English-Video.net comment policy

The comment field is common to all languages

Let's write in your language and use "Google Translate" together

Please refer to informative community guidelines on TED.com

TED2012

Joshua Foer: Feats of memory anyone can do

ジョシュア・フォア: 誰でもできる記憶術

Filmed
Views 4,811,864

数千個の数字やカードが並ぶ順序をまるごと1組(10組でも!)すぐに暗記できる人がいます。科学ライターのジョシュア・フォアは記憶の宮殿と名付けられたそのテクニックについて説明し,注目すべき特徴について話します。すなわち、このテクニックは誰でもできるのです。フォア自身にも。

- Writer
Joshua Foer is a science writer who 'accidentally' won the U.S. Memory Championship. Full bio

I'd like to invite you to close your eyes.
みなさん 目を閉じて
00:16
Imagine yourself standing
自分の家の
00:20
outside the front door of your home.
玄関前に立っていると想像してください
00:23
I'd like you to notice the color of the door,
ドアの色や
00:27
the material that it's made out of.
素材をよく確かめて
00:30
Now visualize a pack of overweight nudists on bicycles.
次に思い浮かべるのは
自転車に乗った 太ったヌーディストです
00:34
They are competing in a naked bicycle race,
みんな全裸でレース中です
00:41
and they are headed straight for your front door.
あなたの玄関に突進してきます
00:44
I need you to actually see this.
その映像を思い浮かべてください
00:48
They are pedaling really hard, they're sweaty,
懸命にペダルをこいで 汗だらけで
00:50
they're bouncing around a lot.
あっちこちにぶつかり
00:53
And they crash straight into the front door of your home.
そのまま玄関に突っ込み
00:56
Bicycles fly everywhere, wheels roll past you,
自転車が宙を舞い
タイヤがあなたをかすめ
01:00
spokes end up in awkward places.
スポークがヘンなところに着地
01:04
Step over the threshold of your door
ドアに入りましょう
01:07
into your foyer, your hallway, whatever's on the other side,
広間でしょうか ホールでしょうか
とにかく入って
01:11
and appreciate the quality of the light.
差し込む光を よく見ましょう
01:13
The light is shining down on Cookie Monster.
光は クッキーモンスターを照らしています
01:17
Cookie Monster is waving at you
クッキーモンスターは 黄褐色の ―
01:23
from his perch on top of a tan horse.
しゃべる馬にまたがり
01:26
It's a talking horse.
あなたに手を振っています
01:29
You can practically feel his blue fur tickling your nose.
青い毛が鼻をくすぐるのを 実際に感じます
01:31
You can smell the oatmeal raisin cookie that he's about to shovel into his mouth.
彼が口に放り込もうとしている
オートミールレーズン・クッキーの匂いがします
01:35
Walk past him. Walk past him into your living room.
横を通って リビングへ行きましょう
01:40
In your living room, in full imaginative broadband,
ここでは 目いっぱい想像力を使って
01:43
picture Britney Spears.
ブリトニー・スピアーズを
思い浮かべてください
01:46
She is scantily clad, she's dancing on your coffee table,
大胆な露出で テーブルの上で踊りながら
01:49
and she's singing "Hit Me Baby One More Time."
『ベイビー・ワン・モア・タイム』を
歌っています
01:55
And then follow me into your kitchen.
次はキッチンです
01:57
In your kitchen, the floor has been paved over with a yellow brick road
床は黄色いレンガの道になっていて
02:00
and out of your oven are coming towards you
オーブンから『オズの魔法使い』の
02:04
Dorothy, the Tin Man,
ドロシーと ブリキ男と
02:08
the Scarecrow and the Lion from "The Wizard of Oz,"
かかしと ライオンが出てきます
02:10
hand-in-hand skipping straight towards you.
手をつないでスキップしながら
まっすぐ向ってきます
02:13
Okay. Open your eyes.
さあ 目を開いて
02:15
I want to tell you about a very bizarre contest
これからお話しするのは
毎年ニューヨークで開かれる
02:20
that is held every spring in New York City.
風変りな競技会についてです
02:23
It's called the United States Memory Championship.
全米記憶選手権といいます
02:26
And I had gone to cover this contest a few years back
数年前 科学ライターとして
この競技会を取材しました
02:30
as a science journalist
私はサヴァン症候群患者の
02:33
expecting, I guess, that this was going to be
スーパーボウルみたいなものを
02:35
like the Superbowl of savants.
期待していました
02:37
This was a bunch of guys and a few ladies,
でも実際は 男だらけで 女性数名 ―
02:40
