05:21
TED2012

Sarah Parcak: Archeology from space

サラ・パーカック:宇宙から見た考古学

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この短いスピーチの中で、TEDフェローのサラ・パーカックは「宇宙的考古学」、過去の文明で失われた都市の糸口を探すために、衛星画像を用いた例を紹介します。

- Satellite archaeologist + TED Prize winner
Like a modern-day Indiana Jones, Sarah Parcak uses satellite images to locate lost ancient sites. The winner of the 2016 TED Prize, her wish will help protect the world’s cultural heritage. Full bio

When I was a child growing up in Maine,
昔 アメリカのメイン州に
住んでいた頃
00:16
one of my favorite things to do
スカシカシパンという
00:18
was to look for sand dollars on the seashores of Maine,
ウニの一種を 海岸で
見つけるのが大好きでした
00:20
because my parents told me it would bring me luck.
幸運をもたらすと
両親が言っていたからです
00:24
But you know, these shells, they're hard to find.
でもなかなか
見つかりません
00:26
They're covered in sand. They're difficult to see.
砂に覆われていて
見えません
00:29
However, overtime, I got used to looking for them.
それでも段々と探すのに
慣れてきました
00:32
I started seeing shapes
形やパターンを見て
00:36
and patterns that helped me to collect them.
集められるように
なったのです
00:37
This grew into a passion for finding things,
このことは 過去の何かを
探すという
00:41
a love for the past and archaeology.
考古学への興味へ
繋がりました
00:44
And eventually when I started studying Egyptology,
やがて 私はエジプト学を
学び始めましたが
00:47
I realized that seeing with my naked eyes alone wasn't enough.
肉眼だけでは
不十分だと気が付きました
00:50
Because all of the sudden in Egypt
なぜなら その対象は
00:55
my beach had grown from a tiny beach in Maine
メイン州の小さな海岸から
00:57
to one eight hundred miles long
エジプトのナイル川の横
01:01
next to the Nile,
長さ1300キロの領域になり
01:03
and my sand dollars had grown
そして私の
スカシカシパンは
01:05
to the size of cities.
街の大きさに
なったからです
01:07
This is really what brought me to using satellite imagery.
そして衛星画像の
使用に至ります
01:09
For trying to map the past, I knew that I had to see differently.
過去の姿を描き出すために
異なる目が必要でした
01:13
So I want to show you an example of how we see differently
そこで赤外線を用いて
どう違いが見えるのか
01:17
using the infrared.
サンプルをお見せしましょう
01:20
This is a site located in the eastern Egyptian delta
ここは東エジプトの
三角州に位置する
01:22
called Bendix.
ベンディクスです
01:26
And the site visibly appears brown,
その場所は茶色で
見えていますが
01:27
but when we use the infrared
赤外線画像を用いて
処理を行うと
01:29
and we process it, all of the sudden, using false color,
突然その場所は
フォールスカラーの
01:31
the site appears as bright pink.
明るいピンクで表示されます
01:36
What you are seeing
そしてそこには
01:38
are the actual chemical changes to the landscape
古代エジプト人による活動や
01:40
caused by the building materials and activities
建築材料に起因する
化学変化を
01:43
of the ancient Egyptians.
見ることができます
01:46
What I want to share with you today
今日皆さんに
お伝えしたいことは
01:48
is how we've used satellite data
どのように衛星画像を用いて
01:51
to find an ancient Egyptian city,
数千年以上失われていた
01:54
called Itjtawy,
イチタウイと呼ばれる
01:56
missing for thousands of years.
古代都市を見つけたのか
ということです
01:58
Itjtawy was ancient Egypt's capital
イチタウイは約4000年前
02:00
for over four hundred years,
中王国時代に
02:03
at a period of time called the Middle Kingdom
400年以上に渡って存在した
02:05
about four thousand years ago.
古代エジプトの首都です
02:07
The site is located in the Faiyum of Egypt
ここはエジプトの
ファイユームに位置する
02:09
and site is really important because in the Middle Kingdom
とても重要な場所です
なぜなら中王国時代には
02:12
there was this great renaissance for ancient Egyptian art,
古代エジプトにおける
美術や建築 宗教の
02:14
architecture and religion.
ルネサンスとも言える
時期があったからです
02:17
Egyptologists have always known the site of Itjtawy
エジプト学者はイチタウイが
02:20
was located somewhere near the pyramids
この赤い丸で示された
02:23
of the two kings who built it, indicated within the red circles here,
二人の王のピラミッドの近くに
あることは知っていました
02:26
but somewhere within this massive flood plane.
この大規模な
氾濫原の中にです
02:30
This area is huge --
このエリアはとても広く
02:32
it's four miles by three miles in size.
6.5 × 5キロの大きさです
02:34
The Nile used to flow right next to the city of Itjtawy,
ナイル川はイチタウイの
すぐ横を流れていました
02:36
and as it shifted and changed and moved over time to the east,
そして東側に
川が移動したことにより
02:39
it covered over the city.
街を覆い尽くしたのです
02:43
So, how do you find a buried city
ではどうやって
この広大な土地から
02:45
in a vast landscape?
埋もれた街を探し出すのか?
02:48
Finding it randomly would be the equivalent
ランダムに探すのでは
02:51
of locating a needle in a haystack,
野球のミットで目を覆って
02:53
blindfolded wearing baseball mitts.
干し草の中で
針を探すようなものです
02:55
So what we did is we used NASA topography data
私たちが行なったことは
NASAの地形データを用いて
02:58
to map out the landscape, very subtle changes.
土地の微妙な変化を
精密にまとめました
03:02
We started to be able to see where the Nile used to flow.
そして過去にナイル川が
あった場所を見つけました
03:04
But you can see in more detail -- and even more interesting --
しかし もっと詳細で
興味深いことがあります
03:08
this very slight raised area
わずかに隆起している
03:11
seen within the circle up here, which we thought could possibly be
この丸の部分がおそらく
03:14
the location of the city of Itjtawy.
イチタウイではないかと
考えられる場所です
03:16
So we collaborated with the Egyptian scientists
そこで私たちは
エジプトの科学者と協力して
03:18
to do coring work, which you see here.
このような
コア掘りを行いました
03:21
When I say coring, it's like ice coring, but instead of
コア掘りというのは
氷床コアの掘削と似ていますが
03:24
layers of climate change you're looking for layers of human occupation.
気候ではなく人の活動による
層の変化を探すことです
03:26
And five meters down,
そして5メートルの
03:30
underneath a thick layer of mud,
厚い泥の層の下に
03:32
we found a dense layer of pottery.
密集した陶器類の
層を見つけました
03:34
What this shows is that at this possible location
このことが意味するのは
03:37
of Itjtawy, five meters down,
この5メートル下の場所には
03:40
we have of layer of occupation for several hundred years
中王国時代の数百年の間の
03:42
dating to the Middle Kingdom, dating to the exact period of time
ある特定の期間の地層があり
03:45
we think Itjtawy is.
それがイチタウイであったと
考えられます
03:47
We also found work stone --
またカーネリアンや水晶
03:49
carnelian, quartz and agate that shows
メノウなどの石細工も
見つかっており
03:52
that there was a jewelers workshop here.
ここに宝石加工所が
あったということです
03:55
These might not look like much,
大した物に
03:57
but when you think about the most common stones
見えないかもしれませんが
中王国時代に一般的だった
03:58
used in jewelry from the Middle Kingdom,
宝石を考えると
04:01
these are the stones that were used.
まさにこれらが
その石なのです
04:03
So, we have a dense layer of occupation
さて ここに中王国時代の
04:06
dating to the Middle Kingdom at this site.
密集した地層が
あったわけですが
04:08
We also have evidence of an elite jewelers workshop,
宝石加工所の形跡が
意味することは
04:10
showing that whatever was there was a very important city.
何かとても重要な街が
あったということです
04:13
No Itjtawy was here yet,
イチタウイなのかは
まだわかりませんが
04:17
but we're going to be returning to the site
私たちはこの場所に戻り
04:18
in the near future to map it out.
近い将来にそれを解明します
04:20
And even more importantly,
さらに重要なことは
04:23
we have funding to train young Egyptians
衛星技術を使用するために
04:25
in the use of satellite technology
若いエジプト人スタッフの
訓練をしています
04:27
so they can be the ones making great discoveries as well.
彼らも素晴らしい発見者の
一人になれるのです
04:29
So I wanted to end with my favorite quote
それでは私の好きな
中王国時代の言葉を引用して
04:33
from the Middle Kingdom --
この場を締めくくりたいと
思います
04:36
it was probably written at the city of Itjtawy four thousand years ago.
おそらくイチタウイで
4000年前に書かれたものです
04:38
"Sharing knowledge is the greatest of all callings.
「知識の共有は 人の欲求の中で
最も偉大なものであり
04:42
There's nothing like it in the land."
地上でそれに勝るものはない」
04:45
So as it turns out, TED was not founded in 1984 AD.
つまりTEDの始まりは
紀元1984年ではなく—
04:47
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:53
Making ideas actually started in 1984 BC
実際このアイデアは
紀元前1984年の
04:55
at a not-lost-for-long city, found from above.
イチタウイで始まったのです
05:01
It certainly puts finding seashells by the seashore in perspective.
そしてこれは まさに壮大な
海辺での貝殻探しです
05:04
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
05:08
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:10
Thank you.
ありがとう
05:12
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:13
Translated by Yumi Koike
Reviewed by Takahito Sugeno

