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TED2008

Samantha Power: A complicated hero in the war on dictatorship

サマンサ・パワー: 複雑な英雄

February 2, 2008

アメリカ国家安全保障会議メンバーであるサマンサ・パワーが、セルジオ・ヴィエイラ・デメロという複雑な英雄について語ります。国連の外交官だったデメロは、善悪を隔てる細い線の上を歩きつつ、世界でも最悪レベルの独裁者たちと渡り合い、難民たちが危機を乗り切れるよう援助しました。心揺さぶられる物語が情熱的に語られます。

Samantha Power - Political scientist and journalist
Samantha Power studies US foreign policy, especially as it relates to war and human rights. Her books take on the world's worst problems: genocide, civil war and brutal dictatorships. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I spent the better part of a decade
私は10年近く
00:18
looking at American responses to mass atrocity and genocide.
残虐行為や大量虐殺に対する
米国の反応を研究してきました
00:21
And I'd like to start by sharing with you one moment
エピソードをご紹介しましょう
私はここで
00:27
that to me sums up what there is to know
米国と民主主義の反応について
00:33
about American and democratic responses to mass atrocity.
何を知るべきなのか学びました
00:36
And that moment came on April 21, 1994.
1994年4月21日のことです
14年前ですね
00:39
So 14 years ago, almost, in the middle of the Rwandan genocide,
ルワンダでは大虐殺が進行中で
00:45
in which 800,000 people would be systematically exterminated
政府と一部の過激派によって
80万の人々が―
00:49
by the Rwandan government and some extremist militia.
組織的に
殺されようとしていました
00:54
On April 21, in the New York Times,
その日
ニューヨークタイムズ紙は
00:59
the paper reported that somewhere between 200,000 and 300,000 people
既に虐殺された人の数を
01:03
had already been killed in the genocide.
20~30万人と報道しましたが
01:06
It was in the paper -- not on the front page.
一面記事ではありませんでした
01:09
It was a lot like the Holocaust coverage,
ホロコーストの報道ととても似ていて
01:12
it was buried in the paper.
注目されませんでした
01:14
Rwanda itself was not seen as newsworthy,
ルワンダも虐殺も―
01:16
and amazingly, genocide itself was not seen as newsworthy.
報道価値はないと
みなされたのです
01:18
But on April 21, a wonderfully honest moment occurred.
4月21日には こんな驚くほど率直なやり取りが
残されています
01:22
And that was that an American congresswoman
パトリシア・シュローダーという
01:26
named Patricia Schroeder from Colorado
コロラド州下院議員が
01:29
met with a group of journalists.
報道陣と会った際
01:31
And one of the journalists said to her, what's up?
記者が尋ねました
「この2週間 ルワンダでは
01:33
What's going on in the U.S. government?
20~30万人が虐殺された
01:37
Two to 300,000 people have just been exterminated
それなのに米政府は
01:39
in the last couple of weeks in Rwanda.
何をしてるんだ?」と
01:41
It's two weeks into the genocide at that time,
虐殺が始まって2週間
01:43
but of course, at that time you don't know how long it's going to last.
いつ終わるとも知れませんでした
01:45
And the journalist said, why is there so little response out of Washington?
記者は言いました 「何故米政府は
公聴会も開かず 非難声明も出さず
01:48
Why no hearings, no denunciations,
大使館やホワイトハウスの前で
01:53
no people getting arrested in front of the Rwandan embassy
デモをして捕まる人もいないのか
01:56
or in front of the White House? What's the deal?
何が起こってるんだ?」と
01:59
And she said -- she was so honest -- she said, "It's a great question.
議員は正直に答えました
「それが問題なのです
02:03
All I can tell you is that in my congressional office in Colorado
コロラドでも
ワシントンでも
02:08
and my office in Washington,
大勢が電話をくれます
02:12
we're getting hundreds and hundreds of calls
けれど内容は
02:14
about the endangered ape and gorilla population in Rwanda,
絶滅寸前のゴリラの事で
虐殺される人間の事は―
02:17
but nobody is calling about the people.
誰も話しません
02:22
The phones just aren't ringing about the people."
人間のことでの電話はありません」
02:25
And the reason I give you this moment is there's a deep truth in it.
このエピソードは
奥の深い真実を教えてくれます
02:28
And that truth is, or was, in the 20th century,
こういうことです―でした 
20世紀に
02:33
that while we were beginning to develop endangered species movements,
絶滅危惧種を救う運動が始まりました
でも私達は危機的状況にある
02:37
we didn't have an endangered people's movement.
人々のためには 何もしません
02:42
We had Holocaust education in the schools.
学校では
ホロコーストについて学び
02:44
Most of us were groomed not only on images of nuclear catastrophe,
大勢が
核戦争と同様
02:48
but also on images and knowledge of the Holocaust.
ホロコーストについても
知識を持っている
02:52
There's a museum, of course, on the Mall in Washington,
ワシントンには
ナショナルモールに
02:57
right next to Lincoln and Jefferson.
ホロコースト博物館だってある
03:00
I mean, we have owned Never Again culturally,
文化面では
適切に関心を持って
03:02
appropriately, interestingly.