widely varying in both age and hygienic upkeep.
年齢も清潔さも まちまちな集まりでした
02:44
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:48
They were memorizing hundreds of random numbers,
参加者は たった一度見ただけで
数百個のランダムな
02:51
looking at them just once.
数字を記憶し
02:55
They were memorizing the names of dozens and dozens and dozens of strangers.
ものすごい数の 初対面の人の名前を覚え
02:56
They were memorizing entire poems in just a few minutes.
わずか数分で 詩を丸ごと暗記し
03:01
They were competing to see who could memorize
シャッフルしたカードの順番を
03:04
the order of a shuffled pack of playing cards the fastest.
記憶する速さを競うのです
03:06
I was like, this is unbelievable.
信じられませんでした
03:10
These people must be freaks of nature.
彼らは自然が生んだ怪物に違いない
03:12
And I started talking to a few of the competitors.
そこで参加者に話を聞きました
03:15
This is a guy called Ed Cook
彼はエド・クック
03:19
who had come over from England
イングランドでも最高の
03:20
where he had one of the best trained memories.
記憶力の持ち主です
03:22
And I said to him, "Ed, when did you realize
彼に こうたずねました
「エド 自分がサヴァンだと
03:24
that you were a savant?"
気付いたのは いつ?」
03:27
And Ed was like, "I'm not a savant.
するとエドは こう言いました
「僕はサヴァンじゃない
03:30
In fact, I have just an average memory.
記憶力は普通だよ
03:33
Everybody who competes in this contest
競技会の参加者は みんな
03:35
will tell you that they have just an average memory.
記憶力は人並みだって言うはずだよ
03:37
We've all trained ourselves
みんな訓練を積んで
03:40
to perform these utterly miraculous feats of memory
驚異的な記憶の離れ業をやっているのさ
03:42
using a set of ancient techniques,
ギリシャで2500年前に
03:46
techniques invented 2,500 years ago in Greece,
発明された 古代のテクニックを使うんだ
03:48
the same techniques that Cicero had used
キケロが演説を覚え
03:52
to memorize his speeches,
中世の学者たちが
03:55
that medieval scholars had used to memorize entire books."
本を丸ごと暗記するために
使ったのと同じテクニックだよ」
03:57
And I was like, "Whoa. How come I never heard of this before?"
僕の反応は
「なんで今まで知らなかったんだろう?」
04:01
And we were standing outside the competition hall,
僕たちは競技会場の外にいました
04:05
and Ed, who is a wonderful, brilliant,
エドはすごく優秀だけど
04:08
but somewhat eccentric English guy,
少し変わったイングランド人です
04:11
says to me, "Josh, you're an American journalist.
彼が言うのです
「君はアメリカのジャーナリストだろう
04:14
Do you know Britney Spears?"
ブリトニー・スピアーズは知り合いかい?」
04:19
I'm like, "What? No. Why?"
「何? ― いいや どうして?」
04:21
"Because I really want to teach Britney Spears
「ブリトニーに
シャッフルしたカードの順番を
04:26
how to memorize the order of a shuffled pack of playing cards
記憶する方法を教えたいんだ
04:29
on U.S. national television.
それもアメリカのテレビでね
04:31
It will prove to the world that anybody can do this."
ブリトニーにできるなら
誰でもできるという証明になる」
04:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:37
I was like, "Well I'm not Britney Spears,
だから僕は言いました
「ブリトニーじゃないけど
04:41
but maybe you could teach me.
僕に教えてみないか
04:45
I mean, you've got to start somewhere, right?"
まず始めてみるべきだろう?」
04:48
And that was the beginning of a very strange journey for me.
これが風変りな旅のはじまりでした
04:50
I ended up spending the better part of the next year
翌年 多くの時間を割いて
04:54
not only training my memory,
自分の記憶力を鍛えながら
04:57
but also investigating it,
記憶について調べ どう機能しているか
04:59
trying to understand how it works,
時々 機能しないのはなぜか
05:01
why it sometimes doesn't work
どのくらい可能性を秘めているかを
05:03
and what its potential might be.
理解しようとしました
05:05
I met a host of really interesting people.
たくさん面白い人に会いました
05:07
This is a guy called E.P.
この人は E.P.
05:10
He's an amnesic who had, very possibly,
記憶障害があって
05:11
the very worst memory in the world.
おそらく世界でいちばん
記憶力のない人です
05:14
His memory was so bad
