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TED2002

Jane Goodall: What separates us from chimpanzees?

ジェーン・グドール: 類人猿とヒトを分かつもの

March 1, 2002

ミッシングリンクの解明には至っていませんが、霊長類学者ジェーン・グドールの功績は高く評価されています。彼女は人間と類人猿の唯一の違いは、我々の高度な「ことば」であると言い、世界を変えるためのツールとしてことばを使うことを力説しています。

Jane Goodall - Primatologist; environmentalist
Jane Goodall, dubbed by her biographer "the woman who redefined man," has changed our perceptions of primates, people, and the connection between the two. Over the past 45 years, Goodall herself has also evolved -- from steadfast scientist to passionate conservationist and humanitarian. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Good morning everyone. First of all, it's been fantastic
おはようございます ここ数日この場にいられて
00:26
being here over these past few days.
感激しているところです
00:30
And secondly, I feel it's a great honor to kind of wind up
そして 素晴らしい皆さんや
00:33
this extraordinary gathering of people,
これまでのTEDトークを
00:37
these amazing talks that we've had.
私が締めくくるなんて 本当に光栄です
00:39
I feel that I've fitted in, in many ways,
いろんな意味で
00:42
to some of the things that I've heard.
共感が持てる話がありました
00:45
I came directly here
エクアドルの熱帯雨林の奥地から
00:48
from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador,
直接ここに来ました
00:52
where I was out -- you could only get there by a plane --
飛行機じゃなければ たどり着けない場所で
00:57
with indigenous people with paint on their faces
顔には絵の具 頭には羽をつけた
01:00
and parrot feathers on their headdresses,
先住民がいる場所です
01:04
where these people are fighting to try and keep the oil companies,
彼らは石油会社の侵略や道路建設計画から
01:06
and keep the roads, out of their forests.
森林を守ろうと頑張っています
01:11
They're fighting to develop their own way of living within the forest
汚染されていない きれいな森林の中で
01:15
in a world that's clean, a world that isn't contaminated,
自らの暮らしを発展させていこうと
01:19
a world that isn't polluted.
闘っているのです
01:22
And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in
私が驚いたことでもあり
01:25
with what we're all talking about here at TED,
この場にぴったりだと感じたのは
01:28
is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest,
その熱帯雨林の真ん中に
01:31
was some solar panels -- the first in that part of Ecuador --
その地域 初の ソーラーパネルがあり
01:34
and that was mainly to bring water up by pump
女たちが 水汲みに行かなくて済むよう
01:39
so that the women wouldn't have to go down.
水用のポンプに使用されています
01:42
The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries,
浄化水を得る以上の電気が得られるので
01:44
they were able to store a lot of electricity.
蓄電しています
01:47
So every house -- and there were, I think, eight houses
たしか8世帯ある この小さな村では
01:50
in this little community -- could have light
毎晩30分ほどだったと思いますが
01:52
for, I think it was about half an hour each evening.
どの世帯も電気が使えるのです
01:55
And there is the Chief, in all his regal finery, with a laptop computer.
装飾をまとった酋長はノートパソコンを持っています
01:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:04
And this man, he has been outside, but he's gone back,
この酋長は外にも出たことのある人で こう言うんです
02:06
and he was saying, "You know, we have suddenly jumped into
”いきなり新しい時代に突入しちゃったね
02:11
a whole new era, and we didn't even know about the white man
50年前なんて白人の存在すら知らなかったのに
02:17
50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers,
今じゃ パソコンを持つようになった
02:21
and there are some things we want to learn from the modern world.
現代の世界から学びたい事は幾つかある
02:24
We want to know about health care.
健康管理について知りたい
02:27
We want to know about what other people do -- we're interested in it.
他の人のライフスタイルにも興味があるし
02:30
And we want to learn other languages.
外国語も習いたい
02:34
We want to know English and French and perhaps Chinese,
英語 フランス語 できれば中国語もね
02:36
and we're good at languages."
語学には自信があるんだ”
02:40
So there he is with his little laptop computer,
こんな感じで 酋長はパソコンを持ちながら
02:42
but fighting against the might of the pressures --
エクアドルが抱える負債が原因で
02:46
because of the debt, the foreign debt of Ecuador --
世界銀行やIMFからの圧力や
02:50
fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course
熱帯雨林の石油を搾取しようとする者からの
02:53
the people who want to exploit the forests and take out the oil.
