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Taste3 2008

Dennis vanEngelsdorp: A plea for bees

死にゆくミツバチたちの嘆願

July 19, 2008

ミツバチがどんどん死んでいます。なぜでしょう? 著名な養蜂家であるデニス・バン・エンゲルスドロップが、誤解されがちな繊細なミツバチたちの自然界における大切な役割と、気がかりなミツバチの減少の謎を説明します。

Dennis vanEngelsdorp - Bee expert
Dennis vanEngelsdorp is Acting State Apiarist for Pennsylvania's Department of Agriculture, studying colony collapse disorder -- the alarming, worldwide disappearance of worker bees and Western honey bees. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
What I'd like you to do is, just really quickly,
皆さんにして欲しい事があります
00:15
is just, sort of, nod to the person on your right,
右側の人に向かってうなずいて
00:17
and then nod to the person on your left.
左側の人にもうなずいて下さい
00:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:23
Now, chances are that over the last winter,
今年の冬に起きたのは
00:27
if you had been a beehive, either you or one of the two people
もしここがミツバチの巣
だったとしたら あなたか
00:31
you just nodded at would have died.
あなたの両隣のいづれかの
人が死んでしまったのです
00:34
Now, that's an awful lot of bees.
死んだミツバチは非常に大量です
00:38
And this is the second year in a row we have lost over 30 percent
2年連続で巣箱にいるミツバチの
30%が死ぬ現象が起きています
00:42
of the colonies, or we estimate we've lost 30 percent of the colonies over the winter.
私たちの推定では今冬も
30%のミツバチが死にました
00:46
Now, that's a lot, a lot of bees, and that's really important.
これは本当に本当に多い数です
そして非常に重大な事です
00:50
And most of those losses are because of things we know.
ほとんどの死亡の原因は特定されています
00:56
We know that there are these varroa mites that have introduced
バロアダニというダニが死亡の原因と
00:59
and caused a lot of losses, and we also have this new phenomenon,
分かっています
また新しい現象もあります
01:02
which I talked about last year, Colony Collapse Disorder.
去年も話した蜂群崩壊症候群 (CCD) です
01:05
And here we see a picture on top of a hill in Central Valley last December.
これは丘の上から撮ったセントラル・バレー
去年12月の様子です
01:08
And below, you can see all these out yards,
下の方に出荷ヤード ―
01:13
or temporary yards, where the colonies are brought in until February,
一時的な置き場所で2月まで巣箱を保管し
01:15
and then they're shipped out to the almonds.
アーモンド畑に出荷されるのを待ちます
01:20
And one documentary writer, who was here and looked at this two months
あるドキュメンタリー作家が私が居た2カ月後に
01:23
after I was here, described this not as beehives
ここを訪れ ここにはミツバチの巣の代わりに
01:26
but as a graveyard, with these empty white boxes with no bees left in them.
もぬけの殻の白箱だけがある墓場だ
と言いました
01:29
Now, I'm going to sum up a year's worth of work in two sentences
では私たちの1年がかりの
研究結果を簡潔に説明しましょう
01:35
to say that we have been trying to figure out
私たちはこの原因を
解明しようと努力してきました
01:39
what the cause of this is.
私たちはこの原因を
解明しようと努力してきました
01:41
And what we know is that it's as if the bees have caught a flu.
分かっているのはミツバチがインフルエンザ
に似た病気に感染した事です
01:43
And this flu has wiped through the population of bees.
このインフルエンザのせいで
ミツバチの数が大幅に減りました
01:46
In some cases, and in fact in most cases in one year,
特定の場合 そして実は
1年を通してほとんどの場合
01:51
this flu was caused by a new virus to us,
このインフルエンザの病原菌は
私たちが新たに特定した
01:55
or newly identified by us, called Israeli Acute Paralysis virus.
急性イスラエル麻痺ウイルス
という新種のウイルスです
01:58
It was called that because a guy in Israel first found it,
イスラエルの人が発見したので
そう名づけられました
02:02
and he now regrets profoundly calling it that disease, because,
彼は今この名前を後悔しています
言外の意味のためです
02:04
of course, there's the implication.