私達は「繰り返すまい」と
してきました
03:06
And yet the politicization of Never Again,
けれど 政治の世界では
問題にされず
03:10
the operationalization of Never Again,
具体的な運動も―
03:14
had never occurred in the 20th century.
20世紀には起こらなかった
03:16
And that's what that moment with Patricia Schroeder I think shows:
議員の言葉が
示すのは―
03:19
that if we are to bring about an end to the world's worst atrocities,
世界中の残虐行為を終わらせるためには
そういう運動が
03:22
we have to make it such.
必要だという事
03:29
There has to be a role --
人道的犯罪に対し
03:31
there has to be the creation of political noise and political costs
政治的な騒動がおき
政治的な代償を払う事
03:33
in response to massive crimes against humanity, and so forth.
それが必要なのです
03:36
So that was the 20th century.
でも安心してください
03:39
Now here -- and this will be a relief to you at this point in the afternoon --
素晴らしいニュースが
あります
03:41
there is good news, amazing news, in the 21st century,
20世紀には存在しなかった―
03:45
and that is that, almost out of nowhere, there has come into being
虐殺に反対する運動や団体が
21世紀 どこからともなく出現し
03:49
an anti-genocide movement, an anti-genocide constituency,
しかも 恐らくは
03:56
and one that looks destined, in fact, to be permanent.
消えてなくなることは
ないでしょう
03:59
It grew up in response to the atrocities in Darfur.
ダルフール紛争反対を掲げ
04:03
It is comprised of students. There are something like 300 anti-genocide chapters
学生達が始めた団体は全国の大学に広まり
支部は約300
04:06
on college campuses around the country.
反アパルトヘイト運動より
04:12
It's bigger than the anti-apartheid movement.
大規模な運動です
04:15
There are something like 500 high school chapters
ダルフールの虐殺を
やめさせようとする
04:17
devoted to stopping the genocide in Darfur.
高校の支部は約500
04:21
Evangelicals have joined it. Jewish groups have joined it.
参加者はいろいろ
福音派 ユダヤ教徒
04:24
"Hotel Rwanda" watchers have joined it. It is a cacophonous movement.
『ホテル・ルワンダ』を見て
虐殺の事を知った人もいます
04:28
To call it a movement, as with all movements, perhaps, is a little misleading.
これは「運動」では
ないかも知れません
04:32
It's diverse. It's got a lot of different approaches.
いろいろな
やり方を用い
04:35
It's got all the ups and the downs of movements.
成功も失敗もあります
04:38
But it has been amazingly successful in one regard,
ただ 危機に置かれた人々のための
04:40
in that it has become,
運動を形作ったという意味で
04:44
it has congealed into this endangered people's movement
20世紀になかったものを
作り出すことに
04:46
that was missing in the 20th century.
成功したと言えるのです
04:49
It sees itself, such as it is, the it,
この「運動」の目的は
もし―
04:51
as something that will create the impression that there will be political cost,
虐殺を止めようとせず
虐殺について考えず
04:54
there will be a political price to be paid,
何もしない
傍観者でいれば
04:59
for allowing genocide, for not having an heroic imagination,
政治の世界では
非難される
05:02
for not being an upstander but for being, in fact, a bystander.
そう人々に思わせる事なのです
05:06
Now because it's student-driven,
学生による運動だからこそ
05:10
there's some amazing things that the movement has done.
素晴らしい事もあります
05:14
They have launched a divestment campaign
22の州 55の大学で
05:16
that has now convinced, I think, 55 universities in 22 states
スーダンで事業をしている
会社の株を手放そうという
05:18
to divest their holdings of stocks
活動があります
05:22
with regard to companies doing business in Sudan.
1800 GENOCIDE(虐殺)という
05:24
They have a 1-800-GENOCIDE number --
番号に電話すれば
05:28
this is going to sound very kitsch,
参加できます
05:30
but for those of you who may not be, I mean, may be apolitical,
と言うと
政治に無関心な人は
05:32
but interested in doing something about genocide,
悪趣味だと思うかも知れません
05:36
you dial 1-800-GENOCIDE and you type in your zip code,
でも 何かしたいと
思う人には
05:38
and you don't even have to know who your congressperson is.
手軽な方法です
05:41
It will refer you directly to your congressperson, to your U.S. senator,
投資引き揚げ法案を議論中の
政治家に―
05:43
to your governor where divestment legislation is pending.
直接 訴えかけることができ
05:47
They've lowered the transaction costs of stopping genocide.
そのおかげで
反虐殺行動が容易になります
05:50
I think the most innovative thing they've introduced recently
最近一番「新しい」と
思ったのは
05:54
are genocide grades.
「虐殺評価」というものです
05:57
And it takes students to introduce genocide grades.
評価するのは
学生達です
06:00
So what you now have when a Congress is in session
今や 下院の会期中には
06:03
is members of Congress calling up these 19-year-olds or 24-year-olds
議員が20歳そこそこの学生に
電話をかけて言います
06:06
and saying, I'm just told I have a D minus on genocide;
「反虐殺行動の成績がDマイナスだった」
06:11
what do I do to get a C? I just want to get a C. Help me.
「Cを取るにはどうすればいい?」
06:14
And the students and the others
この運動に参加する
06:18
who are part of this incredibly energized base
学生や他の人々は
06:20
are there to answer that, and there's always something to do.
