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TED2011

Suzanne Lee: Grow your own clothes

スザンヌ・リー: 自分の服を育てよう

March 2, 2011

デザイナーのスザンヌ・リーが服飾用の生地やベジタブルレザーのように使用できる昆布茶ベースの素材をつくる実験を紹介します。そのプロセスはとても面白いもので、仕上がりも素敵です。まだ欠点が一つありますが、この素材がもつ可能性は素晴らしいものです。

Suzanne Lee - Designer
TED Fellow Suzanne Lee is a fashion designer turned biological conjurer, who gleefully plays with new materials and processes. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So as a fashion designer,
服飾デザイナーの私が
00:15
I've always tended to think of materials
素材として今まで見ていたのは
00:17
something like this,
こんなものや
00:19
or this,
こんなもの
00:21
or maybe this.
こんなものも ありました
00:24
But then I met a biologist,
それが ある生物学者と出会ってから
00:27
and now I think of materials like this --
こんな素材を扱うようになりました
00:30
green tea, sugar,
緑茶と砂糖
00:33
a few microbes and a little time.
ほんの少しの微生物と 時間も少々
00:35
I'm essentially using a kombucha recipe,
昆布茶のレシピを使っています
00:38
which is a symbiotic mix
バクテリアと酵母菌と
00:40
of bacteria, yeasts and other micro-organisms,
微生物の共生混合物で
00:42
which spin cellulose
その発酵過程で
00:45
in a fermentation process.
セルロースが糸状になります
00:47
Over time, these tiny threads
時間の経過と共に
00:50
form in the liquid into layers
液体の中で極細の糸が
00:52
and produce a mat on the surface.
層になり 表面でじゅうたんのようになります
00:54
So we start by brewing the tea.
作り方ですが まず
00:59
I brew up to about 30 liters of tea at a time,
一度に30リットルほどお茶をいれて
01:01
and then while it's still hot, add a couple of kilos of sugar.
熱いうちに砂糖を数キロ加えます
01:04
We stir this in until it's completely dissolved
完全に溶けるまで かき混ぜて
01:07
and then pour it into a growth bath.
専用タンクに流し込みます
01:10
We need to check that the temperature
摂氏30度以下まで
01:12
has cooled to below 30 degrees C.
お茶が冷めたことを確かめます
01:14
And then we're ready to add the living organism.
次に有機生物と
01:17
And along with that, some acetic acid.
酢酸を一緒に入れます
01:19
And once you get this process going,
このプロセスが進めば
01:21
you can actually recycle
前回使用した発酵液を
01:23
your previous fermented liquid.
再利用できます
01:25
We need to maintain an optimum temperature for the growth.
培養には最適温度を保つ必要があるので
01:28
And I use a heat mat to sit the bath on
容器の下にはヒートマットを使用して
01:31
and a thermostat to regulate it.
温度調節に恒温装置も使います
01:34
And actually, in hot weather, I can just grow it outside.
暑い日には外で培養できます
01:36
So this is my mini fabric farm.
素材ミニ農場です
01:39
After about three days,
3日もすれば
01:41
the bubbles will appear on the surface of the liquid.
液体の表面に泡が出てきます
01:43
So this is telling us that the fermentation is in full swing.
発酵がスムーズにいっているサインです
01:46
And the bacteria are feeding
液中の砂糖を栄養として
01:49
on the sugar nutrients in the liquid.
バクテリアが増殖中です
01:51
So they're spinning these tiny nano fibers
セルロースナノファイバーが
01:53
of pure cellulose.
紡がれているところです
01:55
And they're sticking together, forming layers
互いにくっついて 層をつくり
01:57
and giving us a sheet on the surface.
表面でシート状になります
01:59
After about two to three weeks,
数週間ほど経つと
02:01
we're looking at something which is about an inch in thickness.
数センチの厚さになります
02:03
So the bath on the left is after five days,
左のタンクは5日目のものです
02:06
and on the right, after 10.
右は10日目です
02:09
And this is a static culture.
これは静置培養のため
02:11
You don't have to do anything to it;
世話をする必要がありません
02:13
you just literally watch it grow.
勝手に育ちます
02:15
It doesn't need light.
光も要りません
02:17
And when it's ready to harvest, you take it out of the bath
採取できるようになったら 容器から出して
02:19
and you wash it in cold, soapy water.