彼は今この名前を後悔しています
言外の意味のためです
02:08
But we think this virus is pretty ubiquitous.
このウイルスは広く分布しています
02:09
It's also pretty clear that the bees sometimes catch other viruses
もちろんミツバチは他のウイルスやインフルエンザにも
02:12
or other flus, and so the question we're still struggling with,
感染します 私たちがまだ理解に苦しみ
02:15
and the question that keeps us up at night,
夜も眠れなくなる問題は
02:19
is why have the bees suddenly become so susceptible to this flu,
なぜミツバチがこのインフルエンザに
突然大量感染したか
02:21
and why are they so susceptible to these other diseases?
また なぜ他の病気にも感染しやくなったかです
02:26
And we don't have the answer to that yet,
答えはまだ分かっていません
02:31
and we spend a lot of time trying to figure that out.
解明すべく長時間を費やしています
02:33
We think perhaps it's a combination of factors.
多くの要因があると考えています
02:36
We know from the work of a very large and dynamic working team
私たちは大規模で広範囲な研究の結果
02:38
that, you know, we're finding a lot of different pesticides
巣に多くの殺虫剤が蓄積される事が分かり
02:42
in the hive, and surprisingly, sometimes the healthiest hives
そして驚く事に 一番健康的な巣で時折
02:46
have the most pesticides. And so we discover all these
殺虫剤の濃度が高い事が判明しました
02:49
very strange things that we can't begin to understand.
まだ理解不能な奇妙な事を
たくさん発見しています
02:52
And so this opens up the whole idea of looking at colony health.
巣箱の健康状態に関心が
払われるようになりました
02:56
Now of course, if you lose a lot of colonies,
そしてもちろん
もし多くの巣箱が壊滅したら
03:01
beekeepers can replace them very quickly.
養蜂家はすぐに新しい巣箱に交換できます
03:04
And that's why we've been able to recover from a lot of loss.
それが大量死に関わらず
回復できた理由です
03:06
If we lost one in every three cows in the winter, you know,
もし冬の間に牛が3頭中1頭
が死んでしまったら
03:09
the National Guard would be out.
州兵が出動するでしょう
03:13
But what beekeepers can do is, if they have one surviving colony,
一方養蜂家は 生き残っている巣箱を
03:14
they can split that colony in two.
見つけて中を2つに分割できます
03:18
And then the one half that doesn't have a queen, they can buy a queen.
そして女王蜂がいない方の
巣箱には女王蜂を買えます
03:21
It comes in the mail; it can come from Australia or Hawaii or Florida,
女王蜂は郵送されます
オーストラリア ハワイ フロリダから来ます
03:24
and you can introduce that queen.
そして女王蜂を巣箱に入れます
03:28
And in fact, America was the first country
実際 アメリカは女王蜂を
03:30
that ever did mail-delivery queens and in fact,
郵送した最初の国です
03:32
it's part of the postal code that you have to deliver queens by mail
郵便番号の一部には女王蜂の
郵送用に使える番号があり
03:35
in order to make sure that we have enough bees in this country.
ミツバチがアメリカ中に
潤沢にいるようにしています
03:42
If you don't just want a queen, you can buy, actually,
もし 女王蜂以外も必要であれば
03:47
a three-pound package of bees, which comes in the mail, and of course,
1.5キロ分のミツバチも小包で買えます
03:49
the Postal Office is always very concerned when they get,
もちろん郵便局は1.5キロある
ミツバチの小包には
03:53
you know, your three-pound packages of bees.
いつもとても気を使います
03:56
And you can install this in your hive and replace that dead-out.
そして新たに巣箱に入れ
死んだミツバチと交換できます
03:58
So it means that beekeepers are very good at replacing dead-outs,
ですから養蜂家は死んだミツバチの
交換は容易にできます
04:02
and so they've been able to cover those losses.
このようにしてミツバチの減少を防いできました
04:06
So even though we've lost 30 percent of the colonies every year,
毎年30%の巣箱が消滅したとしても
04:09
the same number of colonies have existed in the country,
同数の巣箱がアメリカにあったわけです
04:12
at about 2.4 million colonies.