それに答えることができます
いつでも何かするべき事があるのです
06:22
Now, what this movement has done is it has extracted from the Bush administration
この活動は
軍事、経済、外交で余裕のない時期に
06:26
from the United States,
ブッシュ政権と国家に
06:31
at a time of massive over-stretch -- military, financial, diplomatic --
ダルフールでの出来事に対し
何かせねばという
06:33
a whole series of commitments to Darfur
義務感を持たせました
06:38
that no other country in the world is making.
他の国ではできなかったことです
06:40
For instance, the referral of the crimes in Darfur
ブッシュ政権は渋りつつ
06:43
to the International Criminal Court,
ダルフールの戦争犯罪を
06:45
which the Bush administration doesn't like.
国際法廷に持ち込み
06:47
The expenditure of 3 billion dollars in refugee camps to try to keep,
30億ドルを
難民キャンプに支出
06:49
basically, the people who've been displaced from their homes
紛争で家を失った人々が
06:53
by the Sudanese government, by the so-called Janjaweed, the militia,
もっと継続的な援助を
06:55
to keep those people alive
受けられるまで
06:58
until something more durable can be achieved.
生きていけるようにしました
07:00
And recently, or now not that recently,
もう半年前ですが
07:04
about six months ago, the authorization of a peacekeeping force
平和維持軍の
26000人を派遣する
07:06
of 26,000 that will go.
認可が下りました
07:09
And that's all the Bush administration's leadership,
ブッシュ政権のリーダーシップによってです
07:11
and it's all because of this bottom-up pressure
草の根運動の圧力
07:13
and the fact that the phones haven't stopped ringing
紛争勃発以来
人々が関心を―
07:15
from the beginning of this crisis.
持ち続けたおかげです
07:18
The bad news, however, to this question of will evil prevail,
しかし悲しい事に
07:20
is that evil lives on.
悪は滅びません
07:23
The people in those camps are surrounded on all sides
人々はキャンプで
07:25
by so-called Janjaweed, these men on horseback
槍と自動小銃を持ち
馬に乗った民兵達に
07:29
with spears and Kalashnikovs.
四方を囲まれています
07:31
Women who go to get firewood in order to heat the humanitarian aid
やっかいなことに 支援物資を食べるには
調理が必要なので
07:33
in order to feed their families -- humanitarian aid,
女性は料理するため
07:37
the dirty secret of it is it has to be heated, really, to be edible --
まきを拾いに行き
レイプされる
07:40
are themselves subjected to rape,
レイプは虐殺の中でも
07:43
which is a tool of the genocide that is being used.
行われている事です
07:45
And the peacekeepers I've mentioned, the force has been authorized,
平和維持活動が許可されても
07:47
but almost no country on Earth has stepped forward since the authorization
危険な場所に
自国の部隊を送ろうとする国は
07:50
to actually put its troops or its police in harm's way.
ほぼゼロでした
07:55
So we have achieved an awful lot relative to the 20th century,
私達の運動の成果は
20世紀と比べるとずっと増しているにもかかわらず
07:58
and yet far too little relative to the gravity of the crime that is unfolding
現在進行中の犯罪の深刻さには
08:03
as we sit here, as we speak.
はるかに及びません
08:07
Why the limits to the movement?
なぜ運動に限界があるのか
08:09
Why is what has been achieved, or what the movement has done,
必要な事をしても足りないのは
08:12
been necessary but not sufficient to the crime?
なぜなのか
08:16
I think there are a couple -- there are many reasons --
理由は実に多様ですが
08:18
but a couple just to focus on briefly.
中で2-3を手短に話します
08:20
The first is that the movement, such as it is,
まず草の根の運動なので
08:22
stops at America's borders.
It is not a global movement.
国内に留まり
国際的な運動になりません
08:26
It does not have too many compatriots abroad who themselves
自国の政府に
反虐殺運動をすすめる
08:30
are asking their governments to do more to stop genocide.
海外の同志は多くないのです
08:34
And the Holocaust culture that we have in this country
思うに米国には
08:38
makes Americans, sort of, more prone to, I think,
ホロコースト文化があるため
08:40
want to bring Never Again to life.
「繰り返すまい」という意識が強いのです
08:43
The guilt that the Clinton administration expressed,
クリントン政権は
ルワンダ虐殺について
08:46
that Bill Clinton expressed over Rwanda,
罪悪感を表明
08:50
created a space in our society for a consensus
「虐殺は悪だ」とする
08:52
that Rwanda was bad and wrong
世論を作り上げました
08:54
and we wish we had done more, and that is something
私達は無策を悔い
08:56
that the movement has taken advantage of.
運動はそれを利用しました
08:58
European governments, for the most part,
欧州では
09:00
haven't acknowledged responsibility, and there's nothing to kind of
責任を認める政府は稀で
09:01
to push back and up against.
反虐殺運動も起きていません
09:04
So this movement, if it's to be durable and global,
継続的 国際的な運動を
目指すなら
09:08
will have to cross borders, and you will have to see
この運動は国境を越え
09:12
other citizens in democracies, not simply resting on the assumption
民主主義国の国民が
政府まかせにせず
09:15
that their government would do something in the face of genocide,
実際に反虐殺の行動を
起こす事
09:19
but actually making it such.