冷たい石鹸水で洗います
02:22
At this point, it's really heavy.
かなり重くなっています
02:24
It's over 90 percent water,
9割が水分なので
02:26
so we need to let that evaporate.
蒸発させなくてはいけません
02:28
So I spread it out onto a wooden sheet.
木のシートに広げます
02:30
Again, you can do that outside
これも外で作業できるので
02:32
and just let it dry in the air.
自然乾燥させます
02:34
And as it's drying, it's compressing,
乾燥しながら圧縮されるので
02:36
so what you're left with, depending on the recipe,
レシピにもよりますが
02:38
is something that's either
とても軽い透明の紙のようなもの
02:40
like a really light-weight, transparent paper,
または しなやかな
02:42
or something which is much more like a flexible vegetable leather.
ベジタブルレザーのようなものが出来あがります
02:44
And then you can either cut that out
従来の方法で
02:48
and sew it conventionally,
裁断をして縫製もできますし
02:50
or you can use the wet material
濡れた状態の素材を
02:52
to form it around a three-dimensional shape.
立体型にくっつけて 形づくることもできます
02:54
And as it evaporates,
水分が蒸発したら
02:57
it will knit itself together, forming seams.
自然とくっつき 縫い目のようになります
02:59
So the color in this jacket is coming purely from green tea.
このジャケットの色は 緑茶そのものの色です
03:01
I guess it also looks a little bit like human skin,
人間の皮にも似ていて
03:04
which intrigues me.
興味をそそられます
03:06
Since it's organic,
オーガニックなので
03:09
I'm really keen to try and minimize the addition of any chemicals.
化学薬品の使用は最小限にしようとしています
03:11
I can make it change color without using dye
鉄酸化作用を利用して 染料を使わずに
03:14
by a process of iron oxidation.
色を変えられます
03:17
Using fruit and vegetable staining,
果物や野菜の染料を使えば
03:19
create organic patterning.
自然な模様のできあがり
03:21
And using indigo,
藍の染料を使えば
03:23
make it anti-microbial.
微生物っぽさがなくなります
03:25
And in fact, cotton
綿をこの濃さにするには
03:27
would take up to 18 dips in indigo
藍の染料に18回も
03:29
to achieve a color this dark.
つけなくてはいけません
03:32
And because of the super-absorbency of this kind of cellulose,
でも この種のセルロースは吸収がいいので
03:34
it just takes one, and a really short one at that.
1回だけで染まってしまいます
03:37
What I can't yet do is make it water-resistant.
まだ防水加工はできないため
03:40
So if I was to walk outside in the rain
このワンピースを着て 今日のような雨に
03:43
wearing this dress today,
当たってしまうと
03:46
I would immediately start to absorb
あっという間に かなりの水分を
03:48
huge amounts of water.
吸収してしまいます
03:50
The dress would get really heavy,
ワンピースは重くなり
03:53
and eventually the seams would probably fall apart --
縫い目からはがれてきて
03:55
leaving me feeling rather naked.
肌もあらわになってしまうでしょう
03:57
Possibly a good performance piece,
パフォーマンスには適していても
03:59
but definitely not ideal for everyday wear.
間違いなく普段着にはなりません
04:01
What I'm looking for
素材が満足のいく
04:05
is a way to give the material
質になるように
04:07
the qualities that I need.
思考錯誤中です
04:09
So what I want to do is say to a future bug,
未来の微生物には こう言いたいです
04:11
"Spin me a thread.
“糸を紡いで
04:14
Align it in this direction.
一定方向に繊維をつくり
04:16
Make it hydrophobic.
水に溶けない素材にして
04:18
And while you're at it,
立体型に合わせて
04:20
just form it around this 3D shape."
形づくってちょうだい”
04:22
Bacterial cellulose is actually already being used for wound healing,
微生物セルロースは既に傷の治療に使用されていて
04:25
and possibly in the future
将来は 生体適合性血管や
04:29
for biocompatible blood vessels,
骨細胞の代替材料としてさえ
04:31
possibly even replacement bone tissue.
使われることが考えられます
04:34
But with synthetic biology,
でも 合成生物学の力で
04:36
we can actually imagine engineering this bacterium
このバクテリアを操作すれば
04:38
to produce something
私たちが望むような
04:42
that gives us the quality,
質と量と形を生みだす
04:44
