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TEDxAmazonia

Antonio Donato Nobre: The magic of the Amazon: A river that flows invisibly all around us

安東尼歐·多納多·諾布雷: 亞馬遜的奇妙:環繞著我們的無形之河

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亞馬遜河就像心臟,自海洋泵水,經過它,再把水透過六千億棵樹還給大氣,這些樹就像肺臟一般。雲形成,雨降下,森林因此茂盛。安東尼歐·多納多·諾布雷在這場如詩般的演說中,透露了這塊地區的生命力,及它如何為世界環境提供貢獻。這是一段講述大自然超凡和諧的寓言。

- Scientist
Antonio Donato Nobre researches the “ingenious systems” of the Amazon. His work illustrates the beautiful complexity of this region, as well as its fragility against a backdrop of climate change. Full bio

What do you guys think?
你們覺得怎麼樣?
00:12
For those who watched
Sir Ken's memorable TED Talk,
看過羅賓森爵士
難忘的 TED 演講的人,
00:14
I am a typical example
of what he describes
都知道我就是他說的
那種典型的例子,
00:19
as "the body as a form
of transport for the head,"
「身體只是運送大頭的工具」,
00:22
a university professor.
一位大學教授。
00:25
You might think it was not fair
你可能會想這實在太不公平,
00:27
that I've been lined up to speak
after these first two talks
因為我排在這兩位之後
00:31
to speak about science.
來講科學的事。
00:34
I can't move my body to the beat,
我既不會隨著音樂起舞,
00:36
and after a scientist
who became a philosopher,
然後又排在一位從科學家
變成哲學家的人之後,
00:40
I have to talk about hard science.
我得談論硬科學。
00:43
It could be a very dry subject.
真的是很枯燥的題目。
00:45
Yet, I feel honored.
但是,我仍感榮幸。
00:48
Never in my career,
在我的職業生涯中,
00:51
and it's been a long career,
這生涯時間很長,
00:53
have I had the opportunity to start a talk
從沒有像這場這樣,
00:55
feeling so inspired, like this one.
在演講之前就感覺如此激勵人心。
00:57
Usually, talking about science
通常,談科學
01:00
is like exercising in a dry place.
就像在乾地上運動一樣。
01:04
However, I've had the pleasure
然而,我很榮幸
01:08
of being invited to come here
to talk about water.
被邀請來這裡談一談水。
01:11
The words "water" and "dry"
do not match, right?
「水」與「乾」這兩個
字湊不在一起,對吧?
01:15
It is even better to talk about
water in the Amazon,
談亞馬遜的水更好,
01:19
which is the splendid cradle
of life. Fresh life.
那是孕育著豐富生命的地方。
新的生命。
01:22
So this is what inspired me.
這就是啟發我的東西。
01:27
That's why I'm here,
although I'm carrying
那就是為什麼我在這裡,
01:30
my head over here.
雖然我其實是頂著大頭來的。
01:32
I am trying, or will try to convey
this inspiration.
我正試著,或者說
我會試著傳達我的感動。
01:34
I hope this story will inspire you
and that you'll spread the word.
我希望這個故事會啟發你,
因而廣傳我的想法。
01:38
We know that there is controversy.
我們都知道有個爭議存在。
01:43
The Amazon is the "lung of the world,"
亞馬遜是世界的肺,
01:47
because of its massive power
to have vital gases exchanged
因為它強大的功能,在森林與大氣間
01:50
between the forest and the atmosphere.
交換維生氣體。
01:56
We also hear about
the storehouse of biodiversity.
我們也聽過它是生物多樣性的寶庫。
01:58
While many believe it,
雖然很多人相信這樣的說法,
02:02
few know it.
卻很少人真正了解它。
02:06
If you go out there, in this marsh,
如果你去那裡,在這片沼澤地,
02:08
you'll be amazed at the —
你會很驚異地發現,
02:10
You can barely see the animals.
你看不到太多動物。
02:13
The Indians say, "The forest
has more eyes than leaves."
印地安人說:
「森林裡的眼睛比樹葉還多。」
02:15
That is true, and I will try
to show you something.
那是真的,我會試著證明給你看。
02:20
But today, I'm going to use
a different approach,
但是今天,我要從不同的方法來看,
02:22
one that is inspired by these
two initiatives here,
是被這兩個倡議所啟發的方法,
02:26
a harmonic one and a philosophical one.
即「和諧」與「哲學」。
02:29
I'll try to use an approach
that's slightly materialistic,
我要試著用帶點唯物論的方法,
02:31
but it also attempts to convey
that, in nature, there is
但也要試著表達出在自然界
02:35
extraordinary philosophy and harmony.
的確有非凡的哲學與和諧。
02:39
There'll be no music in my presentation,
我的演講裡沒有音樂,
02:42
but I hope you'll all notice the music
of the reality I'm going to show you.
