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TED2015

Greg Gage: How to control someone else's arm with your brain

グレッグ・ゲイジ: 自分の脳で他人の腕を操る方法

March 18, 2015

グレッグ・ゲイジは、脳科学を皆の手の届くものにすべく活動しています。この楽しく、ちょっと不思議なデモで、神経科学者でTEDシニア・フェローであるゲイジは、シンプルで安価な手作りキットを使って、参加者の自由意思を取り上げてしまいます。マジックではなく、実際にそう機能するのです。百聞は一見にしかず、ぜひお楽しみください。

Greg Gage - Neuroscientist
Greg Gage helps kids investigate the neuroscience in their own backyards. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
The brain is an amazing and complex organ.
脳は 複雑で素晴らしい器官です
00:14
And while many people
are fascinated by the brain,
しかし 多くの人は
脳に魅了されつつも
00:17
they can't really tell you that much
その特性や機能について
00:19
about the properties
about how the brain works
あまり理解していないのが現状です
00:21
because we don't teach
neuroscience in schools.
学校で 神経科学は教えないからです
00:23
And one of the reasons
why is that the equipment
理由の一つとして
研究に必要な設備が
00:26
is so complex and so expensive
非常に複雑で高価で
00:28
that it's really only done at major
universities and large institutions.
主要な大学や大きな機関でしか
使えないというのがあります
00:31
And so in order to be able
to access the brain,
脳を知ろうと思ったら
00:35
you really need to dedicate your life
本当に人生を捧げる覚悟で
00:37
and spend six and a half years
as a graduate student
大学院に6年半通い
00:39
just to become a neuroscientist
to get access to these tools.
神経科学者になって
これらの設備を使うしかないのです
00:42
And that's a shame
because one out of five of us,
とても残念なことです
私たちの5人に1人―
00:45
that's 20 percent of the entire world,
will have a neurological disorder.
世界の20%がなんらかの神経疾患を
抱えているのですから
00:47
And there are zero cures
for these diseases.
こうした病気には
完ぺきな治療法はありません
00:51
And so it seems that
what we should be doing
ですから 今 私たちがすべきは
00:54
is reaching back earlier
in the eduction process
教育課程の早い段階で
00:56
and teaching students about neuroscience
so that in the future,
生徒に神経科学を教え
将来の選択肢として
00:59
they may be thinking about possibly
becoming a brain scientist.
脳科学者になることを
考えてもらえるようにすることです
01:03
When I was a graduate student,
my lab mate Tim Marzullo and myself,
大学院のとき 私は
研究仲間のティム・マズーロと
01:07
decided that what if we took
this complex equipment that we have
考えたことがあります
脳の研究に使う複雑な設備を
01:11
for studying the brain and made it simple
enough and affordable enough
もっとシンプルで
手頃な価格なものにして
01:15
that anyone that you know, an amateur
or a high school student,
アマチュアや高校生など
誰もが 学び
01:18
could learn and actually participate
in the discovery of neuroscience.
神経科学の発見に
携われるようにするのです
01:22
And so we did just that.
そして実際に
それを成し遂げました
01:25
A few years ago, we started
a company called Backyard Brains
数年前 バックヤード・ブレインズ社を
立ち上げ
01:27
and we make DIY neuroscience equipment
and I brought some here tonight,
手作り神経科学器具を作っています
今晩 ここにもお持ちしました
01:30
and I want to do some demonstrations.
デモをさせていただきます
01:34
You guys want to see some?
皆さん 見たいですか?
01:37
So I need a volunteer.
どなたか手伝ってください
01:38
So right before -- what is your name?
(Applause)
前までどうぞ お名前は?
(拍手)
01:41
Sam Kelly: Sam.
サムです
01:43
Greg Gage: All right, Sam, I'm going
to record from your brain.
それでは サム
これから あなたの脳の活動を記録します
01:44
Have you had this before?
以前にされたことは?
01:47
SK: No.
ありません
01:49
GG: I need you to stick out
your arm for science,
科学のため
腕を差し出して
01:50
roll up your sleeve a bit,
袖も少しまくってください
01:53
So what I'm going to do,
I'm putting electrodes on your arm,
これから
腕に電極を付けます
01:54
and you're probably wondering,
不思議にお思いでしょうか
01:57
I just said I'm going to record from your
brain, what am I doing with your arm?
脳の活動を記録するのに
なぜ腕なのかと
01:59
Well, you have about 80 billion neurons
inside your brain right now.
脳のなかには
約8百億のニューロンがあり
02:02
They're sending electrical messages
back and forth, and chemical messages.
電気信号 そして化学信号を
あちこちに送ります
02:05
But some of your neurons
right here in your motor cortex
ここの運動皮質にある
ニューロンの一部は
02:09