そのため
05:17
that he didn't even remember he had a memory problem,
自分に記憶障害があることすら
思い出せません
05:18
which is amazing.
これはすごいことです
05:21
And he was this incredibly tragic figure,
とても悲劇的な人物ですが
05:23
but he was a window into the extent
どの程度 記憶が
05:25
to which our memories make us who we are.
我々を形作っているかを知る
手がかりとなる存在です
05:27
The other end of the spectrum: I met this guy.
その対極にいるのが この人
05:31
This is Kim Peek.
キム・ピークです
05:34
He was the basis for Dustin Hoffman's character in the movie "Rain Man."
映画『レインマン』で
ダスティン・ホフマンが演じた人物のモデルです
05:35
We spent an afternoon together
ある日の午後
ソルトレイクシティーの公立図書館で
05:39
in the Salt Lake City Public Library memorizing phone books,
一緒に電話帳を暗記して過ごしました
05:41
which was scintillating.
とても面白かった
05:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:48
And I went back and I read a whole host of memory treatises,
帰ってから記憶に関する文献を
読みあさりました
05:51
treatises written 2,000-plus years ago
2000年以上前の古典古代や
05:55
in Latin in Antiquity
その後 中世に
05:58
and then later in the Middle Ages.
ラテン語で書かれた文献です
06:00
And I learned a whole bunch of really interesting stuff.
いろいろ興味深いことを学びました
06:03
One of the really interesting things that I learned
なかでも面白かったのは
06:05
is that once upon a time,
かつては記憶力を
06:08
this idea of having a trained, disciplined, cultivated memory
訓練し 鍛え 高めることが
06:11
was not nearly so alien as it would seem to us to be today.
今ほど奇妙な事ではなかったということです
06:17
Once upon a time, people invested in their memories,
かつて人々は記憶 すなわち
06:22
in laboriously furnishing their minds.
心を強化することに 精力を注ぎました
06:26
Over the last few millenia
数千年にわたり 我々は
06:31
we've invented a series of technologies --
様々な技術を発明してきました
06:34
from the alphabet to the scroll
文字にはじまり 巻物 ―
06:36
to the codex, the printing press, photography,
写本 印刷機 写真 コンピュータや
06:39
the computer, the smartphone --
スマートフォンにいたるまでです
06:41
that have made it progressively easier and easier
これらによって 記憶を外在化し
06:43
for us to externalize our memories,
記憶という
06:46
for us to essentially outsource
人間の基盤となる能力を
06:49
this fundamental human capacity.
外部に委ねることが
次第に簡単になってきました
06:51
These technologies have made our modern world possible,
技術は現代社会を支える一方で
06:54
but they've also changed us.
我々自身にも変化をもたらしました
06:58
They've changed us culturally,
我々は文化的にも
07:00
and I would argue that they've changed us cognitively.
おそらく 認知的にも変わりました
07:02
Having little need to remember anymore,
覚える必要がなくなり
07:05
it sometimes seems like we've forgotten how.
記憶する方法を忘れてしまったようです
07:08
One of the last places on Earth
記憶力を鍛え 高めるという考えに
07:11
where you still find people passionate about this idea
熱心な人々に会える ―
07:13
of a trained, disciplined, cultivated memory
地上でほとんど最後の場所が
07:16
is at this totally singular memory contest.
このユニークな記憶コンテストなのです
07:19
It's actually not that singular,
ただ珍しいものではありません
07:22
there are contests held all over the world.
世界中で開かれていますから
07:23
And I was fascinated, I wanted to know how do these guys do it.
私は興味がわいて 彼らのやり方を
知りたくなりました
07:25
A few years back a group of researchers at University College London
数年前にロンドン大学の研究者が
07:29
brought a bunch of memory champions into the lab.
記憶チャンピオンを研究対象に選びました
07:34
They wanted to know:
研究テーマは
07:37
Do these guys have brains
彼らの脳が
07:38
that are somehow structurally, anatomically different from the rest of ours?
構造的 解剖学的に普通の脳とちがうのか?
07:40
The answer was no.
そのこたえは「ノー」でした
07:44
Are they smarter than the rest of us?
では我々より頭がいいのか?
07:47
They gave them a bunch of cognitive tests,
認知テストの結果 ―
07:50
and the answer was not really.