圧力と闘っているのです
02:57
And so, coming directly from there to here.
そんなわけで そこから直接やってきました
03:02
But, of course, my real field of expertise
しかし 私が専門とするのは
03:06
lies in an even different kind of civilization --
もっと違った文明社会にあります
03:09
I can't really call it a civilization.
文明社会と呼ぶには適切ではないかもしれませんが
03:13
A different way of life, a different being.
異なる生活の仕方や存在です
03:16
We've talked earlier -- this wonderful talk by Wade Davis
先ほどウェイド ディビスが世界中の異なる人間文化の
03:20
about the different cultures of the humans around the world --
素晴らしい話をされましたが
03:25
but the world is not composed only of human beings;
世界は人間だけで構成されているのではありません
03:28
there are also other animal beings.
動物たちもいます
03:33
And I propose to bring into this TED conference,
私が世界中で常にしていることですが
03:35
as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom.
この場でも動物の声に耳を傾けてみませんか
03:38
Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film,
写真や映画は良く見かけますが
03:42
but these beings have voices that mean something.
動物の声にも意味が込められています
03:45
And so, I want to give you a greeting,
ですからタンザニアの森に住む
03:48
as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania --
チンパンジーの挨拶をお届けします
03:50
Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh!
(チンパンジーの声)
03:54
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:01
I've been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960.
私は1960年からタンザニアでチンパンジーの研究をしています
04:10
During that time, there have been modern technologies
それから今に至る間 現代の技術で
04:15
that have really transformed the way
フィールド生物学者の
04:19
that field biologists do their work.
研究方法が一変しました
04:21
For example, for the first time, a few years ago,
数年前に初めて行った例ですが
04:24
by simply collecting little fecal samples
チンパンジーの糞を採取するだけで
04:27
we were able to have them analyzed -- to have DNA profiling done --
DNA分析し 個人識別ができるようになりました
04:30
so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps
おかげで 初めて 各チンパンジーの
04:35
are the fathers of each individual infant.
父親が特定できるようになりました
04:39
Because the chimps have a very promiscuous mating society.
不特定多数のメスと交尾するからです
04:42
So this opens up a whole new avenue of research.
これは全く新しい研究手段です
04:46
And we use GSI -- geographic whatever it is, GSI --
そして地理情報システムを利用し
04:49
to determine the range of the chimps.
チンパンジーの行動範囲を追っています
04:56
And we're using -- you can see that I'm not really into this kind of stuff --
この種のものは私の専門ではありませんが
05:00
but we're using satellite imagery
衛星を通して この地域の
05:06
to look at the deforestation in the area.
森林破壊を観察しています
05:09
And of course, there's developments in infrared,
赤外線も便利になりました
05:12
so you can watch animals at night,
夜間に動物の観察ができるし
05:15
and equipment for recording by video,
ビデオの性能も良くなり
05:17
and tape recording is getting lighter and better.
機材も軽くなり 質も向上しています
05:20
So in many, many ways, we can do things today
ですから研究を始めた1960年に出来なかった-
05:23
that we couldn't do when I began in 1960.
様々なことが今では可能になりました
05:26
Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals
チンパンジーや他の脳が大きい動物の
05:31
with large brains, are studied in captivity,
高次認知機能を
05:34
modern technology is helping us to search
飼育して研究する際には特に
05:36
for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human animals.
現代の技術が役立っています
05:41
So that we know today, they're capable of performances
今では認められている彼らの能力も
05:45
that would have been thought absolutely impossible
60年代には科学で
05:49
by science when I began.
絶対に不可能とされていました
05:51
I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled
研究所にいる一番賢いチンパンジーは
05:54
in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan --
日本にいるアイだと思います
05:58
her name means love --
愛という意味です
06:02
and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her.
アイには感受性豊かなパートナーがいます
06:04
She loves her computer --
アイはコンピュータが大好き
06:08
she'll leave her big group, and her running water,
仲間や水や木よりも
06:10
and her trees and everything.