are going to send messages down
when you move your arm like this.
こんな風に腕を動かすときに
信号を送ります
02:12
They're going to go down
across your corpus callosum,
信号は 脳梁を通って
02:15
down onto your spinal cord
to your lower motor neuron
脊髄から
下位運動ニューロンへ
02:17
out to your muscles here,
そして この筋肉まで来ます
02:20
and that electrical discharge
is going to be picked up
その放出された電気を
こちらの電極で
02:21
by these electrodes right here
キャッチするわけです
02:24
and we're going to be able to listen
そして 脳が活動する音も
02:25
to exactly what your brain
is going to be doing.
聞くことができます
02:27
So I'm going to turn this on for a second.
ちょっとの間
これをオンにしますね
02:29
Have you ever heard
what your brain sounds like?
脳の音がどんなか
聞いたことありますか?
02:31
SK: No.
ありません
02:33
GG: Let's try it out.
So go ahead and squeeze your hand.
それでは やってみましょう
さあ手を握って
02:34
(Rumbling)
(ガラガラ鳴る音)
02:37
So what you're listening to,
今 耳にしているものが
02:38
so this is your motor units
happening right here.
ちょうどここで動いている
運動単位です
02:40
Let's take a look at it as well.
今度は見てみましょう
02:43
So I'm going to stand over here,
こちらで―
02:46
and I'm going to open up our app here.
アプリを起動します
02:48
So now I want you to squeeze.
では 握ってください
02:51
(Rumbling)
(ガラガラ鳴る音)
02:53
So right here, these are the motor units
that are happening
ここが 運動単位で
脊髄から
02:54
from her spinal cord
out to her muscle right here,
ここの筋肉まで
来ているものです
02:57
and as she's doing it,
彼女が動かす間
02:59
you're seeing the electrical activity
that's happening here.
ここで その電気活動の様子を
見ることができます
03:01
You can even click here
and try to see one of them.
ここをクリックして
1つだけ見ることもできます
03:04
So keep doing it really hard.
強く握り続けてください
03:06
So now we've paused
こちらが
03:07
on one motor action potential that's
happening right now inside of your brain.
脳の中で活動している
運動単位活動電位の一つです
03:08
Do you guys want to see some more?
もっと見たいですか?
03:13
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:15
That's interesting,
but let's get it better.
こちらも面白いですが
さらに良いものです
03:16
I need one more volunteer.
もうお一方
お手伝いをお願いします
03:18
What is your name, sir?
お名前は?
03:21
Miguel Goncalves: Miguel.
ミゲルです
03:23
GG: Miguel, all right.
ミゲルですね
03:25
You're going to stand right here.
こちらにお立ちください
03:26
So when you're moving your arm like this,
こんな風に腕を動かすとき
03:27
your brain is sending a signal
down to your muscles right here.
脳は こちらの筋肉まで
信号を送っています
03:29
I want you to move your arm as well.
腕を動かしてください
03:32
So your brain is going to send
a signal down to your muscles.
あなたの脳は 筋肉に
信号を送っています
03:34
And so it turns out that there is
a nerve that's right here
ちょうどここにある神経は
03:37
that runs up here that innervates
these three fingers,
こちらにつながり
この3本の指を刺激します
03:41
and it's close enough to the skin
that we might be able
この神経は
皮膚に近い場所にあるので
03:44
to stimulate that so that what we can do
そこに刺激を与えて
こんなことができるのです
03:46
is copy your brain signals
going out to your hand
あなたの脳が手に送っている信号を
03:49
and inject it into your hand,
ミゲルの手に伝えると
03:52
so that your hand will move
when your brain tells your hand to move.
ミゲルの手は サムの脳が手に指示したのと
同じ動きをするのです
03:54
So in a sense, she will take away
your free will
ある意味 彼女が
あなたの自由意思を取り上げ
03:57
and you will no longer have
any control over this hand.
あなたは この手を
コントロールできなくなります
04:00
You with me?
大丈夫ですか?
04:03
So I just need to hook you up.
あとは あなたを
接続するだけです
04:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:07
So I'm going to find your ulnar nerve,
さあ 尺骨神経を探しましょう
04:09
which is probably right around here.
このへんに あるはずです
04:11
You don't know what you're signing up for
登壇いただいたときは
何をするのかわからなかったでしょう
04:14
when you come up.
登壇いただいたときは
何をするのかわからなかったでしょう
04:16
So now I'm going to move away
and we're going to plug it in
さて こちらに移動して
それを
04:17
to our human-to-human interface over here.
人間と人間をつなぐ
インターフェースに接続します
04:20
Okay, so Sam, I want you
to squeeze your hand again.