但我希望你們能注意到
我給你們看的現實裡的音樂。
02:44
I'm going to talk about physiology —
not about lungs,
我要跟各位談談生理學,不是肺,
02:48
but other analogies with human physiology,
而是一些與人類生理相似的推論,
02:51
especially the heart.
特別是心。
02:54
We'll start
我們首先...
02:56
by thinking that water is like blood.
從把水想成血液開始。
03:01
The circulation in our body
distributes fresh blood,
我們體內的循環分送新鮮的血液,
03:06
which feeds, nurtures and supports us,
供養及支持我們,
03:11
and brings the used blood back
to be renewed.
並把用過的血液帶回去重生。
03:13
In the Amazon, things happen similarly.
在亞馬遜,情況也很類似。
03:18
We'll start by talking about
the power of all these processes.
我們從這些過程的能量開始談。
03:22
This is an image
這是降雨情形的影像。
03:27
of rain in motion.
你在這看見的是以秒計的多年數據。
03:32
What you see there
is the years passing in seconds.
全世界的降雨情形。
你觀察到什麼?
03:35
Rains all over the world.
What do you see?
赤道一帶,一般而言,
03:39
The equatorial region, in general,
尤其是亞馬遜,
03:42
and the Amazon specifically,
對全球氣候極為重要。
03:44
is extremely important
for the world's climate.
這是個強有力的引擎。
03:45
It's a powerful engine.
超多的蒸發作用在那裡發生。
03:48
There is a frantic evaporation
taking place here.
如果我們看一下這張圖,
03:50
If we take a look at this other image,
上面顯出水蒸氣的流向,
03:56
which shows the water vapor flow,
黑的是乾空氣,溼氣以灰表示,
03:58
you have dry air in black,
moist air in gray,
白色的是雲。
04:01
and clouds in white.
你在上面看到的是
亞馬遜地區超大的餘湧。
04:04
What you see there is an extraordinary
resurgence in the Amazon.
如果這不是沙漠,
04:06
What phenomenon — if it's not a desert,
是什麼現象能讓水從地面湧向大氣,
04:11
what phenomenon makes water
gush from the ground into the atmosphere
如此大的力量,太空中都看的到?
04:14
with such power
that it can be seen from space?
這是什麼現象?
04:19
What phenomenon is this?
可能是間歇泉。
04:22
It could be a geyser.
間歇泉是地底下的水被岩漿加熱,
04:23
A geyser is underground water
heated by magma,
噴到大氣中,
04:26
exploding into the atmosphere
並將水轉移至大氣。
04:30
and transferring this water
into the atmosphere.
亞馬遜裡沒有間歇泉,
除非我搞錯了,
04:31
There are no geysers in the Amazon,
unless I am wrong.
據我所知沒有。
04:35
I don't know of any.
但我們有種東西扮演很類似的角色,
04:38
But we have something
that plays the same role,
更優雅就是了:
04:40
with much more elegance though:
樹,我們認識已久的好朋友,
04:44
the trees, our good old friends
就像間歇泉般,
04:48
that, like geysers,
可以從地面轉移巨量的水到大氣中。
04:51
can transfer an enormous amount of water
from the ground into the atmosphere.
亞馬遜森林裡有六千億棵樹,
04:54
There are 600 billion trees
in the Amazon forest, 600 billion geysers.
也就是六千億個間歇泉,
04:59
That is done with
an extraordinary sophistication.
非常複雜的機制在操控著。
05:04
They don't need the heat of magma.
它們不需要岩漿的熱氣。
05:08
They use sunlight to do this process.
它們用日光來完成這個過程。
05:10
So, in a typical sunny day in the Amazon,
所以,在亞馬遜,
在一個平常陽光燦爛的日子,
05:13
a big tree manages
to transfer 1,000 liters of water
一棵大樹能透過它的蒸散作用,
05:16
through its transpiration —
轉移一千公升的水——
05:19
1,000 liters.
一千公升。
05:22
If we take all the Amazon,
如果我們把整個亞馬遜,
05:23
which is a very large area,
那是很大的一塊地方,
05:28
and add it up to all that water
that is released by transpiration,
所有蒸散作用的水都加起來,
05:30
which is the sweat of the forest,
也就是森林流出的汗水,
05:33
we'll get to an incredible number:
我們會得到一個嚇死人的數字:
05:36
20 billion metric tons of water.
二百億公噸的水。
05:38
In one day.
這是一天的量。
05:41
Do you know how much that is?
你知道這到底有多大量嗎?
05:43
The Amazon River,
the largest river on Earth,
亞馬遜河,地球上最大的河,
05:45
one fifth of all the fresh water
佔了五分之一的全球淡水,
05:48
that leaves the continents of the
whole world and ends up in the oceans,
就是從各個大陸流入海的淡水,
05:49
dumps 17 billion metric tons
of water a day in the Atlantic Ocean.