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About the Speaker:

Sarah Parcak - Satellite archaeologist + TED Prize winner
Like a modern-day Indiana Jones, Sarah Parcak uses satellite images to locate lost ancient sites. The winner of the 2016 TED Prize, her wish will help protect the world’s cultural heritage.

Why you should listen

There may be hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of undiscovered ancient sites across the globe. Sarah Parcak wants to locate them. As a space archaeologist, she analyzes infrared imagery collected from far above the Earth’s surface and identifies subtle changes that signal a manmade presence hidden from view. A TED Senior Fellow and a National Geographic Explorer, she founded the Laboratory for Global Observation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Her goal: to make the world's invisible history visible once again.

Parcak was inspired by her grandfather, an early pioneer of aerial photography. While studying Egyptology in college, she took a class on remote sensing and went on to develop a technique for processing satellite data to see sites of archaeological significance. She wrote the first textbook on satellite archaeology, which allows for the discovery of new sites in a rapid and cost-effective way. In Egypt, her techniques have helped locate 17 potential pyramids, in addition to 3,100 forgotten settlements and 1,000 lost tombs. She's also made major discoveries in the Viking world and Roman Empire, and appeared in the BBC documentary Rome’s Lost Empire and the PBS Nova special, Vikings Unearthed.

Parcak's method also provides a way to see how ancient sites are being affected by looting and urban encroachment. By satellite-mapping Egypt and comparing sites over time, she’s noted a 1,000 percent increase in looting since 2009 at major sites. It’s likely that millions of dollars worth of artifacts are stolen each year. Parcak hopes that, through mapping, unknown sites can be protected to preserve our rich, vibrant history.

As the winner of the 2016 TED Prize, Sarah is building a citizen science platform, called GlobalXplorer, which will enable anyone with an internet connection to discover the next unknown tomb or potential looting pit. GlobalXplorer will launch in early 2017. Sign up for email updates and get early access »

 

 

More profile about the speaker
Sarah Parcak | Speaker | TED.com