好きなんです
06:13
And she'll come in to sit at this computer --
コンピュータの前に座ると
06:15
it's like a video game for a kid; she's hooked.
ゲームをする子供のよう
06:17
She's 28, by the way, and she does things with her computer screen
ちなみに28歳で タッチパネルの操作は
06:19
and a touch pad that she can do faster than most humans.
大多数の人間よりも素早いのです
06:23
She does very complex tasks, and I haven't got time to go into them,
詳しく伝える時間はないのですが
06:29
but the amazing thing about this female is
非常に複雑な課題もこなし
06:34
she doesn't like making mistakes.
間違えることを嫌います
06:36
If she has a bad run, and her score isn't good,
ゲームで高得点が取れないと
06:40
she'll come and reach up and tap on the glass --
実験者がいる部屋のガラスを
06:43
because she can't see the experimenter --
トントン叩くのです
06:45
which is asking to have another go.
もう一度やらせて とね
06:47
And her concentration -- she's already concentrated hard
既に20分ほど のめり込んでいながら
06:50
for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again,
少しでも良く出来たという満足感のために
06:53
just for the satisfaction of having done it better.
最初からやり直したいのです
06:57
And the food is not important -- she does get a tiny reward,
正解に対するご褒美はレーズン1粒ですが
07:00
like one raisin for a correct response --
それはアイにとって重要ではありません
07:03
but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand.
事前に言えばご褒美なしでもゲームをします
07:06
So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer.
コンピュータを使うチンパンジーですよ!
07:10
Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign language.
チンパンジー ゴリラ オラウータンは手話も習得します
07:15
But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 --
私が初めてゴンベに行ったのは1960年で
07:19
I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday --
昨日の事のように鮮明に覚えています
07:24
the first time, when I was going through the vegetation,
初めて野生に足を入れた当時は
07:28
the chimpanzees were still running away from me, for the most part,
チンパンジーも警戒していました
07:31
although some were a little bit acclimatized --
あまり恐れないのも いましたけどね
07:34
and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite mound,
アリ塚を覆う暗い影が見えたので
07:38
and I peered with my binoculars.
双眼鏡で覗いてみたところ
07:42
It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I'd named David Greybeard --
なんと 雄チンパンジーのデイビットでした
07:44
and by the way, science at that time was telling me that I shouldn't name the chimps;
余談ですが 当時は名前をつけずに
07:49
they should all have numbers; that was more scientific.
番号をつけるのが普通でした
07:52
Anyway, David Greybeard -- and I saw that
さておき デイビットですが
07:54
he was picking little pieces of grass and using them
草を引っこ抜き それを使って巣にいる
07:57
to fish termites from their underground nest.
アリを捕まえていたんです
08:01
And not only that -- he would sometimes pick a leafy twig
さらにデイビットは小枝を拾っては
08:04
and strip the leaves --
葉を取り除いていました
08:07
modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose --
特定の目的に合わせて 物を修正するのは
08:09
the beginning of tool-making.
道具づくりの始まりです
08:12
The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough
その当時 飛躍的な前進として
08:15
is at that time, it was thought that humans,
感激した理由は 道具を作り―
08:17
and only humans, used and made tools.
使うのは人間だけだと思われていたからです
08:20
When I was at school, we were defined as man, the toolmaker.
私が学生の時 ヒトの定義は道具を作ることでした
08:23
So that when Louis Leakey, my mentor, heard this news,
わが師 ルイス リーキーが言ったんです
08:27
he said, "Ah, we must now redefine 'man,' redefine 'tool,'
”ヒトと道具の再定義をするか―
08:31
or accept chimpanzees as humans."
チンパンジーをヒトと見なさなければ”
08:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:37
We now know that at Gombe alone, there are nine different ways
現在ではゴンベだけで チンパンジーが道具を
08:39
in which chimpanzees use different objects for different purposes.
目的別に9通りの使い分けをすると確認されています
08:43
Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa,
さらに チンパンジーの研究がされている-
08:47
wherever chimps have been studied,
アフリカの他の地域においても
08:49
there are completely different tool-using behaviors.
道具を使う全く別の習性が確認されています
08:51
And because it seems that these patterns are passed
これらのパターンは世代から世代へと
08:56
from one generation to the next, through observation,
観察 模倣 実践を通じた継承に見えますが
08:59
imitation and practice -- that is a definition of human culture.