それほどでもないとわかりました
07:52
There was however one really interesting and telling difference
ただ 記憶チャンピオンの脳と
07:54
between the brains of the memory champions
普通の人の脳との間には
07:58
and the control subjects that they were comparing them to.
明らかな違いがありました
08:00
When they put these guys in an fMRI machine,
チャンピオンの脳を
08:02
scanned their brains
fMRIでスキャンし その間に
08:05
while they were memorizing numbers and people's faces and pictures of snowflakes,
数字や顔や雪の結晶を
記憶してもらいました
08:07
they found that the memory champions
すると普通の人と比較して
08:12
were lighting up different parts of the brain
彼らは 脳の違う部分を
08:14
than everyone else.
使っていたのです
08:17
Of note, they were using, or they seemed to be using,
特に 彼らが使う部分は
08:19
a part of the brain that's involved in spatial memory and navigation.
空間記憶とナビゲーションに
関わる部分のようです
08:22
Why? And is there something the rest of us can learn from this?
なぜでしょう?
ここから何がわかるでしょう?
08:26
The sport of competitive memorizing
スポーツとしての競技記憶は
08:32
is driven by a kind of arms race
まるで軍拡競争のようです
08:37
where every year somebody comes up
毎年より多く より速く覚えるために
08:39
with a new way to remember more stuff more quickly,
新しい方法を思いつく人があらわれ
08:43
and then the rest of the field has to play catchup.
みんながそれに追いつこうとします
08:45
This is my friend Ben Pridmore,
友人のベン・プリドモアは
08:47
three-time world memory champion.
3度 世界チャンピオンになっています
08:49
On his desk in front of him
机の上には
08:51
are 36 shuffled packs of playing cards
シャッフルされたカードが36組あります
08:52
that he is about to try to memorize in one hour,
ベン自身が開発し
彼だけがマスターした技を使い
08:56
using a technique that he invented and he alone has mastered.
1時間で暗記しようとしています
08:59
He used a similar technique
彼は同様のテクニックで
09:03
to memorize the precise order
4,140個のランダムな2進数の
09:05
of 4,140 random binary digits
正確な順序を
09:08
in half an hour.
30分で覚えました
09:13
Yeah.
すごいでしょう
09:16
And while there are a whole host of ways
競技会では
09:18
of remembering stuff in these competitions,
様々な記憶法が見られますが
09:22
everything, all of the techniques that are being used,
そのテクニックはすべて
09:25
ultimately come down to a concept
心理学者が精緻な符号化と呼ぶ
09:28
that psychologists refer to as elaborative encoding.
概念に集約されます
09:31
And it's well illustrated by a nifty paradox
この概念を見事に具体化しているのが
09:35
known as the Baker/baker paradox,
Baker/bakerパラドクスです
09:37
which goes like this:
お見せしましょう
09:39
If I tell two people to remember the same word,
2人に同じ言葉を覚えてもらいます
09:41
if I say to you,
あなたは
09:44
"Remember that there is a guy named Baker."
ベイカーという名前を覚えてください
09:45
That's his name.
人の名前です
09:49
And I say to you, "Remember that there is a guy who is a baker."
あなたは baker つまり
パン屋がいる場面を覚えてください
09:50
And I come back to you at some point later on,
しばらく経ってから
お二人にこうたずねます
09:56
and I say, "Do you remember that word
「さっきの あの言葉 覚えていますか?
09:59
that I told you a while back?
「さっきの あの言葉 覚えていますか?
10:03
Do you remember what it was?"
何でした?」
10:04
The person who was told his name is Baker
ベイカーという名前を教えられた人は
10:06
is less likely to remember the same word
パン屋という職業を聞いた人に比べて
10:09
than the person was told his job is that he is a baker.
その言葉を思い出しにくかったのです
10:11
Same word, different amount of remembering; that's weird.
言葉は同じなのに記憶量が違う・・・
変ですね
10:15
What's going on here?
どうなっているのでしょうか?
10:18
Well the name Baker doesn't actually mean anything to you.
実はベイカーという名前は
あまり意味をもっていません
10:20
It is entirely untethered
この名前は頭の中にある他の記憶と
10:25
from all of the other memories floating around in your skull.
まったくつながりがないのです
10:27
But the common noun baker,
パン屋のbakerはどうでしょう