それが必要になります
09:22
Governments will never gravitate towards crimes of this magnitude
これほど大規模な犯罪を
政府は
09:24
naturally or eagerly.
無視しようとするのです
09:27
As we saw, they haven't even gravitated towards protecting our ports
自国の港の防御や
核兵器管理といった―
09:29
or reigning in loose nukes.
問題から目を背けてきた
09:31
Why would we expect in a bureaucracy that it would orient itself
官僚が自ら
遠い外国の苦しみに―
09:33
towards distant suffering?
目を向けるでしょうか?
09:37
So one reason is it hasn't gone global.
問題を国際化できないことが運動の限界でした
09:39
The second is, of course, that at this time in particular in America's history,
そして 特に現在
国際機関には
09:41
we have a credibility problem,
信頼性や正当性に
09:45
a legitimacy problem in international institutions.
問題があります
09:47
It is structurally really, really hard to do,
ブッシュ政権が挑む
09:49
as the Bush administration rightly does,
大きな困難とは
09:52
which is to denounce genocide on a Monday
幅広い課題を抱えているという事
09:54
and then describe water boarding on a Tuesday as a no-brainer
虐殺を非難したかと思えば
09:58
and then turn up on Wednesday and look for troop commitments.
翌日は(自国で起きている)拷問の弁解
次は派兵国探し
10:01
Now, other countries have their own reasons for not wanting to get involved.
他国が何もしないのにも理由があり
10:05
Let me be clear.
はっきり言うと
10:08
They're in some ways using the Bush administration as an alibi.
ブッシュ政権は
言い訳に使われました
10:10
But it is essential for us to be a leader in this sphere,
でも肝心なのは
米国が他国を主導し
10:13
of course to restore our standing and our leadership in the world.
世界における立場と
主導権を回復する事
10:17
The recovery's going to take some time.
それには時間が必要です
10:21
We have to ask ourselves, what now? What do we do going forward
今 私達は
考えねばなりません
10:23
as a country and as citizens in relationship to the world's worst places,
国として 国民として
何ができるのか
10:26
the world's worst suffering, killers, and the kinds of killers
かつて苦難に襲われ
また同じ目に遭いかねない
10:30
that could come home to roost sometime in the future?
世界で最も虐げられた地のため
何をできるのか?
10:35
The place that I turned to answer that question was to a man
私はその答えを
ある男に求めました
10:40
that many of you may not have ever heard of,
知らない方も多いでしょうが
10:46
and that is a Brazilian named Sergio Vieira de Mello who,
ブラジル人外交官
セルジオ・ヴィエイラ・デメロです
10:49
as Chris said, was blown up in Iraq in 2003.
2003年 イラクで
最初の自爆テロの犠牲となり
10:54
He was the victim of the first-ever suicide bomb in Iraq.
爆死した人です
11:00
It's hard to remember, but there was actually a time in the summer of 2003,
2003年の夏
米国の侵攻後でも
11:03
even after the U.S. invasion, where,
略奪行為はあったにせよ
11:06
apart from looting, civilians were relatively safe in Iraq.
イラク国民は比較的
安全に過ごしていた
11:09
Now, who was Sergio? Sergio Vieira de Mello was his name.
セルジオとは
どんな人物だったのか
11:13
In addition to being Brazilian, he was described to me
1994年 ブラジル人である彼と会うときに
11:16
before I met him in 1994 as someone who was a cross between
こう聞いていました
「ボンドとボビー・ケネディを
11:19
James Bond on the one hand and Bobby Kennedy on the other.
足して二で割ったような人だ」
11:22
And in the U.N., you don't get that many people
そんな人 国連には
11:26
who actually manage to merge those qualities.
たくさんはいません
11:29
He was James Bond-like in that he was ingenious.
ボンドに似ていたのは
賢い所と―
11:32
He was drawn to the flames, he chased the flames,
火に引き寄せられる
蛾のように
11:36
he was like a moth to the flames. Something of an adrenalin junkie.
危険に魅せられ
危険を求めた所
11:39
He was successful with women.
そして女性にもてた所です
11:42
He was Bobby Kennedy-like because in some ways one could never tell
ボビー・ケネディに似ていたのは
11:47
if he was a realist masquerading as an idealist
理想主義ぶった現実主義者なのか
11:51
or an idealist masquerading as a realist, as people always wondered
現実主義ぶった理想主義者なのかが
分からない所
11:53
about Bobby Kennedy and John Kennedy in that way.
ジョン・ケネディもそうでした
11:57
What he was was a decathlete of nation-building, of problem-solving,
彼は世界でも最悪の
最も傷ついた土地で
12:00
of troubleshooting in the world's worst places
国を築き 問題を解決し
12:04
and in the world's most broken places.
争いを鎮め 
多方面で活躍
12:07
In failing states, genocidal states, under-governed states,
崩壊しつつある国 虐殺の起きた国
統治できていない国です
12:10
precisely the kinds of places that threats to this country exist
米国を脅かし
この世から消そうとする国々
12:14
on the horizon, and precisely the kinds of places
世界でも最悪の苦しみが
12:19
where most of the world's suffering tends to get concentrated.