それはヒト文化の定義です
09:02
What we find is that over these 40-odd years
40年余りにわたって 私を含む研究者が
09:07
that I and others have been studying chimpanzees
チンパンジーと他の類人猿 そして複雑な脳と
09:11
and the other great apes, and, as I say, other mammals
社会システムを持つ他の哺乳類を
09:14
with complex brains and social systems,
研究して得たのは 結局のところ
09:17
we have found that after all, there isn't a sharp line
人間と他の動物界を隔てる
09:20
dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom.
明白な線は無いということです
09:24
It's a very wuzzy line.
非常に曖昧な線なのです
09:27
It's getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things
人間のみの能力と 傲慢にも考えられていたものが
09:29
that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just human.
違うとわかるたびに境界線は更に曖昧になります
09:32
The chimps -- there's no time to discuss their fascinating lives --
時間の関係上 すべては語れませんが
09:37
but they have this long childhood, five years
チンパンジーは母親と一緒に寝る-
09:41
of suckling and sleeping with the mother,
乳児期が5年あり
09:44
and then another three, four or five years
更に3~5年は
09:46
of emotional dependence on her, even when the next child is born.
次の子が生まれても感情面で母親に依存します
09:48
The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible --
行動が柔軟な時期の学習は大切
09:53
and there's an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society.
しかも彼らの社会は学ぶことがいっぱい
09:56
The long-term affectionate supportive bonds
長い幼少期を通じて育む―
10:00
that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother,
母や兄弟姉妹との
10:03
with the brothers and sisters,
愛情深い絆は
10:06
and which can last through a lifetime,
一生続いていきます
10:08
which may be up to 60 years.
寿命は60年になることも
10:11
They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity,
飼育されている場合は60年以上です
10:13
so we've only done 40 years in the wild so far.
私達は研究を始めてまだ40年
10:16
And we find chimps are capable of true compassion and altruism.
チンパンジーは思いやりがあり利他的行動をとります
10:19
We find in their non-verbal communication -- this is very rich --
彼らの豊富な非言語コミュニケーションでは
10:25
they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances,
多岐に渡って音を使い分けます
10:29
but they also use touch, posture, gesture,
触ったり身構えたり
10:34
and what do they do?
ジェスチャーも使います
10:36
They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands.
キス 抱擁 手つなぎ
10:38
They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist --
背中をポンと叩く 威張り歩く こぶしを振り回す
10:40
the kind of things that we do,
人間がやるような事をして
10:43
and they do them in the same kind of context.
その脈絡も同じです
10:46
They have very sophisticated cooperation.
仲間同士の協力も高度です
10:49
Sometimes they hunt -- not that often,
時に狩りをしますが
10:51
but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation,
チームワークは大したもので
10:54
and they share the prey.
捕った獲物も分け合います
10:57
We find that they show emotions, similar to -- maybe sometimes the same --
人間同様に喜び 悲しみ 恐れ 絶望といった―
11:00
as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair.
感情を持ち合わせ 精神や肉体面の苦しみも
11:06
They know mental as well as physical suffering.
わかっています
11:11
And I don't have time to go into the information
時間の関係で
11:13
that will prove some of these things to you,
詳しくは話せませんが
11:16
save to say that there are very bright students, in the best universities,
トップクラスの大学では学生が
11:18
studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals.
動物の感情や性格を勉強しています
11:22
We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures
チンパンジーや一部の動物は
11:26
can recognize themselves in mirrors -- "self" as opposed to "other."
鏡に映る姿を自分と認識できます
11:29
They have a sense of humor, and these are the kind of things
彼らはユーモアを解し それは
11:34
which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives.
もはや人間のみの特権ではありません
11:38
But this teaches us a new respect -- and it's a new respect
これはチンパンジーのみならず 地球に共存する―
11:44
not only for the chimpanzees, I suggest,
他の動物に対する敬意を
11:49
but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet.