10:31
we know bakers.
みんなパン屋を知っています
10:33
Bakers wear funny white hats.
面白い形の白帽をかぶり
10:34
Bakers have flour on their hands.
手には小麦粉 ―
10:37
Bakers smell good when they come home from work.
仕事から帰ると いい匂いがします
10:38
Maybe we even know a baker.
知り合いにパン屋がいるかもしれません
10:40
And when we first hear that word,
この言葉を聞いた瞬間に
10:42
we start putting these associational hooks into it
連想する手がかりと結びつくので
10:44
that make it easier to fish it back out at some later date.
言葉を再び取り出すことが容易になります
10:47
The entire art of what is going on
記憶コンテストで使われる技術 ―
10:51
in these memory contests
そして 日常生活で
10:54
and the entire art of remembering stuff better in everyday life
よりよく覚えるための こつは
10:56
is figuring out ways to transform capital B Bakers
ベイカーという名前を
パン屋のbakerに変換する方法を
10:59
into lower-case B bakers --
知ることにほかなりません
11:03
to take information that is lacking in context,
文脈や意義や内容をもたない情報を
11:05
in significance, in meaning
取り上げて
11:08
and transform it in some way
頭の中にある
11:11
so that it becomes meaningful
物事との関連から
11:12
in the light of all the other things that you have in your mind.
意味あるものへと
変換する方法を知ることなのです
11:14
One of the more elaborate techniques for doing this
これをさらに複雑にしたテクニックが
11:19
dates back 2,500 years to Ancient Greece.
2500年前の古代ギリシャにありました
11:23
It came to be known as the memory palace.
「記憶の宮殿」という名で知られます
11:27
The story behind its creation goes like this:
この技の誕生にまつわる話があります
11:29
There was a poet called Simonides
詩人のシモニデスは
11:32
who was attending a banquet.
祝宴に参加していました
11:35
He was actually the hired entertainment,
お雇い詩人だったのです
11:37
because back then if you wanted to throw a really slamming party,
当時 最高のパーティをやろうと思ったら
11:39
you didn't hire a D.J., you hired a poet.
DJじゃなく 詩人を雇ったのです
11:42
And he stands up, delivers his poem from memory, walks out the door,
シモニデスは
詩を暗唱した後 部屋を出ます
11:46
and at the moment he does, the banquet hall collapses,
その瞬間 宴会場が崩壊して
11:50
kills everybody inside.
中にいた全員が死にます
11:56
It doesn't just kill everybody,
それだけではなく
11:58
it mangles the bodies beyond all recognition.
損傷がひどくて誰が誰だか分かりません
12:01
Nobody can say who was inside,
誰が中にいて
12:05
nobody can say where they were sitting.
どこに座っていたかもわからない
12:07
The bodies can't be properly buried.
これではきちんと埋葬できない
12:10
It's one tragedy compounding another.
悲劇が悲劇を呼びます
12:12
Simonides, standing outside,
戸外にいたシモニデスは
12:16
the sole survivor amid the wreckage,
惨事の唯一の生き残りです
12:19
closes his eyes and has this realization,
彼は目を閉じると あることに気づきます
12:21
which is that in his mind's eye,
心の目で
12:25
he can see where each of the guests at the banquet had been sitting.
客がそれぞれ
どこに座っていたかが見えるのです
12:27
And he takes the relatives by the hand
彼は犠牲者の親類の手をとり
12:32
and guides them each to their loved ones amid the wreckage.
がれきの中 最愛の人の元へと導きます
12:35
What Simonides figured out at that moment
この時シモニデスが気づいたことは
12:39
is something that I think we all kind of intuitively know,
誰もがおそらく
直感的にわかっていることです
12:42
which is that, as bad as we are
つまり我々は
12:45
at remembering names and phone numbers
名前や電話番号や同僚からの指示を
12:48
and word-for-word instructions from our colleagues,
まるごと覚えるのは苦手だが
12:51
we have really exceptional visual and spatial memories.
視覚的 空間的な記憶には
優れているのです
12:53
If I asked you to recount the first 10 words
もし私が みなさんに
今のシモニデスの話の
12:59
of the story that I just told you about Simonides,
最初の10語を思い出して
13:03
chances are you would have a tough time with it.
言ってもらおうとしても
かなり難しいでしょう
13:05
But I would wager
でも 玄関ホールで
13:07
that if I asked you to recall
しゃべる馬に乗っているのが