集中している国々
そんな国に―
12:22
These are the places he was drawn to.
彼は惹かれました
12:26
He moved with the headlines.
彼は注目の的でした
12:28
He was in the U.N. for 34 years. He joined at the age of 21.
21歳から34年間
国連に勤め
12:30
Started off when the causes in the wars du jour in the '70s
独立と非植民地化のために
12:35
were wars of independence and decolonization.
戦争が起きた70年代
12:38
He was there in Bangladesh
彼はバングラデシュで
12:40
dealing with the outflow of millions of refugees --
何百万の難民流出に対応
12:42
the largest refugee flow in history up to that point.
当時は史上最大の規模でした
12:44
He was in Sudan when the civil war broke out there.
スーダンの内戦の時は
現地に
12:47
He was in Cyprus right after the Turkish invasion.
トルコが侵攻した時は
キプロスに
12:50
He was in Mozambique for the War of Independence.
モザンビーク独立戦争にも
居合わせました
12:53
He was in Lebanon. Amazingly, he was in Lebanon -- the U.N. base was used --
驚くべき事に彼はレバノンで
国連の基地におり
12:55
Palestinians staged attacks out from behind the U.N. base.
その背後からの
パレスチナが軍事攻撃すると
12:58
Israel then invaded and overran the U.N. base.
イスラエルが侵攻して基地を制圧しました
13:02
Sergio was in Beirut when the U.S. Embassy was hit
米国大使館に対する
13:05
by the first-ever suicide attack against the United States.
初の自爆テロの時も
現地にいました
13:07
People date the beginning of this new era to 9/11, but surely 1983,
9・11が新時代の幕開けと
されていますが
13:10
with the attack on the US Embassy and the Marine barracks --
1983年
彼が目撃した―
13:15
which Sergio witnessed -- those are, in fact, in some ways,
大使館と海兵隊兵舎への攻撃も
13:17
the dawning of the era that we find ourselves in today.
今のこの時代の
始まりを告げていました
13:20
From Lebanon he went to Bosnia in the '90s.
90年代に 彼はレバノンから
ボスニアに移りました
13:24
The issues were, of course, ethnic sectarian violence.
民族間紛争が
問題となっていました
13:27
He was the first person to negotiate with the Khmer Rouge.
クメール・ルージュとは
最初に交渉
13:31
Talk about evil prevailing. I mean, here he was in the room
悪は滅びません
つまり彼は―
13:34
with the embodiment of evil in Cambodia.
カンボジアの悪魔と
13:37
He negotiates with the Serbs.
セルビア軍を相手にしました
13:39
He actually crosses so far into this realm of talking to evil
彼は悪と対話する職務を越えて
13:41
and trying to convince evil that it doesn't need to prevail
勝たなくても大丈夫だ と説得を試みたので
13:45
that he earns the nickname -- not Sergio but Serbio
バルカン半島で
交渉をした時
13:48
while he's living in the Balkans and conducting these kinds of negotiations.
セルビア寄りだからと
「セルビオ」と呼ばれました
13:51
He then goes to Rwanda and to Congo in the aftermath of the genocide,
虐殺後のルワンダとコンゴで
13:56
and he's the guy who has to decide -- huh, OK, the genocide is over;
彼は決断を迫られました
13:59
800,000 people have been killed; the people responsible are fleeing
「80万人が殺された虐殺は終わり
14:02
into neighboring countries -- into Congo, into Tanzania.
責任者は近隣諸国に逃げた
14:06
I'm Sergio, I'm a humanitarian, and I want to feed those --
私は人道主義者だ
14:09
well, I don't want to feed the killers
人殺しを養いたくない
14:12
but I want to feed the two million people who are with them, so we're going to go,
だが彼らと一緒にいる2百万の人々の為
14:14
we're going to set up camps,
難民キャンプを築き
14:17
and we're going to supply humanitarian aid.
人道支援物資を配ろう
14:19
But, uh-oh, the killers are within the camps.
キャンプには
殺人者もいるから
14:21
Well, I'd like to separate the sheep from the wolves.
それ以外と分けたい
14:24
Let me go door-to-door to the international community
国際社会を回って
14:26
and see if anybody will give me police or troops to do the separation.
警察か軍隊を頼もう」
14:28
And their response, of course, was no more than we wanted
当然 反応は芳しくありませんでした
14:31
to stop the genocide and put our troops in harm's way to do that,
虐殺を止める為の
軍隊派遣と同様
14:34
nor do we now want to get in the way and pluck genocidaires from camps.
殺人者をキャンプから
つまみ出す事もできない
14:37
So then you have to make the decision.
決断が必要とされました
14:42
Do you turn off the international spigot of life support
国際社会の支援を拒み
14:44
and risk two million civilian lives?
2百万の人命を
危険にさらすのか
14:46
Or do you continue feeding the civilians, knowing that the genocidaires
人々を養い続けるのか
14:50
are in the camps, literally sharpening their knives for future battle?
殺人者がそこに紛れて
戦いに備えているのに?
14:53
What do you do?
どうすれば?
14:57
It's all lesser-evil terrain in these broken places.
崩壊した国は小悪人の巣です
14:58
Late '90s: nation-building is the cause du jour.