我々は教えられているのです
11:52
Once we're prepared to admit that after all,
人格 心 感情を持つのは
11:56
we're not the only beings with personalities, minds
人間だけではないと認めたときに
11:59
and above all feelings, and then we start to think
知覚力を備えた賢い生き物を
12:02
about ways we use and abuse
人間が利用し
12:04
so many other sentient, sapient creatures on this planet,
悪用していると気付き始めるのです
12:06
it really gives cause for deep shame, at least for me.
私は非常に情けなく感じます
12:12
So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees --
やるせないのは 他の生き物以上に
12:19
who've perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility --
謙虚さ を教えてくれたチンパンジーが
12:23
are in the wild, disappearing very fast.
急速に野生から消え去っていること
12:27
They're disappearing for the reasons
それには理由があり
12:30
that all of you in this room know only too well.
周知の事実でしょう
12:32
The deforestation, the growth of human populations, needing more land.
森林破壊や人口増加に伴う土地開発
12:35
They're disappearing because some timber companies
材木産業の皆伐でチンパンジーが
12:40
go in with clear-cutting.
消えつつあります
12:43
They're disappearing in the heart of their range in Africa
大手多国籍企業が石油や材木目当てに
12:45
because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads --
道路を開発したのが原因でチンパンジーがアフリカの
12:49
as they want to do in Ecuador
生息地域中心部から消えており
12:54
and other parts where the forests remain untouched --
エクアドルや その他の原生林でも
12:56
to take out oil or timber.
同じ事をしようとしています
12:59
And this has led in Congo basin, and other parts of the world,
更に コンゴ盆地や他の地域のブッシュミート取引の
13:03
to what is known as the bush-meat trade.
引き金にもなりました
13:08
This means that although for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years,
何百年から何千年と
13:10
people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is,
森と調和しながら生活してきた人々が
13:14
in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need
自らの生活のために動物を
13:18
for themselves and their families --
殺しています
13:21
now, suddenly, because of the roads,
道路が出来たために突然
13:23
the hunters can go in from the towns.
猟師が街から来て
13:26
They shoot everything, every single thing that moves
ネズミより大きく 動くものは何でも仕留め
13:28
that's bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or smoke it.
天日干しか燻製にします
13:31
And now they've got transport; they take it on the logging trucks
材木や採鉱用のトラックに
13:36
or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it.
便乗して街に運んで売るわけです
13:39
And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it's called,
ブッシュミートは飼育された肉より好まれるので
13:43
than for domestic meat -- it's culturally preferred.
高値で売れるのです
13:48
And it's not sustainable, and the huge logging camps in the forest
持続不可能です 肉目当ての人間が増加し
13:51
are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin
コンゴ盆地に住むピグミー族の
13:55
who've lived there with their wonderful way of living
何百年もの歴史ある生活は
13:59
for so many hundreds of years are now corrupted.
壊されてしまいました
14:03
They're given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get money.
売買人に代わり猟をして対価を受け取る
14:06
Their culture is being destroyed,
彼らの生活を支える動物と共に
14:09
along with the animals upon whom they depend.
文化も破壊されているのです
14:12
So, when the logging camp moves, there's nothing left.
しまいには何も残りません
14:15
We talked already about the loss of human cultural diversity,
人間文化多様性の喪失は既に話しました
14:18
and I've seen it happening with my own eyes.
私は目の当たりにしました
14:21
And the grim picture in Africa -- I love Africa,
私の大好きなアフリカは
14:24
and what do we see in Africa?
悲惨な光景です
14:28
We see deforestation;
森林破壊
14:30
we see the desert spreading; we see massive hunger;
砂漠の拡大 飢餓
14:33
we see disease and we see population growth in areas
病気の蔓延 人口増加
14:38
where there are more people living on a certain piece of land
土地が支えられる以上に人口が
14:42
than the land can possibly support,
増えてしまった所では
14:46
and they're too poor to buy food from elsewhere.
貧しすぎて食糧も賄えない
14:48
Were the people that we heard about yesterday,
昨日聴いた 最後の木を切り倒した―
14:51
on the Easter Island, who cut down their last tree -- were they stupid?
イースター島の人は愚か者?
14:54
Didn't they know what was happening?
状況を理解していなかった?
14:58
Of course, but if you've seen the crippling poverty
世界に存在する壊滅的な貧困を
15:00
in some of these parts of the world
体験すれば 明日の為に
15:02
it isn't a question of "Let's leave the tree for tomorrow."