13:10
who is sitting on top of a talking tan horse
誰だったかたずねたら
13:12
in your foyer right now,
きっと思い出せるはずです
13:17
you would be able to see that.
きっと思い出せるはずです
13:19
The idea behind the memory palace
記憶の宮殿の背後にある発想は こうです
13:21
is to create this imagined edifice in your mind's eye
頭の中で大きな建物を想像して
13:24
and populate it with images
その中に覚えたいものの
13:29
of the things that you want to remember --
イメージを配置します
13:30
the crazier, weirder, more bizarre,
イメージが 異常で 不気味で 奇怪で
13:32
funnier, raunchier, stinkier the image is,
おかしく 卑猥で 不快なものであるほど
13:36
the more unforgettable it's likely to be.
忘れにくくなります
13:39
This is advice that goes back 2,000-plus years
この知識は2000年以上前の
13:42
to the earliest Latin memory treatises.
記憶に関するラテン語の
文献までさかのぼります
13:45
So how does this work?
どういう仕組みでしょうか?
13:48
Let's say that you've been invited
たとえば あなたが講演のために
13:50
to TED center stage to give a speech
TEDのメイン・ステージに
招かれたとしましょう
13:52
and you want to do it from memory,
そして記憶をたよりに話そうとします
13:56
and you want to do it the way that Cicero would have done it
2000年前にキケロが
TEDxRomeに招かれていたら
13:59
if he had been invited to TEDxRome 2,000 years ago.
使ったであろう方法です
14:04
What you might do
まず あなたは
14:08
is picture yourself at the front door of your house.
自宅の玄関にいる自分を想像します
14:11
And you'd come up with some sort
そして異様で馬鹿げた
14:16
of an absolutely crazy, ridiculous, unforgettable image
忘れにくいイメージを思い浮かべます
14:18
to remind you that the first thing you want to talk about
話の出だしは 奇妙な競技会のことだと
14:21
is this totally bizarre contest.
思い出せるようなイメージです
14:24
And then you'd go inside your house,
次にあなたは家に入り
14:27
and you would see an image of Cookie Monster
馬のミスター・エドに乗った
クッキーモンスターの
14:30
on top of Mister Ed.
イメージを目にします
14:33
And that would remind you
このイメージから
14:35
that you would want to then introduce your friend Ed Cook.
次にエド・クックを紹介することを
思い出します
14:36
And then you'd see an image of Britney Spears
さらにブリトニー・スピアーズのイメージから
14:39
to remind you of this funny anecdote you want to tell.
面白いエピソードを思い出します
14:42
And you go into your kitchen,
キッチンに入って
14:45
and the fourth topic you were going to talk about
4つ目の話題は
14:46
was this strange journey that you went on for a year,
1年にわたる奇妙な旅のことです
14:48
and you have some friends to help you remember that.
これはドロシー達が
思い出すのを手伝ってくれます
14:51
This is how Roman orators memorized their speeches --
これがローマの雄弁家たちが
演説を記憶した方法です
14:56
not word-for-word, which is just going to screw you up,
一字一句 覚えるのは
うまくいかないので
15:00
but topic-for-topic.
話題ごとに記憶します
15:04
In fact, the phrase "topic sentence,"
トピック・センテンスという言葉は
15:06
that comes from the Greek word "topos,"
ギリシャ語で「場所」という意味の
15:09
which means "place."
"topos"が語源です
15:12
That's a vestige
これは雄弁術や修辞法について
15:14
of when people used to think about oratory and rhetoric
空間を表す言葉を使って考えた
15:16
in these sorts of spatial terms.
名残です
15:18
The phrase "in the first place,"
「はじめに」という意味の
15:20
that's like in the first place of your memory palace.
"in the first place"は
記憶の宮殿の最初の場所のことです
15:22
I thought this was just fascinating,
この技術は とても魅力的で
15:25
and I got really into it.
僕はのめり込みました
15:27
And I went to a few more of these memory contests.
さらにいくつかの記憶コンテストに出かけ
15:29
And I had this notion that I might write something longer
競技記憶というサブカルチャーについて
15:32
about this subculture of competitive memorizers.
少し長いものを書く気になりました
15:35
But there was a problem.
ただ問題がありました
15:38
The problem was that a memory contest
記憶コンテストは イベントとしては
15:40
is a pathologically boring event.
考えられないほど退屈なのです
15:43