その数は240万個になります
04:16
Now, those losses are tragic on many fronts,
巣箱の損失はあらゆる面で悲劇です
04:19
and one of those fronts is for the beekeeper.
特に養蜂家にとってはつらい事です
04:23
And it's really important to talk about beekeepers first,
まず養蜂家について話しましょう
非常に重要な事です
04:25
because beekeepers are among the most fascinating people you'll ever meet.
養蜂家は皆さんが会う中でも最も興味深い人達です
04:28
If this was a group of beekeepers, you would have everyone
もし聴衆の皆さんが養蜂家団体だとしたら
04:31
from the card-carrying NRA member who's, you know, live free or die,
ここの誰もが全米ライフル協会のプラカードを持って
04:34
to the, you know, the self-expressed quirky San Francisco
ひねくれ者のサンフランシスコの自称養豚家たちに
04:39
backyard pig farmer.
抗議している事でしょう
04:42
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:44
And you get all of these people in the same room,
そんな人達全員を同じ部屋に入れると
04:46
and they're all engaged and they're getting along,
みんな交流しあって すぐ仲良くなるでしょう
04:49
and they're all there because of the passion for bees.
みんなミツバチに掛ける情熱は一緒ですから
04:53
Now, there's another part of that community
この人達には別の側面もあります
つまり生業としての養蜂家です
04:56
which are the commercial beekeepers,
この人達には別の側面もあります
つまり生業としての養蜂家です
04:58
the ones who make their livelihood from beekeeping alone.
そのような養蜂家は養蜂のみで
04:59
And these tend to be some of the most independent, tenacious,
生活を営んでいます
養蜂家はきっと皆さんが会う中でも
05:02
intuitive, you know, inventive people you will ever meet.
最も独立心が強く 我慢強く
直観的で 創意あふれる人達です
05:10
They're just fascinating. And they're like that all over the world.
本当に魅力あふれる人達です
世界中の養蜂家がそうです
05:14
I had the privilege of working in Haiti just for two weeks earlier this year.
今年はじめに光栄にもハイチの
養蜂家を2週間訪問しました
05:17
And Haiti, if you've ever been there, is just a tragedy.
訪れた方はご存じのとおり
ハイチは悲惨な状況です
05:21
I mean, there may be 100 explanations
なぜハイチがこんなに貧困なのか
05:24
for why Haiti is the impoverished nation it is,
数えきれない理由があるでしょう
05:26
but there is no excuse to see that sort of squalor.
このような貧困に言い訳はありません
05:29
But you meet this beekeeper, and I met this beekeeper here,
しかし この養蜂家は
実際私も会ったのですが
05:32
and he is one of the most knowledgeable beekeepers I've ever met.
私が知る限り最も知識が
豊富な養蜂家でした
05:35
No formal education, but very knowledgeable.
正式な教育を受けていないのに
何でも知っています
05:37
We needed beeswax for a project we were working on; he was so capable,
私たちにはプロジェクト用の
ミツロウが必要でした
05:39
he was able to render the nicest block of beeswax I have ever seen
彼はとても有能で 私が見た事もない
とても素晴らしいミツロウを取り出しました
05:44
from cow dung, tin cans and his veil, which he used as a screening,
牛の糞 缶やハチ避け用のベールで
ミツロウを作ったのです
05:48
right in this meadow. And so that ingenuity is inspiring.
しかもこの草地の中で
その創造力には本当に感激しました
05:53
We also have Dave Hackenberg, who is the poster child of CCD.
次にデイブ・ハッケンバーグ氏は
CCD のシンボル的な人です
05:57
He's the one who first identified this condition
彼は最初に CCD の状態を確認し
06:00
and raised the alarm bells.
警告を発しました
06:02
And he has a history of these trucks,
また彼はトラック輸送の歴史を作りました
06:04
and he's moved these bees up and down the coast.
彼はミツバチの長距離輸送をしたのです
06:06
And a lot of people talk about trucks and moving bees,
トラックでのミツバチ輸送は悪い噂になりましたが
06:09
and that being bad, but we've done that for thousands of years.