サム 手を握ってください
04:24
Do it again. Perfect.
もう一度
完ぺきです
04:29
So now I'm going to hook you up
over here so that you get the --
今 あなたを
ここにつなぎます―
04:30
It's going to feel
a little bit weird at first,
最初は変な風に感じるでしょう
04:33
this is going to feel like a --
(Laughter)
ちょうど―(笑)
04:36
You know, when you lose your free will,
and someone else becomes your agent,
自分の自由意思を失い
他人に操られるのは
04:38
it does feel a bit strange.
ちょっと変な感じです
04:42
Now I want you to relax your hand.
手をリラックスさせて
04:44
Sam, you're with me?
サム いいですか?
04:46
So you're going to squeeze.
これから手を握ってもらいます
04:47
I'm not going to turn it on yet,
so go ahead and give it a squeeze.
まだスイッチを入れていません
握ってください
04:48
So now, are you ready, Miguel?
ミゲル 準備はよいですか?
04:52
MG: Ready as I'll ever be.
準備万端です
04:54
GG: I've turned it on, so go ahead
and turn your hand.
オンにしました
では手を返して
04:55
Do you feel that a little bit?
MG: Nope.
何か感じますか?
―いいえ
04:59
GG: Okay, do it again?
MG: A little bit.
ではもう一度
―ちょっと
05:01
GG: A little bit? (Laughter)
ちょっと?(笑)
05:03
So relax.
リラックスして
05:04
So hit it again.
もう一度してください
05:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:07
Oh, perfect, perfect.
完ぺき 完ぺき
05:08
So relax, do it again.
リラックスしてもう一度
05:10
All right, so right now,
いいですね
05:11
your brain is controlling your arm
and it's also controlling his arm,
あなたの脳は あなたの腕だけでなく
彼の腕もコントロールしています
05:14
so go ahead and just do it one more time.
どうぞ もう一度やってください
05:19
All right, so it's perfect. (Laughter)
完ぺきです(笑)
05:21
So now, what would happen
if I took over my control of your hand?
では もし私があなたの手を
動かしたらどうなるでしょう?
05:23
And so, just relax your hand.
手をリラックスさせて
05:27
What happens?
どうなりましたか?
05:29
Ah, nothing.
何も起こりません
05:31
Why not?
なぜでしょう
05:32
Because the brain has to do it.
脳が動かさないといけないからです
05:34
So you do it again.
もう一度してください
05:35
All right, that's perfect.
いいですね 完ぺきです
05:37
Thank you guys for being
such a good sport.
お二人とも いい運動をしてくれて
ありがとう
05:39
This is what's happening
all across the world --
これが世界中を席巻しつつある―
05:42
electrophysiology!
電気生理学です!
05:44
We're going to bring on
the neuro-revolution.
これから 神経科学に
革命を起こしますよ
05:45
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
05:47
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:48
Translator:Yuko Yoshida
Reviewer:Misaki Sato

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Greg Gage - Neuroscientist
Greg Gage helps kids investigate the neuroscience in their own backyards.

Why you should listen

As half of Backyard Brains, neuroscientist and engineer Greg Gage builds the SpikerBox -- a small rig that helps kids understand the electrical impulses that control the nervous system. He's passionate about helping students understand (viscerally) how our brains and our neurons work, because, as he said onstage at TED2012, we still know very little about how the brain works -- and we need to start inspiring kids early to want to know more.

Before becoming a neuroscientist, Gage worked as an electrical engineer making touchscreens. As he told the Huffington Post: "Scientific equipment in general is pretty expensive, but it's silly because before [getting my PhD in neuroscience] I was an electrical engineer, and you could see that you could make it yourself. So we started as a way to have fun, to show off to our colleagues, but we were also going into classrooms around that time and we thought, wouldn't it be cool if you could bring these gadgets with us so the stuff we were doing in advanced Ph.D. programs in neuroscience, you could also do in fifth grade?" His latest pieces of gear: the Roboroach, a cockroach fitted with an electric backpack that makes it turn on command, and BYB SmartScope, a smartphone-powered microscope.

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