每天要倒十七億公噸的水進大西洋。
05:53
This river of vapor
而這條水氣之河,
05:57
that comes up from the forest
and goes into the atmosphere
源自森林排入大氣,
05:58
is greater than the Amazon River.
比亞馬遜河還大。
06:01
Just to give you an idea.
給你一點概念。
06:03
If we could take a gigantic kettle,
假設我們拿一個巨大的水壺,
06:05
the kind you could plug into
a power socket, an electric one,
你能直接插電的那種電熱瓶,
06:08
and put those 20 billion
metric tons of water in it,
把那二百億公噸的水倒進去,
06:11
how much power would you need
to have this water evaporated?
你要花多少電力才能讓這些水蒸發?
06:14
Any idea? A really big kettle.
有概念嗎?一個很大的水壺。
06:17
A gigantic kettle, right?
超大的水壺,對吧?
06:20
50 thousand Itaipus.
五萬座伊泰普。
06:22
Itaipu is still the largest
hydroelectric plant in the world.
伊泰普仍是世上最大的水力發電廠。
06:24
and Brazil is very proud of it
巴西非常引以為傲,
06:28
because it provides more
than 30 percent of the power
因為它提供的電力
06:29
that is consumed in Brazil.
超過巴西總用電量的 30%。
06:32
And the Amazon is here,
doing this for free.
亞馬遜就在這裡免費做這個。
06:34
It's a vivid and extremely powerful plant,
providing environmental services.
這是個活生生又極強大的電廠,
提供著環境服務。
06:38
Related to this subject,
與這個主題有關,
06:46
we are going to talk about
what I call the paradox of chance,
我們要來談談機會的謬論,
06:47
which is curious.
這很奇特。
06:50
If you look at the world map —
如果你看這幅世界地圖,
06:52
it's easy to see this —
你很容易看見
06:54
you'll see that there are forests
in the equatorial zone,
在赤道帶有森林,
06:55
and deserts are organized
at 30 degrees north latitude,
沙漠則聚在北緯 30 度
06:58
30 degrees south latitude, aligned.
及南緯 30 度,排成一直線。
07:02
Look over there, in the southern
hemisphere, the Atacama;
看這裡,在南半球,亞他加馬沙漠;
07:05
Namibia and Kalahari in Africa;
the Australian desert.
非洲的納米比亞及喀拉哈里;
澳洲的沙漠。
07:08
In the northern hemisphere,
the Sahara, Sonoran, etc.
在北半球,撒哈拉、
索諾蘭沙漠等等。
07:10
There is an exception, and it's curious:
只有一個例外,而這很奇特:
07:13
It's the quadrangle that ranges from
Cuiabá to Buenos Aires,
這是個四邊形,
從庫亞巴到布宜諾斯艾利斯,
07:18
and from São Paulo to the Andes.
從聖保羅到安地斯。
07:21
This quadrangle
was supposed to be a desert.
這個四邊形應該是座沙漠。
07:23
It's on the line of deserts.
它就位在沙漠帶上。
07:26
Why isn't it? That's why
I call it the paradox of chance.
但為什麼不是?這就是為什麼
我稱它為機會的謬論。
07:28
What do we have in South America
that is different?
我們在南美有什麼不一樣的東西?
07:32
If we could use the analogy
如果我們能拿
07:36
of the blood circulating in our bodies,
我們體內的血液循環,
07:38
like the water
circulating in the landscape,
就像水在大地的循環,
07:42
we see that rivers are veins,
我們就能視河流為靜脈,
07:45
they drain the landscape,
they drain the tissue of nature.
它們耗盡大地,
它們耗盡自然的組織。
07:49
Where are the arteries?
那麼動脈在哪裡?
07:54
Any guess?
猜到了嗎?
07:56
What takes —
要拿什麼—
07:58
How does water get to irrigate
the tissues of nature
水如何灌溉大自然的組織
08:00
and bring everything back through rivers?
然後把所有東西再經河流帶回去?
08:05
There is a new type of river,
有一種新型的河流,
08:08
which originates in the blue sea,
從藍藍大海發源,
08:11
which flows through the green ocean —
流過綠色的樹海,
08:14
it not only flows, but it is also
pumped by the green ocean —
不只是流過而已,
綠色的樹海還抽取它,
08:18
and then it falls on our land.
然後掉落在我們的土地上。
08:21
All our economy, that quadrangle,
我們所有的經濟,那片四邊形,
08:24
70 percent of South America's
GDP comes from that area.
70% 的南美國內生產毛額
都從那個地區來。
08:26
It depends on this river.
它仰賴這條河。
08:31
This river flows invisibly above us.