実は何千年も昔から行われてきた事です
06:12
The ancient Egyptians used to move bees up and down the Nile on rafts,
古代エジプト人はミツバチをいかだに
積んでナイル川を往来しました
06:15
so this idea of a movable bee force is not new at all.
ミツバチの運び屋という発想は
全く新しいものではありません
06:18
And one of our real worries with Colony Collapse Disorder
蜂群崩壊症候群で私たちが
最も心配しているのは
06:24
is the fact that it costs so much money to replace those dead-out colonies.
全滅した巣箱を取り換える
コストが莫大な点です
06:28
And you can do that one year in a row,
1年目は何とかなるでしょう
06:32
you may be able to do it two years in a row.
2年連続しても大丈夫でしょう
06:35
But if you're losing 50 percent to 80 percent of your colonies,
しかし巣箱の50~80%が3年連続で
06:37
you can't survive three years in a row. And we're really worried
死滅したら回復は困難です
私たちは ミツバチ産業が
06:41
about losing this segment of our industry.
衰退する事を恐れています
06:44
And that's important for many fronts,
多方面に渡り多大な影響がでます
06:48
and one of them is because of that culture that's in agriculture.
農業文化も深刻な影響を受ける一つです
06:50
And these migratory beekeepers are the last nomads of America.
移住性の養蜂家たちは
アメリカ最後の遊牧民です
06:54
You know, they pick up their hives;
ミツバチの巣を運ぶために
06:59
they move their families once or twice in a year.
家族と共に年に1、2回移動します
07:00
And if you look at Florida, in Dade City, Florida,
フロリダ州のデード・シティは
07:03
that's where all the Pennsylvania beekeepers go.
ペンシルバニア州の養蜂家が集まる場所です
07:06
And then 20 miles down the road is Groveland,
そこから30キロ先にグローブランドがあります
07:08
and that's where all the Wisconsin beekeepers go.
そこにはウィスコンシン州の養蜂家が集まります
07:10
And if you're ever in Central Valley in February, you go to this café
もし2月にセントラル・バレーに行ったら
07:12
at 10 o'clock in the morning, Kathy and Kate's.
キャシー&ケートというカフェに
朝10時に行くといいです
07:17
And that's where all the beekeepers come after a night of moving bees
そこにはミツバチをアーモンド畑に運搬し終わった
07:20
into the almond groves.
養蜂家が来て
朝食を取ります
07:23
They all have their breakfast
養蜂家が来て
朝食を取ります
07:24
and complain about everyone right there. And it's a great experience,
愚痴を言い合ったりしながら
本当に素晴らしい経験です
07:25
and I really encourage you to drop in at that diner during that time,
ぜひその時間に
この食堂に行ってみて下さい
07:30
because that's quite essential American experience.
真実のアメリカを体験できます
07:33
And we see these families, these nomadic families, you know,
この遊牧的な家族を見ていると
07:36
father to son, father to son, and these guys are hurting.
父親から息子まで
彼らはみんな苦しんでいます
07:40
And they're not people who like to ask for help,
ですが彼らは自ら助けを
求めようとはしません
07:44
although they are the most helpful people ever.
それでも本当に頼りになる人達です
07:47
If there's one guy who loses all his bees because of a truck overhaul,
誰かがトラック修理のため
ミツバチを全て失なったら
07:49
everyone pitches in and gives 20 hives
みんな巣箱を20箱位ずつ分けるのです
07:53
to help him replace those lost colonies.
巣箱を失なった仲間のためにです
07:55
And so, it's a very dynamic, and I think,
本当に心強い事です
07:57
historic and exciting community to be involved with.
歴史があって心暖まる人達だと思います
07:59
Of course, the real importance for bees is not the honey.
もちろんミツバチの重要性は
蜂蜜以外にあります
08:06
And although I highly encourage you, all use honey.
蜂蜜を使うのは とてもお勧めですけど
08:09
I mean, it's the most ethical sweetener,
蜂蜜は最も倫理的な甘味料です
08:11
and you know, it's a dynamic and fun sweetener.
深みのある楽しい甘味料です
08:14
But we estimate that about one in three bites of food we eat
一方私たちの食べる食物の3分の1は
08:17
is directly or indirectly pollinated by honeybees.