木を残そう とは言ってられません
15:04
"How am I going to feed my family today?
今日食べる物さえ無い状態
15:07
Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree
この最後の木を売ってお金に変えれば
15:09
which will keep us going a little bit longer,
少しでも生き延びられるはず
15:12
and then we'll pray that something will happen
あとは祈って何かを待つだけ
15:14
to save us from the inevitable end."
死から遠のくために…
15:17
So, this is a pretty grim picture.
こんなに残酷なんです
15:20
The one thing we have, which makes us so different
我々が併せ持ち チンパンジーや他の生き物と
15:23
from chimpanzees or other living creatures,
違うと言い切れるのは
15:27
is this sophisticated spoken language --
この高度な話し言葉です
15:29
a language with which we can tell children
子ども達に身近にない物事を
15:32
about things that aren't here.
伝えられる言葉です
15:34
We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future,
ずっと昔から遠い未来の話まで
15:36
discuss ideas with each other,
お互いに意見交換して
15:40
so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated wisdom of a group.
大勢の知恵から認識を高められます
15:42
We can do it by talking to each other;
それには会話が必要
15:46
we can do it through video; we can do it through the written word.
ビデオや書き言葉でもいいでしょう
15:48
And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards,
なのに我々は この偉大な力を正しく使わずに
15:52
and we're destroying the world.
世界を壊しています
15:57
In the developed world, in a way, it's worse,
先進国では なお悪い
15:59
because we have so much access to knowledge
愚かな行動を犯す知識を
16:02
of the stupidity of what we're doing.
持ち過ぎているのです
16:05
Do you know, we're bringing little babies
赤ちゃんが生まれてきても
16:07
into a world where, in many places, the water is poisoning them?
きれいな水がない場所が世界には多く
16:10
And the air is harming them, and the food that's grown
空気や汚染された土壌から取れた食べ物で
16:15
from the contaminated land is poisoning them.
赤ちゃんを汚染しています
16:19
And that's not just in the far-away developing world; that's everywhere.
これは途上国だけの話ではありません
16:22
Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals
50年前に無かった約50種類の
16:26
in our bodies we didn't have about 50 years ago?
化学物質が我々の体内にあることはご存知?
16:28
And so many of these diseases, like asthma
有害廃棄物のゴミ捨て場周辺では
16:32
and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase
喘息のような病気や
16:36
around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped.
癌になる人が増加しています
16:39
We're harming ourselves around the world,
我々は世界中で動物や自然や
16:44
as well as harming the animals, as well as harming nature herself --
我々自身を傷つけています
16:47
Mother Nature, that brought us into being;
母なる大自然
16:51
Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time,
精神的発達を手助けしてくれる-
16:54
where there's trees and flowers and birds
木 花 鳥がいる自然で
16:58
for our good psychological development.
過ごす時間が大切なんです
17:00
And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children
それなのに先進国ではあまりにも多くの
17:03
in the developed world who never see nature,
子どもが自然に触れることもなく
17:06
because they're growing up in concrete
コンクリートの中で育ち
17:08
and all they know is virtual reality,
知っているのはバーチャル世界
17:10
with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun,
太陽の恵みを受ける機会もありません
17:12
or in the forest, with the dappled sun-specks
木漏れ日の下で
17:16
coming down from the canopy above.
森林浴をすることもない
17:19
As I was traveling around the world, you know,
世界中を回るために
17:22
I had to leave the forest -- that's where I love to be.
大好きな森を後にしました
17:25
I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees
学生や現場スタッフが研究を続けられるよう
17:28
for my students and field staff to continue studying
大好きなチンパンジーを後にしなくてはならなかった
17:31
because, finding they dwindled from about two million
チンパンジーが100年前の200万頭から
17:35
100 years ago to about 150,000 now,
15万頭まで減少したことで
17:38
I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could
世界中の意識を高めるために
17:42
to raise awareness around the world.