這條河在我們頭上無形地流過。
08:32
We are floating here
on this floating hotel,
我們就漂在一條河上面,
這個旅館也漂在上面,
08:34
on one of the largest rivers on Earth,
the Negro River.
漂在地球上最大的河流之一,
尼格羅河之上。
08:36
It's a bit dry and rough,
but we are floating here,
現在是有一點乾,
但我們是在其上漂浮,
08:39
and there is this
invisible river running above us.
而且還有這條看不見的河
在我們頭上流過。
08:43
This river has a pulse.
這條河有脈博。
08:46
Here it is, pulsing.
就在這裡,跳動著。
08:49
That's why we also talk about the heart.
這就是為什麼我們也要談談心。
08:51
You can see the different seasons there.
你可以看見那裡有不同的季節。
08:54
There's the rainy season. In the Amazon,
we used to have two seasons,
這裡有雨季。在亞馬遜,
我們很習慣兩種季節,
08:56
the humid season
and the even more humid season.
濕季及更濕的濕季。
08:59
Now we have a dry season.
現在我們居然有乾季。
09:02
You can see the river covering that region
你可以看見流經那個區域的河流,
09:03
which, otherwise, would be a desert.
And it is not.
那區本應是個沙漠,卻沒有。
09:06
We, scientists —
You see that I'm struggling here
我們科學家...
你看我在這裡掙扎著
09:13
to move my head
from one side to the other.
要把頭從這邊轉到那邊。
(注:羅賓森爵士的演講)
09:17
Scientists study how it works, why, etc.
科學家研究這如何運作,
為什麼發生等等,
09:19
and these studies
are generating a series of discoveries,
而這些研究會產生一系列
09:25
which are absolutely fabulous,
美妙絕倫的發現,
09:29
to raise our awareness of the wealth,
提高我們對財富、複雜度
09:31
the complexity,
and the wonder that we have,
及我們所擁有的奇蹟的意識,
09:34
the symphony we have in this process.
我們在這過程中所擁有的和諧上。
09:36
One of them is: How is rain formed?
其中之一的研究是:
雨是如何形成的?
09:39
Above the Amazon, there is clean air,
在亞馬遜之上是乾淨的空氣,
09:41
as there is clean air above the ocean.
就像海洋上有乾淨的空氣一樣。
09:45
The blue sea has clean air above it
and forms pretty few clouds;
蔚藍的海上方有乾淨的空氣,
很少有雲形成;
09:47
there's almost no rain there.
那裡幾乎沒有雨。
09:50
The green ocean has the same clean air,
but forms a lot of rain.
綠色的樹海一樣有乾淨的空氣,
但是會形成很多的雨。
09:51
What is happening here that is different?
是什麼產生不一樣的結果?
09:56
The forest emits smells,
森林排放氣味,
09:58
and these smells are condensation nuclei,
這些氣味是雲凝結核,
10:00
which form drops in the atmosphere.
在大氣中形成雨滴。
10:03
Then, clouds are formed
and there is torrential rain.
雲因此形成,產生大豪雨。
10:05
The sprinkler of the Garden of Eden.
伊甸園的灑水器。
10:10
This relation between a living thing,
which is the forest,
生物,即森林,
10:13
and a nonliving thing,
which is the atmosphere,
與無生物,即大氣,之間的關係,
10:18
is ingenious in the Amazon,
在亞馬遜是巧妙無比的。
10:21
because the forest provides
water and seeds,
因為森林提供水與種子,
10:24
and the atmosphere forms the rain
and gives water back,
而大氣形成雨,再把水還回來,
10:29
guaranteeing the forest's survival.
保障了森林的存活。
10:32
There are other factors as well.
還有其它的因素。
10:36
We've talked a little about the heart,
我們談了一點心,
10:37
and let's now talk about
another function: the liver!
現在讓我們談談另一個官能:肝!
10:39
When humid air, high humidity
and radiation are combined
當濕空氣、高溼度及輻射
10:42
with these organic compounds,
與這些有機化合物結合在一起,
10:47
which I call exogenous vitamin C,
generous vitamin C in the form of gas,
我稱這些為外生的維他命 C,
大量的維他命 C 以氣體存在,
10:49
the plants release antioxidants
植物就釋放抗氧化劑
10:55
which react with pollutants.
與汙染物相互作用。
10:58
You can rest assured
你可以大大放心,
11:00
that you are breathing the purest air
on Earth, here in the Amazon,
你在亞馬遜這裡吸進的
是地球上最純的空氣,
11:02
because the plants take care
of this characteristic as well.
因為植物也照顧了這個特性。
11:05
This benefits the very way plants work,
這對植物本身的工作也非常有益,
11:09
which is another ingenious cycle.