90年代後半には
国家再建の動きが目立ち
15:01
He's the guy put in charge. He's the Paul Bremer or the Jerry Bremer
彼はコソボや東ティモールで
15:04
of first Kosovo and then East Timor. He governs the places.
国を統括する立場に就きました
15:08
He's the viceroy. He has to decide on tax policy, on currency,
税、通貨、国境警備、治安維持
何もかも―
15:11
on border patrol, on policing. He has to make all these judgments.
総督として
彼が決断せねばならない
15:15
He's a Brazilian in these places. He speaks seven languages.
彼は7ヶ国語を話す
ブラジル人
15:19
He's been up to that point in 14 war zones
経験した戦争は14
15:22
so he's positioned to make better judgments, perhaps,
恐らく 経験のない人よりは
15:24
than people who have never done that kind of work.
ましな決断ができました
15:27
But nonetheless, he is the cutting edge of our experimentation
そんな彼にとっても
未知の領域でした
15:29
with doing good with very few resources being brought to bear in,
世界最悪の国で
ほぼ援助もなく
15:33
again, the world's worst places.
善行ができるのか?
15:36
And then after Timor, 9/11 has happened,
9・11同時多発テロの発生後
15:38
he's named U.N. Human Rights Commissioner,
国連人権高等弁務官になり
15:41
and he has to balance liberty and security and figure out,
自由と安全を
考慮する必要がありました
15:43
what do you do when the most powerful country in the United Nations
国連で最大の国が
15:46
is bowing out of the Geneva Conventions,
ジュネーブ条約を
―国際法を遵守しないという時
15:49
bowing out of international law? Do you denounce?
それを非難するかどうか
はっきりしなければなりませんでした
15:52
Well, if you denounce,
非難すれば
15:54
you're probably never going to get back in the room.
おそらくメンバーから外されるでしょう
15:55
Maybe you stay reticent. Maybe you try to charm President Bush --
それとも 何も言わず 
ブッシュに取り入ろうとしますか?
15:57
and that's what he did. And in so doing he earned himself,
彼はそうしました
その結果
16:02
unfortunately, his final and tragic appointment to Iraq --
不運にも
イラクに派遣され
16:05
the one that resulted in his death.
そこで死にました
16:08
One note on his death, which is so devastating,
彼の死について
注目すべきは
16:10
is that despite predicating the war on Iraq
イラク戦争を予測し
16:13
on a link between Saddam Hussein and terrorism in 9/11,
フセインと同時多発テロの
関連を断定しておきながら
16:15
believe it or not, the Bush administration or the invaders
イラクに侵攻したブッシュ政権が
16:20
did no planning, no pre-war planning, to respond to terrorism.
テロに備えていなかったという事
16:23
So Sergio -- this receptacle of all of this learning on how to deal with evil
そのせいで
悪と交渉と 国家再建を知り尽くした男
16:27
and how to deal with brokenness,
セルジオは3時間半の間―
16:31
lay under the rubble for three and a half hours without rescue.
救助されず
がれきの下に放置されました
16:33
Stateless. The guy who tried to help the stateless people his whole career.
自分が救い続けた難民と同じで
16:37
Like a refugee. Because he represents the U.N.
国を失くしたも同然
16:41
If you represent everyone, in some ways you represent no one.
国連という『全体』の代表だから
16:43
You're un-owned.
どこにも属していないのです
16:46
And what the American -- the most powerful military in the history of mankind
人類史上最強のアメリカ軍が
16:48
was able to muster for his rescue,
彼を救助する為に 招集できたのは
16:51
believe it or not, was literally these heroic two American soldiers
たった二人の勇敢な兵士でした
16:53
went into the shaft. Building was shaking.
二人は揺れる建物に入っていきました
16:57
One of them had been at 9/11 and lost his buddies on September 11th,
1人は9・11で
仲間を亡くしていましたが
16:59
and yet went in and risked his life in order to save Sergio.
危険を冒して建物に入っていきました
17:03
But all they had was a woman's handbag --
手元には 
女物の手提げかばんだけ
17:05
literally one of those basket handbags --
ただのかばんです
17:09
and they tied it to a curtain rope from one of the offices at U.N. headquarters,
それをオフィスのカーテンひもに結び
17:11
and created a pulley system into this shaft in this quivering building
崩壊寸前の建物に
滑車装置を作ったのです
17:15
in the interests of rescuing this person,
進むべき道を見失ったと感じる人が多い今
17:20
the person we most need to turn to now, this shepherd,
私達に最も必要な指導者を
17:23
at a time when so many of us feel like we're lacking guidance.
助ける為にできたのは
17:26
And this was the pulley system. This was what we were able to muster for Sergio.
その滑車を用意することだけでした
17:29
The good news, for what it's worth,
今更ですが
17:32
is after Sergio and 21 others were killed that day in the attack on the U.N.,
セルジオを含む22人が
国連に対するテロで死ぬと
17:34
the military created a search and rescue unit
捜索救助隊が発足
17:38
that had the cutting equipment, the shoring wood, the cranes,
救助に必要な
カッターや支持材や重機が
17:40
the things that you would have needed to do the rescue.
この部隊に配備されています
17:44
But it was too late for Sergio.