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:46
Truly, it is like a bunch of people sitting around taking the SATs.
大勢の人が学力テストを
受検しているみたいです
15:49
I mean, the most dramatic it gets
最高に劇的な場面でも
15:54
is when somebody starts massaging their temples.
誰かがこめかみを もみ始める程度です
15:55
And I'm a journalist, I need something to write about.
僕はジャーナリストですから
ネタが必要です
15:57
I know that there's this incredible stuff happening in these people's minds,
頭の中ですごいことが起きているのは
わかるのですが
16:00
but I don't have access to it.
それを見ることはできません
16:03
And I realized, if I was going to tell this story,
だからこう考えました
16:06
I needed to walk in their shoes a little bit.
これを書くなら
少し彼らの立場に立たなければ
16:08
And so I started trying to spend 15 or 20 minutes
そこで毎朝15分から20分 ―
16:11
every morning before I sat down with my New York Times
新聞を読む前に
16:15
just trying to remember something.
暗記を始めました
16:17
Maybe it was a poem.
詩の時もあれば
16:20
Maybe it was names from an old yearbook
フリー・マーケットで買った 卒業アルバムの
16:22
that I bought at a flea market.
名簿の時もありました
16:24
And I found that this was shockingly fun.
これが何と 驚くほど面白いんです
16:26
I never would have expected that.
まったく予想していませんでした
16:31
It was fun because this is actually not about training your memory.
なぜ楽しいかというと
単なる記憶の訓練ではないからです
16:34
What you're doing is you're trying to get better and better and better
この訓練は くだらなくて ワイセツで 笑えて
16:37
at creating, at dreaming up,
できれば忘れにくいイメージを作り
16:40
these utterly ludicrous, raunchy, hilarious
思い浮かべる力を
16:42
and hopefully unforgettable images in your mind's eye.
つけるためのものなんです
16:45
And I got pretty into it.
僕はのめり込みました
16:49
This is me wearing my standard competitive memorizer's training kit.
僕が記憶競技用の
訓練キットをつけているところです
16:51
It's a pair of earmuffs
これはヘッドフォン ―
16:58
and a set of safety goggles that have been masked over
それと 完全に遮蔽し
小さな穴だけあけた
17:00
except for two small pinholes,
安全ゴーグルです
17:03
because distraction is the competitive memorizer's greatest enemy.
競技として記憶する我々にとって
最大の敵は気が散ることですから
17:06
I ended up coming back to that same contest that I had covered a year earlier.
結局1年前に取材した
その競技会に戻ってきました
17:11
And I had this notion that I might enter it,
自分としては 参加型ジャーナリズムの
17:17
sort of as an experiment in participatory journalism.
実験のつもりでいました
17:19
It'd make, I thought, maybe a nice epilogue to all my research.
これまでの調査を締めくくる
素敵なエピローグだと思っていたのです
17:22
Problem was the experiment went haywire.
ただ厄介なことに
実験は予想外の結果に終わりました
17:27
I won the contest,
僕が優勝してしまったのです
17:30
which really wasn't supposed to happen.
そんなはずではなかったのですが
17:33
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:36
Now it is nice
確かにスピーチや電話番号や
17:42
to be able to memorize speeches
買い物リストを覚えられるのは
17:44
and phone numbers and shopping lists,
便利ですが
17:47
but it's actually kind of beside the point.
たいしたことではありません
17:50
These are just tricks.
これは単なる技です
17:53
They are tricks that work
この技がうまくいくのは
17:55
because they're based on some pretty basic principles
脳の働きの基本に
17:57
about how our brains work.
従っているからです
18:00
And you don't have to be building memory palaces
心の仕組みを少し考えて役立てるのに
18:02
or memorizing packs of playing cards
記憶の宮殿を造ったり
18:06
to benefit from a little bit of insight
カードを何セットも
18:08
about how your mind works.
覚える必要はありません
18:10
We often talk about people with great memories
よく 記憶力がいいのは
18:12
as though it were some sort of an innate gift,
生まれつきの才能だと言いますが
18:14
but that is not the case.
そうではありません
18:16
Great memories are learned.
記憶力は学習のたまものです
18:18
At the most basic level, we remember when we pay attention.