直接的または間接的にミツバチが授粉します
08:21
Now, I want to just illustrate that in the fact
これを私の昨日の朝食を
08:26
that if we look at the breakfast I had yesterday morning --
例に取って説明しましょう
08:28
a little cranberry juice, some fruits, some granola,
クランベリージュース 果物 グラノラです
08:32
I should have had whole wheat bread, I realized, but you know,
全粒粉のパンにすべきでした 今気づきました
08:35
jam on my Wonderbread, and some coffee --
ワンダーブレッドにつけたジャム コーヒー
08:38
and had we taken out all those ingredients,
その他全ての原材料を取り出して ―
08:42
-- except for the almonds I wasn't going to pick out from the granola --
グラノラのアーモンドは除きますが ―
08:47
if we had taken out all those ingredients
そこからミツバチが間接または直接授粉した
08:49
the bees had indirectly or directly pollinated,
食べ物を取り除いたら
08:52
we wouldn't have much on our plate.
皿に残る食べ物は多くありません
08:55
So if we did not have bees, it's not like we would starve,
ミツバチがいなかったら 餓死はしなくとも
08:57
but clearly our diet would be diminished.
私たちの食生活は貧弱になるでしょう
09:00
It's said that for bees, the flower is the fountain of life,
花はミツバチの命の泉だとか
09:05
and for flowers bees are the messengers of love.
ミツバチは花の愛のメッセンジャーだと言います
09:08
And that's a really great expression, because really,
素晴らしい表現です ミツバチは本当に
09:11
bees are the sex workers for flowers. They are, you know --
花にとって愛の使者みたいなものです
09:14
they get paid for their services.
サービスして代償を得るわけです
09:17
They get paid by pollen and nectar,
代償の花粉と蜜を得て
09:19
to move that male sperm, the pollen, from flower to flower.
ミツバチは精子つまり花粉を花から花へ運びます
09:21
And there are flowers that are self-infertile. That means they can't --
多くの花は自分では繁殖できません つまり
09:25
the pollen in their bloom can't fertilize themselves.
自分の花の花粉では受精しないのです
09:28
So in an apple orchard, for instance, you'll have rows of 10 apples
果樹園に一列あたり10本のリンゴの木があり
09:32
of one variety, and then you have another apple tree
一列ずつ花粉が異なる別の品種の
09:35
that's a different type of pollen.
リンゴの木があるとします
09:38
And bees are very faithful.
ミツバチはとても従順です
ミツバチは一つの花から花粉を集めると
09:40
When they're out pollinating or gathering pollen from one flower,
ミツバチはとても従順です
ミツバチは一つの花から花粉を集めると
09:41
they stay to that crop exclusively, in order to help generate.
花が受精するように同じ品種の
花にしか行きません
09:45
And of course, they're made to carry this pollen.
もちろんミツバチは花粉を
運ぶのに適しています
09:49
They build up a static electric charge and the pollen jumps on them
ミツバチは静電気を起こして
花粉が付きやすくします
09:53
and helps spread that pollen from bloom to bloom.
そして花粉を花から花へ運ぶのです
09:56
However, honeybees are a minority.
しかしミツバチは少数派です
10:00
Honeybees are not native to America; they were introduced
ミツバチはアメリカ原産ではなく
植民地時代に導入されました
10:02
with the colonialists.
ミツバチはアメリカ原産ではなく
植民地時代に導入されました
10:05
And there are actually more species of bees
ミツバチには実は哺乳類と鳥類を
10:06
than there are mammals and birds combined.
合計した以上の種類があります
10:09
In Pennsylvania alone, we have been surveying bees for 150 years,
ペンシルバニア州だけでも
ミツバチの研究は150年に渡り
10:11
and very intensely in the last three years.
さらにこの3年間は特に
集中的に研究しています
10:16
We have identified over 400 species of bees in Pennsylvania.
そしてペンシルバニア州内で
400種類のミツバチを特定しました
10:19
Thirty-two species have not been identified or found in the state since 1950.
そのうち32種類は1950年
以降は確認されていません
10:24
Now, that could be because we haven't been sampling right,
標本の採取方法の問題かもしれません
10:30
but it does, I think, suggest that something's wrong
しかし授粉媒介者のミツバチに
10:33
with the pollinator force. And these bees are fascinating.