でも 彼は戻らない
17:46
I want to wrap up, but I want to close
最後にお話しするのは
17:48
with what I take to be the four lessons from Sergio's life
彼の人生から学んだ
4つの事です
17:50
on this question of how do we prevent evil from prevailing,
そこから
私なりに 考えました
17:54
which is how I would have framed the question.
いかに悪の繁栄を妨げられるのか
17:57
Here's this guy who got a 34-year head start
私達が国として
国民として
18:00
thinking about the kinds of questions we as a country are grappling with,
今 取り組んでいる問題を
18:03
we as citizens are grappling with now. What do we take away?
34年間 考え続けた男から
何を学べるでしょう?
18:07
First, I think, is his relationship to, in fact, evil is something to learn from.
彼と悪との関係から
学べるものがあります
18:12
He, over the course of his career, changed a great deal.
彼は変化し続けた人でした
18:17
He had a lot of flaws, but he was very adaptive.
欠点もありましたが適応力があり
18:20
I think that was his greatest quality.
それが一番の強みでした
18:22
He started as somebody who would denounce harmdoers,
最初は 悪を行う人を
非難していた
18:24
he would charge up to people who were violating international law,
国際法を犯す人を責めて言ったものでした
18:28
and he would say, you're violating, this is the U.N. Charter.
『国連憲章に違反してる
18:31
Don't you see it's unacceptable what you're doing?
過ちを犯してるのがわからないのか』
18:33
And they would laugh at him because he didn't have the power of states,
でも国家、軍、警察力の後ろ盾がなく
18:35
the power of any military or police.
相手にされませんでした
18:38
He just had the rules, he had the norms, and he tried to use them.
彼の武器はルールや規範でした
18:40
And in Lebanon, Southern Lebanon in '82,
そして82年 レバノンで
18:43
he said to himself and to everybody else,
彼は宣言した
「『認められない』なんて
18:46
I will never use the word "unacceptable" again.
もう二度と言わない」と
18:49
I will never use it. I will try to make it such,
それを目指しはするが
18:52
but I will never use that word again.
その言葉は使わない
18:54
But he lunged in the opposite direction.
彼は正反対に走りました
18:56
He started, as I mentioned, to get in the room with evil,
悪人と同じ部屋にいても
18:58
to not denounce, and became almost obsequious
非難せず
へつらうかのようですらありました
19:01
when he won the nickname Serbio, for instance,
セルビオとあだ名された時や
19:05
and even when he negotiated with the Khmer Rouge
クメール・ルージュとの交渉時
19:08
would black-box what had occurred prior to entering the room.
彼らの過去の悪行を
問題にしませんでした
19:10
But by the end of his life, I think he had struck a balance
晩年は
理想と現実を両立させました
19:14
that we as a country can learn from.
米国が見習うべき姿です
19:17
Be in the room, don't be afraid of talking to your adversaries,
敵と交渉する時
対話を恐れない事
19:19
but don't bracket what happened before you entered the room.
交渉前の出来事を
無視しない事
19:23
Don't black-box history. Don't check your principles at the door.
歴史を不明のままにせず
確固とした主義を置き去りにしない事
19:27
And I think that's something that we have to be in the room,
誰と誰が交渉するのか
ニクソンと中国
19:32
whether it's Nixon going to China or Khrushchev and Kennedy
フルシチョフとケネディー
レーガンとゴルバチョフなど
19:35
or Reagan and Gorbachev.
テーブルに着き
19:39
All the great progress in this country with relation to our adversaries
交渉することで
米国と敵国の関係は
19:41
has come by going into the room.
前進してきました
19:45
And it doesn't have to be an act of weakness.
交渉は弱者の行為ではない
19:47
You can actually do far more to build an international coalition
国際社会が団結して
19:50
against a harmdoer or a wrongdoer by being in the room
悪に立ち向かうには
19:53
and showing to the rest of the world that that person, that regime,
問題なのは米国ではなく
19:56
is the problem and that you, the United States, are not the problem.
交渉相手だと示す方がいい
19:59
Second take-away from Sergio's life, briefly.
セルジオの人生に学ぶ
二番目の事は
20:02
What I take away, and this in some ways is the most important,
最も大事な事ですが
20:06
he espoused and exhibited a reverence for dignity
彼は尊厳というものに
敬意を払っていました
20:08
that was really, really unusual.
非常にまれな事です
20:14
At a micro level, the individuals around him were visible.
直接に対応する個人の尊厳には
20:16
He saw them.
気を配っていた
20:20
At a macro level, he thought, you know,
国際問題レベルでは
20:21
we talk about democracy promotion, but we do it in a way sometimes
民主主義の促進が
時には
20:23
that's an affront to people's dignity.
人の尊厳を傷つける事もある
20:26
We put people on humanitarian aid
人道的支援に
20:29
and we boast about it because we've spent three billion.
「30億ドル出した」と自慢するが
20:31
It's incredibly important,
大事なのは
20:33
those people would no longer be alive if the United States, for instance,
米国の出資によって
20:34
hadn't spent that money in Darfur,
ダルフール難民の生命が救われはしたけれど
20:36
but it's not a way to live.
