光子晶体
20:32
which are extremely
sophisticated crystals.
那是非常复杂的晶体
20:36
Our technology had
nothing like that at the time.
我们目前的科技仍望尘莫及
20:38
Hitachi has now made a monitor
目前日立用这项科技
20:42
that uses this technology,
发明了一种显示器
20:45
and it is used in optical fibers
to transmit —
并用在光纤上以传输--
20:46
Janine Benyus, who's been here several
times, talks about it: biomimetics.
珍妮‧班纳斯来谈过很多次:
这就是仿生学
20:48
My time's up.
我的时间用完了
20:53
Then, I'll wrap it up with
what is at the base of this capacity,
那么我来总结一下
20:54
of this competence of biodiversity,
生物多样性机能、能力的基础是什么
21:00
producing all these wonderful services:
竟得以产生这些奇妙的贡献?
21:02
the living cell.
是生物细胞
21:05
It is a structure with a few microns,
which is an internal wonder.
这个结构只有几微米大,
真是体内的奇迹了
21:06
There are TED Talks about it.
I won't talk much longer,
已经有几个TED演讲讨论过它,
我就不再赘述
21:10
but each person in this room,
including myself,
但在座的每一位,包括我
21:13
has 100 trillion of these
micromachines in their body,
都有一百兆个微小的机器在体内
21:16
so that we can enjoy well-being.
我们因此才能安享人生
21:20
Imagine what is out there
in the Amazon forest:
想象一下在亚马逊森林都有什么:
21:23
100 trillion. This is greater
than the number of stars in the sky.
一百兆,比天上的繁星还多
21:25
And we are not aware of it.
而我们居然对此一无所知
21:29
Thank you so much. (Applause)
非常感谢(掌声)
21:31
Translated by Sherry Chen
Reviewed by Michael Ge 葛叔

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About the speaker:

Antonio Donato Nobre - Scientist
Antonio Donato Nobre researches the “ingenious systems” of the Amazon. His work illustrates the beautiful complexity of this region, as well as its fragility against a backdrop of climate change.

Why you should listen

Antonio Donato Nobre sees nature as a well-orchestrated symphony. A visiting scientist at Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and a senior researcher at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), he studies the soil, hydrology and biochemistry of the Amazon, to learn more about the complex, interlocking systems of this geographical marvel. He seeks to understand the interactions between the forest and the atmosphere, and how "the sweat of the forest" runs in a stream overhead that carries moisture to other parts of South America and the world, playing a large role in climate stability. His study “El Futuro Climático de la Amazonía” synthesizes research on how human beings are affecting the delicate balance of this region, and the huge risk we run if we lose it.

 

 

More profile about the speaker
Antonio Donato Nobre | Speaker | TED.com