まずはじめに 注意を向けることで覚えます
18:22
We remember when we are deeply engaged.
没頭しているときに記憶します
18:26
We remember when we are able
我々が記憶するのは
18:29
to take a piece of information and experience
ある情報や経験に意味があるのはなぜか
18:30
and figure out why it is meaningful to us,
なぜ重要なのか
18:33
why it is significant, why it's colorful,
なぜ鮮やかなのかを
理解できた時です
18:35
when we're able to transform it in some way
そして心に浮かぶ物事との関わりの中で
18:38
that it makes sense
意味あるものに
18:40
in the light of all of the other things floating around in our minds,
変換できるとき すなわち
18:42
when we're able to transform Bakers into bakers.
ベイカーさんをパン屋さんに
変換できた時に 覚えるのです
18:44
The memory palace, these memory techniques,
記憶の宮殿や記憶術は
18:49
they're just shortcuts.
近道にすぎません
18:52
In fact, they're not even really shortcuts.
いや 近道ですらありません
18:54
They work because they make you work.
技が機能するのは
そのために努力するからです
18:56
They force a kind of depth of processing,
技に必要なのは 普段はしないような
19:00
a kind of mindfulness,
深い処理や
19:04
that most of us don't normally walk around exercising.
意識の集中です
19:05
But there actually are no shortcuts.
でも近道はありません
19:09
This is how stuff is made memorable.
これが 物事が記憶に残る仕組みなのです
19:12
And I think if there's one thing that I want to leave you with,
みなさんに伝えたいことは
19:15
it's what E.P.,
自分の記憶障害すら忘れていた
19:19
the amnesic who couldn't even remember that he had a memory problem,
E.P.が僕に教えてくれたこと ―
19:22
left me with,
すなわち 我々の人生は
19:26
which is the notion
すなわち 我々の人生は
19:27
that our lives are the sum of our memories.
記憶そのものだという考え方です
19:29
How much are we willing to lose
スマートフォンに熱中したり
19:34
from our already short lives
自分と会話している 目の前の人に
19:40
by losing ourselves in our Blackberries, our iPhones,
関心を寄せなかったり
19:44
by not paying attention to the human being across from us
怠けて深く考えようとしないことで
19:51
who is talking with us,
それでなくても短い人生を
19:54
by being so lazy that we're not willing
どれほど無駄にしているでしょう?
19:56
to process deeply?
どれほど無駄にしているでしょう?
19:58
I learned firsthand
僕が経験から学んだことは
20:02
that there are incredible memory capacities
誰もが秘められた膨大な記憶力を
20:04
latent in all of us.
もっているということです
20:08
But if you want to live a memorable life,
でも記憶に残る人生を送りたいなら
20:10
you have to be the kind of person
覚えることの大切さを
20:13
who remembers to remember.
忘れない人間になるべきです
20:15
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
20:18
(Applause)
(拍手)
20:20
Translated by Kazunori Akashi
Reviewed by Masaki Yanagishita

▲Back to top

About the speaker:

Joshua Foer - Writer
Joshua Foer is a science writer who 'accidentally' won the U.S. Memory Championship.

Why you should listen

In 2005 science writer Joshua Foer went to cover the U.S. Memory Championship. A year later he was back -- as contestant. A year of mental training with Europe's top memorizer turned into a book, Moonwalking with Einstein, which is both a chronicle of his immersion in the memory culture and wonderfully accessible and informative introduction to the science of memory. Much more surprisingly, that year of training also turned into a first-place victory at the national competition in New York and the chance to represent the U.S. at the World Memory Championship. Foer's writing has appeared in National Geographic, Slate, the New York Times, and other publications. He is the co-founder of the Atlas Obscura, an online guide to the world’s wonders and curiosities, and is also the co-founder of the design competition Sukkah City.

More profile about the speaker
Joshua Foer | Speaker | TED.com