何か問題がある可能性もあります
ミツバチは素晴らしい生物です
10:35
We have bumblebees on the top.
マルハナバチが頂点です
10:38
And bumblebees are what we call eusocial: they're not truly social,
マルハナバチは真社会性と言いますが
実はそれほど社交的ではありません
10:40
because only the queen is, over winter.
社交的なのは冬を超す女王蜂だけです
10:43
We also have the sweat bees, and these are little gems flying around.
コハナバチはまるで空飛ぶ小さな宝石です
10:46
They're like tiny little flies and they fly around.
とても小さい種類で さかんに飛び回ります
10:49
And then you have another type of bee, which we call kleptoparasites,
さらに寄生蜂と呼ぶミツバチの種類がいます
10:52
which is a very fancy way of saying, bad-minded, murdering --
この呼び方は 性格が悪くて殺人を犯す ―
10:56
what's the word I'm looking for? Murdering --
言葉は何だろう?
殺人を犯す...
11:04
Audience: Bee?
ミツバチ?
11:07
Dennis vanEngelsdorp: Bee. Okay, thanks.
そう ミツバチ
11:08
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:09
What these bees do is, they sit there. These solitary bees,
これらのミツバチはあまり活動しません
単独行動を好みます
11:11
they drill a hole in the ground or drill a hole in a branch,
これらのミツバチは地面や木の枝に穴をあけて
11:18
and they collect pollen and make it into a ball,
花粉を集めてボール状に丸め
11:21
and they lay an egg on it.
そこに卵を産みます
11:23
Well, these bees hang out at that hole,
穴の中にいるミツバチは
11:25
and they wait for that mother to fly away, they go in, eat the egg,
卵を産んだ母親が飛び去るのを
待って卵を食べてしまいます
11:26
and lay their own egg there. So they don't do any work.
そして卵を産み付けます
まるで ただ乗りです
11:30
And so, in fact, if you know you have these kleptoparasitic bees,
実際に寄生蜂がいるという事は
11:33
you know that your environment is healthy,
その環境が健康的だと言えます
11:38
because they're top-of-the-food-chain bees.
食物連鎖の頂点にいるミツバチだからです
11:40
And in fact, there is now a red list of pollinators
最近の絶滅危惧種の
花粉媒介者リストには
11:43
that we're worried have disappeared, and on top of that list
上位に多くの寄生蜂がいて
絶滅していないか心配です
11:47
are a lot of these kleptoparasites, but also these bumblebees.
マルハナバチも同様です
11:51
And in fact, if you guys live on the West Coast,
西海岸に住む皆さんは
11:54
go to these websites here, and they're really looking for people
このウェブサイトを見て下さい
マルハナバチを探してくれる
11:56
to look for some of these bumblebees, because we think
人を本当に探しています
11:59
some have gone extinct. Or some, the population has declined.
既に多くが絶滅したり
数が減少していると思うからです
12:02
And so it's not just honeybees that are in trouble,
ミツバチだけの問題ではありません
12:06
but we don't understand these native pollinators
固有の花粉媒介者やそれ以外の
12:09
or all those other parts of our community.
種類に何が起きているかも不明です
12:12
And of course, bees are not the only important factor here.
もちろん ミツバチだけが重要な要素ではありません
12:15
There are other animals that pollinate, like bats,
コウモリも花粉を媒介する動物です
12:19
and bats are in trouble too.
コウモリにも問題が起きています
12:21
And I'm glad I'm a bee man and not a bat man,
私はミツバチ男で バットマンじゃなくて幸いです
12:23
because there's no money to research the bat problems.
と言うのも コウモリの問題を
研究するお金は全くありません
12:25
And bats are dying at an extraordinary rate.
コウモリはものすごい勢いで死んでいます
12:29
White-nose syndrome has wiped out populations of bats.
白鼻症候群のせいでコウモリが死滅しています
12:32
If there's a cave in New York that had 15,000 bats in it,
ニューヨークのある洞窟にいた
15,000匹のコウモリが
12:35
and there are 1,000 left. That's like San Francisco
今1,000匹に減ったとします
まるで この群の半分の人口が
12:40
becoming the population of half of this county in three years.