而這又是另一個巧妙的循環。
11:11
Speaking of fractals,
要講碎形理論,
11:13
and their relation with the way we work,
及它們與身體運作方式的關聯,
11:17
we can establish other comparisons.
我們還能作出其它的比較。
11:19
As in the upper airways of our lungs,
就像我們肺部的上呼吸道,
11:22
the air in the Amazon
gets cleaned up from the excess of dust.
亞馬遜也要清除空氣中過量的粉塵。
11:26
The dust in the air that we breathe
is cleaned by our airways.
我們的氣道會清除吸進的空氣粉塵。
11:29
This keeps the excess of dust
from affecting the rainfall.
如此,過量的粉塵才不會影響降雨。
11:33
When there are fires in the Amazon,
亞馬遜有火災的時候,
11:37
the smoke stops the rain,
it stops raining,
煙霧會阻擋降雨,就不下雨了,
11:39
the forest dries up and catches fire.
森林會乾枯,著火。
11:42
There is another fractal analogy.
還有一個碎形類比。
11:44
Like in the veins and arteries,
就像靜脈與動脈,
11:47
the rain water is a feedback.
雨水也是一種反饋。
11:49
It returns to the atmosphere.
它回歸到大氣。
11:51
Like endocrinal glands and hormones,
就像內分泌腺與荷爾蒙,
11:53
there are those gases
which I told you about before,
有一些氣體,我剛剛提過的,
11:58
that are formed and released
into the atmosphere, like hormones,
會在大氣中形成、釋放,
就像荷爾蒙,
12:00
which help in the formation of rain.
它們會幫助形成雨。
12:04
Like the liver and the kidneys,
as I've said, cleaning the air.
又好比肝與腎,我之前說了,
會清淨空氣。
12:07
And, finally, like the heart:
而最後,就像心臟:
12:11
pumping water from outside, from the sea,
從外面泵水,從海洋,
12:13
into the forest.
進入森林。
12:18
We call it the biotic moisture pump,
我們稱它為生物性水氣泵,
12:20
a new theory that is explained
in a very simple way.
一種新的理論,
可以非常簡單的方法解釋。
12:23
If there is a desert in the continent
如果大陸上有一片沙漠,
12:27
with a nearby sea,
其附近有一片海洋
12:30
evaporation's greater on the sea,
海面上的蒸發作用會比較大,
12:32
and it sucks the air above the desert.
並且會從沙漠上方的空氣吸水。
12:34
The desert is trapped in this condition.
It will always be dry.
困在這種情況下的沙漠,
會永遠都很乾燥。
12:37
If you have
the opposite situation, a forest,
假如情況相反,
森林的蒸發作用更大,
12:40
the evaporation, as we showed,
is much greater, because of the trees,
如我們之前顯示,
因為這些樹木的關係,
12:43
and this relation is reversed.
那麼這種關係就會反過來。
12:47
The air above the sea
is sucked into the continent
海洋上方的空氣會被吸進大陸,
12:48
and humidity is imported.
濕氣從外面輸入。
12:51
This satellite image
was taken one month ago —
這張衛星照片是一個月前拍的。
12:54
that's Manaus down there,
we're down there —
下面那個是瑪瑙斯市,
我們就在下面那裡。
12:58
and it shows this process.
這張相片顯示了這個過程。
13:01
It's not a common little river
that flows into a canal.
這可不是一條流入渠道的普通小河,
13:02
It's a mighty river
that irrigates South America,
這是條大河,灌溉著整個南美洲,
13:05
among other things.
當然還有別的。
13:10
This image shows those paths,
這張照片顯示了所有
13:12
all the hurricanes
that have been recorded.
有紀錄的颶風路徑。
13:14
You can see that, in the red square,
there hardly are any hurricanes.
你可以看到在這個紅框內,
幾乎沒有颶風。
13:17
That is no accident.
這可不是巧合。
13:22
This pump that sucks
the moisture into the continent
這個泵吸水氣進大陸,
13:23
also speeds up the air above the sea,
同時加快了海洋上方的空氣流動,
13:27
and this prevents hurricane formations.
這會阻擋颶風的形成。
13:29
To close this part and sum up,
要結束並總結這部份,
13:33
I'd like to talk about
something a little different.
我想談一點不太一樣的東西。
13:37
I have several colleagues
我有幾個同事
13:40
who worked in the development
of these theories.
從事這些理論的發展研究。
13:42
They think, and so do I,
他們認為,我也這麼認為,
13:44
that we can save planet Earth.
就是我們能拯救地球。
13:48
I'm not talking only about the Amazon.
我不只是在講亞馬遜。
13:50
The Amazon teaches us a lesson
亞馬遜教了我們一堂課,
13:53
on how pristine nature works.
即原始大自然如何運作。
13:55
We didn't understand
these processes before
我們之前並不了解這些過程,
13:59
because the rest of the world
is messed up.