quantity and shape
何かができることも
04:46
of material that we desire.
考えられます
04:48
Obviously, as a designer, that's really exciting
デザイナーの私は興味をかきたてられます
04:50
because then I start to think, wow,
それが可能になれば
04:53
we could actually imagine
消耗品をつくりだすことも
04:55
growing consumable products.
考えられるようになるからです
04:57
What excites me about using microbes
微生物を扱う面白さとは
05:01
is their efficiency.
その効率性にあります
05:04
So we only grow what we need.
必要なだけ生成できるので
05:06
There's no waste.
無駄がありません
05:08
And in fact, we could make it from a waste stream --
廃棄物を使用することも考えられます
05:10
so for example,
例えばですが
05:13
a waste sugar stream
食品加工工場で出る
05:15
from a food processing plant.
砂糖の廃棄物などです
05:17
Finally, at the end of use, we could biodegrade it naturally
最終段階では 野菜くずと一緒に
05:19
along with your vegetable peelings.
自然に生物分解させられます
05:22
What I'm not suggesting is that microbial cellulose
私は微生物セルロースが
05:25
is going to be a replacement
綿や皮やその他の繊維品の
05:28
for cotton, leather or other textile materials.
代替品になると言っているのではありません
05:30
But I do think it could be quite a smart and sustainable addition
でも 自然資源がますます貴重となっている今
05:33
to our increasingly precious natural resources.
賢明で持続可能な選択肢になり得ると思います
05:37
Ultimately, maybe it won't even be fashion
もしかすると最終的には
05:40
where we see these microbes have their impact.
ファッションなどではなく
05:42
We could, for example, imagine
ランプや 椅子や 車
05:44
growing a lamp, a chair,
もしくは家でさえ
05:46
a car or maybe even a house.
つくりだすことを思い描けます
05:49
So I guess what my question to you is:
皆さんだったら 将来どんなものを
05:52
in the future, what would you choose to grow?
育てるでしょう?
05:55
Thank you very much.
どうもありがとう
05:57
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:59
Bruno Giussani: Suzanne, just a curiosity,
スザンヌさん
06:08
what you're wearing is not random. (Suzanne Lee: No.)
その服も あえて着ているのですね
06:10
This is one of the jackets you grew?
作品の一つですか?
06:13
SL: Yes, it is.
そうです
06:15
It's probably -- part of the project's still in process
このプロジェクトは
06:17
because this one
まだ進行中です
06:19
is actually biodegrading in front of your eyes.
実際に今も生物分解してますから
06:21
(Laughter)
(会場: 笑い声)
06:23
It's absorbing my sweat, and it's feeding on it.
汗を吸収してるので 微生物が増殖中です
06:25
BG: Okay, so we'll let you go and save it, and rescue it.
では これまでにしましょう
06:28
Suzanne Lee. (SL: Thank you.)
ありがとう
06:30
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:33
Translator:Takako Sato
Reviewer:Takahiro Shimpo

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Suzanne Lee - Designer
TED Fellow Suzanne Lee is a fashion designer turned biological conjurer, who gleefully plays with new materials and processes.

Why you should listen

Fashion designer Suzanne Lee directs the BioCouture research project, which sprang from an idea in her book Fashioning the Future: Tomorrow’s Wardrobe, a seminal text on fashion and future technologies. Her research harnesses nature to propose a radical future fashion vision: Can we grow a dress from a vat of liquid?

Using bacterial-cellulose, Lee aims to address pressing ecological and sustainability issues around fashion and beyond. A Senior Research Fellow at Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts London, she is working with scientists to investigate whether synthetic biology can engineer optimized organisms for growing future consumer products

The original video is available on TED.com
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