向こう3年間にサンフランシスコの
住人になるようなものです
12:44
And so that's incredible. And there's no money to do that.
信じられません
お金もありません
12:49
But I'm glad to say that I think we know the cause
しかし原因は分かっていると思います
12:51
of all these conditions, and that cause is NDD:
自然欠陥障害 (NDD) です
12:53
Nature Deficit Disorder.
自然欠陥障害 (NDD) です
12:57
And that is that I think that what we have in our society is,
そして私たちの社会で起きているのも
12:59
we forgot our connection with nature.
自然との関わりを失った事です
13:03
And I think if we reconnect to nature,
私たちが自然との関わりを呼び戻せれば
13:05
we'll be able to have the resources and that interest
これらの問題に取り組むための資源や関心を
13:08
to solve these problems.
持つ事ができます
13:11
And I think that there is an easy cure for NDD.
簡単に NDD を改善する方法があると思います
13:13
And that is, make meadows and not lawns.
それは芝生の代わりに草地を作る事です
13:16
And I think we have lost our connection,
私たちは自然と関わりを失っています
13:20
and this is a wonderful way of reconnecting to our environment.
私たちの環境を呼び戻すには
素晴らしい方法です
13:22
I've had the privilege of living by a meadow
私は光栄にも草地の傍に
13:26
for the last little while, and it is terribly engaging.
しばらく住んでいました
それは本当に面白い事です
13:28
And if we look at the history of lawns, it's actually rather tragic.
芝生の歴史を見てみると
実は悲劇的なんです
13:32
It used to be, two, three hundred years ago,
数百年前は
13:37
that a lawn was a symbol of prestige,
芝生は名声の象徴でした
13:39
and so it was only the very rich that could keep these green
そのため 本当のお金持ちだけが
13:41
actually, deserts: they're totally sterile.
緑色の砂漠と言える
不毛の土地を保有したのです
13:44
Americans spent, in 2001 -- 11 percent of all pesticide use was done on lawns.
2001年にはアメリカ人は
殺虫剤全体の 11% を芝生に投与しました
13:47
Five percent of our greenhouse gases are produced by mowing our lawns.
温暖化ガスの 5% は芝刈りが発生源です
13:52
And so it's incredible the amount of resources we've spent
生態系には無意味な芝生を
13:58
keeping our lawns, which are these useless biosystems.
維持するために費やす資源量は信じられません
14:01
And so we need to rethink this idea.
私たちは再考する必要があります
14:05
In fact, you know, the White House
実際 ホワイト・ハウスでは
14:08
used to have sheep in front in order to help fund
前庭で羊を飼っていました
14:10
the war effort in World War I, which probably is not a bad idea;
第一次世界大戦の支援目的で
悪いアイデアではありません
14:12
it wouldn't be a bad idea.
第一次世界大戦の支援目的で
悪いアイデアではありません
14:15
I want to say this not because I'm opposed completely to mowing lawns.
芝生を刈る事に完全に
反対している訳ではありません
14:16
I think that there is perhaps some advantage to keeping lawns
芝生を持つ意義は少なからずあるでしょう
14:19
at a limited scale, and I think we're encouraged to do that.
限られた範囲なら芝生を持ってもいいでしょう
14:23
But I also want to reinforce some of the ideas we've heard here,
しかし発表されたアイデアを再強調しましょう
14:27
because having a meadow or living by a meadow is transformational.
草地を保有したりその傍に住むと
劇的な変化が起きます
14:29
That it is amazing that connection we can have with what's there.
草地との関わり合いはとても素敵です
14:34
These milkweed plants have grown up in my meadow
過去4年間
14:38
over the last four years. Add to watch the different plants,
私の草地で育てたトウワタです
14:40
or insects, that come to these flowers, to watch that --
これまで聞いた事のある多くの植物や昆虫が
14:44
and we've heard about, you know, this relationship you can have with wine,
集まって来るのです
ワインと人間との関係に似ています
14:48
this companion you can have as it matures
成熟するに従って仲間となるのです
14:51
and as it has these different fragrances.