因為這世界的其餘地方在亂搞。
14:02
We could understand it here, though.
我們原本能在這裡搞懂的。
14:05
These colleagues propose
that, yes, we can
這些同事建議,是的,
14:06
save other areas,
我們可以拯救其他地區,
14:10
including deserts.
包括沙漠。
14:12
If we could establish forests
in those other areas,
假如我們可以在其他地區造林,
14:14
we can reverse climate change,
我們就能扭轉氣候變遷,
14:17
including global warming.
包括全球暖化。
14:19
I have a dear colleague in India,
我在印度有個很親的同事,
14:22
whose name is Suprabha Seshan,
and she has a motto.
她的名字是希杉,她有句格言。
14:24
Her motto is,
"Gardening back the biosphere,"
她的格言是:
「在生物圈內重新造園。」
14:27
"Reajardinando a biosfera" in Portuguese.
葡萄牙語是
"Reajardinando a biosfera"
14:31
She does a wonderful job
rebuilding ecosystems.
她在重建生態系統方面做得很出色。
14:34
We need to do this.
我們需要做這個。
14:37
Having closed this quick introduction,
要結束這段簡單的介紹,
14:39
we see the reality that we have out here,
我們看到了在那裡的現實,
14:44
which is drought, this climate change,
就是乾旱,這個氣候變遷,
14:47
things that we already knew.
我們早就知道的事。
14:50
I'd like to tell you a short story.
我想跟你們說一個簡短的故事。
14:52
Once, about four years ago,
有一次,大約四年前,
14:56
I attended a declamation,
of a text by Davi Kopenawa,
我參加了大維·柯本那哇
起草的宣言,
15:00
a wise representative
of the Yanomami people,
他是位有智慧的亞諾馬米族代表,
15:04
and it went more or less like this:
宣言的內容大致是這樣:
15:07
"Doesn't the white man know
「難道白人不知道
15:09
that, if he destroys the forest,
there will be no more rain?
如果他毀掉了森林,就不再有雨?
15:12
And that, if there's no more rain,
如果不再有雨,
15:15
there'll be nothing to drink, or to eat?"
那就不再有東西可喝、可吃?」
15:17
I heard that, and my eyes welled up
我聽了之後,我的眼睛充滿了淚水,
15:20
and I went, "Oh, my!
我說:「喔!天啊!
15:23
I've been studying this for 20 years,
with a super computer,
我花了 20 年的時間研究這個,
用超級電腦,
15:24
dozens, thousands of scientists,
成千上萬的科學家在做,
15:28
and we are starting to get to this
conclusion, which he already knows!"
然後我們才開始得到這樣的結論,
但他早就知道了!」
15:31
A critical point is the Yanomami
have never deforested.
重點是亞諾馬米族從不毀林啊。
15:34
How could they know the rain would end?
他們怎麼知道會不再有雨?
15:39
This bugged me and I was befuddled.
這很困擾我,我大惑不解。
15:42
How could he know that?
他怎麼知道的?
15:46
Some months later,
I met him at another event and said,
幾個月後,我在另一場
活動上碰到他,我說:
15:47
"Davi, how did you know that if the forest
was destroyed, there'd be no more rain?"
「大維,你怎麼知道森林
一旦毀了,就不再有雨?」
15:51
He replied:
"The spirit of the forest told us."
他回說:「森林的精靈告訴我們的。」
15:57
For me, this was a game changer,
對我而言,這改變了我的想法。
16:02
a radical change.
徹底的改變。
16:06
I said, "Gosh!
我說:「天啊!
16:08
Why am I doing all this science
為什麼我搞了半天的科學,
16:09
to get to a conclusion
that he already knows?"
只得到他早就知道的事?」
16:14
Then, something
absolutely critical hit me,
然後我突然想到一件很關鍵的事,
16:17
which is,
就是,
16:23
seeing is believing.
眼見為信。
16:27
Out of sight, out of mind.
眼不見為淨。
16:31
This is a need the previous speaker
pointed out:
上一位講者指出了這件必要之事:
16:35
We need to see things —
我們必要親眼見到...
16:39
I mean, we, Western society,
我是說,我們,西方社會,
16:42
which is becoming global, civilized —
愈來愈全球化、文明,
16:44
we need to see.
我們非得親眼看見。
16:47
If we don't see,
we don't register the information.
如果我們沒有親眼看見,
我們就不注意這些資訊。
16:48
We live in ignorance.
我們活在無知中。
16:51
So, I propose the following —
所以,我要提出下面—
16:52
of course, the astronomers
wouldn't like the idea —
當然,天文學家不會喜歡這個想法—
16:54
but let's turn the Hubble telescope
upside down.