尊厳がないのです
20:39
If we think about dignity in our conduct as citizens
米国民として
また一個人として
20:40
and as individuals with relation to the people around us,
身近な人の尊厳を尊重できれば
20:43
and as a country, if we could inject a regard for dignity
また 国家として
20:46
into our dealings with other countries,
他国の尊厳を考慮できれば
20:48
it would be something of a revolution.
それは革命的な事です
20:51
Third point, very briefly. He talked a lot about freedom from fear.
また第三に 彼は
「恐れてはいけない」とよく言いました
20:53
And I recognize there is so much to be afraid of.
恐れるべきもの 
真の脅威は
20:57
There are so many genuine threats in the world.
たくさんあります
21:00
But what Sergio was talking about is,
「恐怖との向き合い方を
21:02
let's calibrate our relationship to the threat.
変えよう」と彼は言いました
21:04
Let's not hype the threat; let's actually see it clearly.
「騒がず 真の姿を見極めよう」と
21:06
We have reason to be afraid of melting ice caps.
海面上昇を恐れる理由はあります
21:09
We have reason to be afraid that we haven't secured
ソビエトの核物質は野放し
21:12
loose nuclear material in the former Soviet Union.
それを恐れる理由もあります
21:15
Let's focus on what are the legitimate challenges and threats,
恐怖の為 
誤った決断に走る事なく
21:18
but not lunge into bad decisions because of a panic, of a fear.
脅威に対処する
まともな方法について考えましょう
21:22
In times of fear, for instance, one of the things Sergio used to say
彼はよくこう言いました
21:27
is, fear is a bad advisor.
「恐怖は悪い助言をする」と
21:29
We lunge towards the extremes
政府の機能が低下したり
21:31
when we aren't operating and trying to, again,
諸外国との関係を正そうとするとき
21:33
calibrate our relationship to the world around us.
私達は極端に走ってしまいます
21:35
Fourth and final point: he somehow, because he was working
最後に 4つ目です
21:37
in all the world's worst places and all lesser evils,
彼は最悪の環境で働いたので
21:40
had a humility, of course,
謙虚さを持ち
21:43
and an awareness of the complexity of the world around him.
世界の複雑さを知っていました
21:45
I mean, such an acute awareness of how hard it was.
それがどんなに過酷かも知っていました
21:48
How Sisyphean this task was of mending,
国家再建の使命には
終りがないようでした
21:50
and yet aware of that complexity,
しかもその複雑さを知りつつ
21:54
humbled by it, he wasn't paralyzed by it.
謙虚さを持ち
行動を止めませんでした
21:56
And we as citizens, as we go through this experience of the kind of,
米国民として 私達は
21:59
the crisis of confidence, crisis of competence, crisis of legitimacy,
自信、能力、正当性の危機を
経験してきました
22:04
I think there's a temptation to pull back from the world and say,
そして 逃げ出す誘惑にかられます
22:08
ah, Katrina, Iraq -- we don't know what we're doing.
「何をしているか分からない」と言いたくなります
22:11
We can't afford to pull back from the world.
でも逃げは許されません
22:13
It's a question of how to be in the world.
世界とのかかわりの問題です
22:16
And the lesson, I think,
先に話した
22:19
of the anti-genocide movement that I mentioned,
反虐殺運動の教訓は
22:20
that is a partial success but by no means
一部 成功したけれど
22:22
has it achieved what it has set out to do --
目的達成はできなかったという事
22:24
it'll be many decades, probably, before that happens --
達成には何十年もかかるでしょう
22:27
but is that if we want to see change, we have to become the change.
でも 変化を望むなら
それを自分で起こさねば
22:30
We can't rely upon our institutions to do the work
敵国と自分から進んで対話するなど
22:34
of necessarily talking to adversaries on their own
国の機関に頼ることはできません
22:38
without us creating a space for that to happen,
私達がそれを実現させ
22:42
for having respect for dignity,
尊厳を尊重させ
22:44
and for bringing that combination of humility
謙虚さと強い責任感を
22:46
and a sort of emboldened sense of responsibility
諸外国との関係に
22:48
to our dealings with the rest of the world.
もたらす事が必要なのです
22:51
So will evil prevail? Is that the question?
悪は滅びないのか?
22:53
I think the short answer is: no, not unless we let it.
答えは「ノー」
私達が許しさえしなければ 滅びます
22:55
Thank you.
ありがとう
22:59
(Applause)
(拍手)
23:00
Translator:Mami Kawade
Reviewer:Masaki Yanagishita

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Samantha Power - Political scientist and journalist
Samantha Power studies US foreign policy, especially as it relates to war and human rights. Her books take on the world's worst problems: genocide, civil war and brutal dictatorships.

Why you should listen

Samantha Power is head of Harvard's Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, where she studies US policy as it relates to human rights, genocide and war. She's the author of a famous memo (in policy circles) suggesting that US foreign policy is utterly broken -- that the United States must return to a human rights-centered foreign policy or risk its prestige and respect in the world community. Her latest book is about Sergio Vieira de Mello, a UN diplomat who worked with the world's worst dictators to help protect the human rights of their people.

Power is also a journalist of fearless reputation. She spent 1993 to '96 reporting in the former Yugoslavia, and now contributes reportage and commentary to the New Yorker and Time. Her other books include A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide.

The original video is available on TED.com
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