そして香りも違ってきます
14:54
And this is a companion,
これは仲間です
14:56
and this is a relationship that never dries up.
そして枯れることのない関係です
14:58
You never run out of that companion as you drink this wine, too.
このワインを飲んでも
仲間はいなくなりません
15:01
And I encourage you to look at that.
皆さんにも経験して欲しいです
15:05
Now, not all of us have meadows,
私たち全員に草地や
15:08
or lawns that we can convert, and so you can always, of course,
転換できる芝生がある訳ではありません
15:10
grow a meadow in a pot.
鉢に草花を植えましょう
15:13
Bees apparently, can be the gateway to, you know, other things.
ミツバチは他の色んな事に導いてくれます
15:15
So I'm not saying that you should plant a meadow of pot,
鉢だらけの草地を作れとは言っていません
15:18
but a pot in a meadow.
ひとつの鉢に草地を作るのです
15:22
But you can also have this great community of city
養蜂は街や建物の屋上でもできます
15:25
or building-top beekeepers, these beekeepers that live --
街にも養蜂家は住んでいます
15:28
This is in Paris where these beekeepers live.
これはパリに住む養蜂家です
15:31
And everyone should open a beehive,
皆さんに巣箱を持ってもらいたいです
15:34
because it is the most amazing, incredible thing.
巣箱は信じられない素晴らしい世界なのです
15:36
And if we want to cure ourselves of NDD, or Nature Deficit Disorder,
私たち自身の自然欠損障害 (NDD) の治療にも
15:39
I think this is a great way of doing it.
とても良い方法だと思います
15:42
Get a beehive and grow a meadow,
ミツバチの巣を手に入れて 草地を育てる
15:44
and watch that life come back into your life.
そして生物が皆さんの生活に
戻ってくるのを観察しましょう
15:46
And so with that, I think that what we can do, if we do this,
私たちに出来ることは これをすれば
15:49
we can make sure that our future -- our more perfect future --
私たちの未来 より良い未来には
15:53
includes beekeepers and it includes bees and it includes those meadows.
養蜂家がいて ミツバチもいて
草地もあるのです
15:56
And that journey -- that journey of transformation that occurs
そして その転機となるこの旅は
16:01
as you grow your meadow and as you keep your bees
草地を育て ミツバチを
育てる事で始まるのです
16:04
or you watch those native bees there -- is an extremely exciting one.
自然のミツバチが飛ぶのを見る
これは本当にワクワクします
16:07
And I hope that you experience it
ぜひ ご自分で体験して
いつかその話を聞かせて下さい
16:11
and I hope you tell me about it one day.
ぜひ ご自分で体験して
いつかその話を聞かせて下さい
16:12
So thank you very much for being here.
Thank you very much.
来てくれて感謝します
どうもありがとうございました
16:15
Translator:Mariko Imada
Reviewer:Akira Kan

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Dennis vanEngelsdorp - Bee expert
Dennis vanEngelsdorp is Acting State Apiarist for Pennsylvania's Department of Agriculture, studying colony collapse disorder -- the alarming, worldwide disappearance of worker bees and Western honey bees.

Why you should listen

"Imagine if one of every three cows died. The National Guard would be out." It's a grim premise, but a favorite of Dennis vanEngelsdorp, who in 2008 watched the same percentage of bees vanish in North America. A leading apiarist, vanEngelsdorp knows the disturbing consequences of the bee die-off. Colony collapse disorder (its official name) is complex and mysterious, driven by pesticides, toxins and disease, and threatens not only the existence of the insect but also the food they pollinate -- a third of what we eat.

But vanEngelsdorp is not a pessimist, however worrisome the situation. Since finding his love for bees in an undergraduate beekeeping course, he's steadily chewed through new degree programs, becoming an outspoken bee crusader, generating global buzz -- sorry -- for the fascinating critters: their workers' dance, their convenient chronic case of static cling ...

To fight recent losses, he's now advocating urban beekeeping and honeymaking (sadly, illegal in some cities), drive-by-night repopulation programs, and emergency queen bee delivery by express mail (legal -- really).

The original video is available on TED.com
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