但讓我們把哈伯望遠鏡倒過來。
16:57
And let's make it look down here,
倒過來往下看看這裡,
17:00
rather than to the far reaches
of the universe.
而不是往遠處看宇宙。
17:02
The universe is wonderful,
宇宙是很奇妙,
17:04
but we have a practical reality,
但我們有現實要面對,
17:06
which is we live in an unknown cosmos,
就是我們住在未知的小宇宙裡,
17:08
and we're ignorant about it.
我們卻置之不理。
17:12
We're trampling on this wonderful cosmos
我們蹂躪這片奇妙的小宇宙,
17:14
that shelters us and houses us.
遮蔽我們,讓我們安居的小宇宙。
17:17
Talk to any astrophysicist.
去問任何一位天文物理學。
17:19
The Earth is a statistical improbability.
地球是統計學上的不可能。
17:21
The stability and comfort that we enjoy,
despite the droughts of the Negro River,
我們所享受的安定與舒適,
僅管有尼格羅河的乾旱
17:24
and all the heat and cold
and typhoons, etc.,
還有那些熱和冷和颱風等等,
17:28
there is nothing like it in the universe,
that we know of.
地球是我們所知的宇宙裡
絕無僅有的一個。
17:31
Then, let's turn Hubble in our direction,
所以,讓我們把哈伯轉向我們,
17:34
and let's look at the Earth.
讓我們看看地球。
17:36
Let's start with the Amazon!
讓我們從亞馬遜開始。
17:41
Let's dive,
讓我們潛心鑽研,
17:43
let's reach out the reality
we live in every day,
讓我們面對每天生活的現實,
17:44
and look carefully at it,
since that's what we need.
仔細地看它,因為那才是我們所需的。
17:49
Davi Kopenawa doesn't need this.
大維·柯本那哇不需要這個。
17:52
He has something already
that I think I missed.
他早就有了我沒想過的東西。
17:54
I was educated by television.
我的知識來自電視。
17:57
I think that I missed this,
我想我從沒想過這個,
17:58
an ancestral record,
先人代代相傳的紀錄,
18:00
a valuation of what I don't know,
what I haven't seen.
是我不知道,從未見過的評估。
18:02
He is not a doubting Thomas.
他不是聖經中多疑的多馬。
18:06
He believes,
with veneration and reverence,
他以崇敬與敬畏的心,單純地相信
18:08
in what his ancestors
and the spirits taught him.
他的祖先及精靈教他的事。
18:12
We can't do it,
so let's look into the forest.
我們做不到這點,
所以讓我們深入地看森林。
18:15
Even with Hubble up there —
即使有哈伯在上面看,
18:18
this is a bird's-eye view, right?
這只是鳥瞰圖,對吧?
18:21
Even when this happens,
即使只是鳥瞰圖,
18:23
we also see something that we don't know.
我們仍能看見我們不知道的事。
18:25
The Spanish called it the green inferno.
西班牙人稱它為綠色地獄。
18:28
If you go out there
into the bushes and get lost,
如果你去那裡深入叢林迷路了,
18:31
and, let's say, if you head west,
然後,隨便說,假如你向西行,
18:34
it's 900 kilometers to Colombia,
你要走 900 公里才能到哥倫比亞,
18:36
and another 1,000 to somewhere else.
還要再走一千公里才能到別地方。
18:38
So, you can figure out
why they called it the green inferno.
所以你就知道為什麼
他們稱之為綠色地獄。
18:40
But go and look at what is in there.
但是去看看那裡面有什麼。
18:43
It is a live carpet.
那是一張活的地毯。
18:46
Each color you see is a tree species.
你看到的每一種顏色
都代表一種樹種。
18:48
Each tree, each tree top,
每一棵樹,每個樹梢,
18:50
has up to 10,000 species of insects in it,
都有高達一萬種的昆蟲在裡面,
18:52
let alone the millions of species
of fungi, bacteria, etc.
更不用說數不清的真菌類,
細菌等等。
18:56
All invisible.
都是看不見的。
19:00
All of it is an even stranger cosmos to us
這些對我們而言是更奇怪的宇宙,
19:02
than the galaxies billions
of light years away from the Earth,
比離地球無數萬年遠的銀河更怪,
19:05
which Hubble brings
to our newspapers everyday.
而哈伯每天都在報紙上帶來新消息。
19:08
I'm going to end my talk here —
我在此打住之前,
19:12
I have a few seconds left —
因為我只剩幾秒鐘,
19:14
by showing you this wonderful being.
給你們看看這個奇妙的生物。
19:16
When we see the morpho butterfly
in the forest,
當我們在森林裡看到閃蝶,
19:18
we feel like someone's left open
the door to heaven,
我們就覺得好像有人
把天堂的門打開了,
19:21
and this creature escaped from there,
because it's so beautiful.
這個生物從天堂逃出來,
因為它太漂亮了。
19:24
However, I cannot finish
但我實在無法就這樣結束演講
19:27
without showing you a tech side.
卻不讓你們看看它的科技面。
19:30
We are tech-arrogant.
我們以科技掛帥。
19:32
We deprive nature of its technology.
我們用科技剝奪了自然。
19:35
A robotic hand is technological,
機械手是科技,
19:39
mine is biological,
我的手則是生物,
19:40
and we don't think about it anymore.
所以就不值得再去研究了。
19:42
Let's then look at the morpho butterfly,
讓我們再來看看閃蝶,
19:43
an example of an invisible
technological competence of life,
極微小的生物
卻充滿科技潛能的例子,
19:46
which is at the very heart of our
possibility of surviving on this planet,
是讓我們能在這星球上
繼續生存的最佳機會,
19:51
and let's zoom in on it.
Again, Hubble is there.
讓我們拉近焦距放大來看。
再來看,哈伯在這裡,
19:56
Let's get into the butterfly's wings.
讓我們看看蝴蝶的翅膀。
19:58
Scholars have tried to explain:
Why is it blue?
學者試著解釋:為什麼是藍色的?
20:00
Let's zoom in on it.
放大來看。
20:04
What you see is that the architecture
of the invisible humiliates
你看見的是
肉眼看不見的結構,
20:05
the best architects in the world.
會使世上最棒的建築師蒙羞。
20:11
All of this on a tiny scale.
這一切都在極小的比例內。
20:14
Besides its beauty and functioning,
there is another side to it.
除了美麗與功用,還有另一面。
20:16
In nature,
在自然界,
20:19
all that is organized in extraordinary
structures has a function.
所有組織在非凡結構內的東西
都有功能。
20:22
This function of the morpho butterfly —
it is not blue;
閃蝶的功能...牠不是藍色
20:26
it does not have blue pigments.
牠沒有藍色素。
20:31
It has photonic crystals on its surface,
according to people who studied it,
據研究者說,牠的表面有光子晶體,
20:32
which are extremely
sophisticated crystals.
牠們是非常複雜的晶體。
20:36
Our technology had
nothing like that at the time.
我們目前的科技仍望塵莫及。
20:38
Hitachi has now made a monitor
日立現在以這項科技
20:42
that uses this technology,
發展了一種顯像器,
20:45
and it is used in optical fibers
to transmit —
並用在光纖上以傳輸—
20:46
Janine Benyus, who's been here several
times, talks about it: biomimetics.
珍妮‧班娜斯來談過很多次:
就是仿生學。
20:48
My time's up.
我的時間到了。
20:53
Then, I'll wrap it up with
what is at the base of this capacity,
那麼,我來總結,
20:54
of this competence of biodiversity,
生物多樣化機能、
能力的基礎是什麼,
21:00
producing all these wonderful services:
得以產生這些奇妙的貢獻?
21:02
the living cell.
生物細胞。
21:05
It is a structure with a few microns,
which is an internal wonder.
這個結構只有幾微米大,
真的是體內的奇蹟。
21:06
There are TED Talks about it.
I won't talk much longer,
已經有幾個 TED 談過它了,
我就不再多說,
21:10
but each person in this room,
including myself,
但在座的每一位,包括我,
21:13
has 100 trillion of these
micromachines in their body,
都有一百兆個微小的機器在體內,
21:16
so that we can enjoy well-being.
所以我們才能享受安康人生。
21:20
Imagine what is out there
in the Amazon forest:
想像一下在亞馬遜森林有什麼:
21:23
100 trillion. This is greater
than the number of stars in the sky.
一百兆。這比天上的星星還多。
21:25
And we are not aware of it.
而我們居然都不知道。
21:29
Thank you so much. (Applause)
謝謝。(掌聲)
21:31
Translated by Regina Chu
Reviewed by Adrienne Lin

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About the speaker:

Antonio Donato Nobre - Scientist
Antonio Donato Nobre researches the “ingenious systems” of the Amazon. His work illustrates the beautiful complexity of this region, as well as its fragility against a backdrop of climate change.

Why you should listen

Antonio Donato Nobre sees nature as a well-orchestrated symphony. A visiting scientist at Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and a senior researcher at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), he studies the soil, hydrology and biochemistry of the Amazon, to learn more about the complex, interlocking systems of this geographical marvel. He seeks to understand the interactions between the forest and the atmosphere, and how "the sweat of the forest" runs in a stream overhead that carries moisture to other parts of South America and the world, playing a large role in climate stability. His study “El Futuro Climático de la Amazonía” synthesizes research on how human beings are affecting the delicate balance of this region, and the huge risk we run if we lose it.

 

 

More profile about the speaker
Antonio Donato Nobre | Speaker | TED.com