森林を後にするしかなかったのです
17:45
And the more I talked about the chimpanzees' plight,
チンパンジーの窮状を知れば知るほど
17:47
the more I realized the fact that everything's interconnected,
全てが連結していることに気がつきました
17:50
and the problems of the developing world
途上国が抱える問題は
17:55
so often stem from the greed of the developed world,
先進国の傲慢さに起因して
17:57
and everything was joining together, and making -- not sense,
こんな事態を引き起こしています
18:00
hope lies in sense, you said -- it's making a nonsense.
こんなの馬鹿げています
18:05
How can we do it?
おかしいでしょう?
18:09
Somebody said that yesterday.
昨日も聞きましたね
18:10
And as I was traveling around, I kept meeting young people who'd lost hope.
私は世界中で望みを失くした若者を見てきました
18:12
They were feeling despair,
絶望にまみれた若者は
18:17
they were feeling, "Well, it doesn't matter what we do;
“何やったって同じだよ
18:20
eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die.
今を楽しまなきゃ
18:23
Everything is hopeless -- we're always being told so by the media."
どうせ明日は死ぬんだから”
18:25
And then I met some who were angry,
怒りにまみれている人間が
18:29
and anger that can turn to violence,
暴力的になるのも知っています
18:32
and we're all familiar with that.
珍しいことではありません
18:34
And I have three little grandchildren,
私には小さな孫が3人います
18:37
and when some of these students would say to me
ある時 学生が私に言いました
18:41
at high school or university, they'd say, "We're angry,"
“頭にくるよ” “僕らの将来は-
18:44
or "We're filled with despair, because we feel
大人が台無しにしたせいで
18:47
you've compromised our future, and there's nothing we can do about it."
望みなんてないんだから”
18:50
And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren,
私は孫の目を見て 思うのです
18:54
and think how much we've harmed this planet since I was their age.
この長い間に地球をずいぶん傷つけてしまった
18:56
I feel this deep shame, and that's why in 1991 in Tanzania,
そんな思いがあって1991年にタンザニアで
19:00
I started a program that's called Roots and Shoots.
ルーツ&シューツという活動を始めました
19:06
There's little brochures all around outside,
会場の外に冊子を用意してますから
19:09
and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future,
子どもたちの将来を気にかけて下さるなら
19:13
I beg that you pick up that brochure.
どうぞお手に取って見てください
19:17
And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope.
ルーツ&シューツは希望の活動です
19:20
Roots make a firm foundation.
ルーツ(根)は基盤
19:24
Shoots seem tiny,
シューツ(若枝)は小さいけれど
19:26
but to reach the sun they can break through brick walls.
日光に向かってレンガをも突き抜けます
19:28
See the brick walls as all the problems
レンガは地球に存在する-
19:31
that we've inflicted on this planet.
すべての問題と見なせば
19:33
Then, you see, it is a message of hope.
希望を持てる意味があるでしょう
19:35
Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world
何千人もの若者が世界中で
19:39
can break through, and can make this a better world.
レンガを突き破って より良い世界を作るのです
19:41
And the most important message of Roots and Shoots
そして 何より大切なメッセージは
19:45
is that every single individual makes a difference.
皆それぞれが違いを生み出すこと
19:48
Every individual has a role to play.
誰もが役割が持っています
19:52
Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday,
毎日誰もが影響を及ぼしています
19:54
and you scientists know that you can't actually --
例えば 一日中寝てたとしても
19:58
even if you stay in bed all day, you're breathing oxygen
酸素を吸って 二酸化炭素を
20:01
and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo,
はき出すし トイレにも
20:04
and things like that --
行くでしょう
20:08
you're making a difference in the world.
皆が世界を変えているのです
20:10
So, the Roots and Shoots program
ルーツ&シューツでは若者と共に
20:12
involves youth in three kinds of projects.
3つの活動をしています
20:15
And these are projects to make the world around them a better place.
地域レベルで向上をはかる活動です
20:20
One project to show care and concern for your own human community.
1つめは 身近な地域社会に気をかけること
20:24
One for animals, including domestic animals -- and I have to say,
2つめは 家畜を含む動物への配慮
20:30
I learned everything I know about animal behavior
私の場合 研究を始めるずっと前に
20:34
even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty,
動物行動の大事なことは みんな
20:36
who was my childhood companion.
愛犬ラスティにおそわりました
20:40
And the third kind of project: something for the local environment.
3つめは 地域環境に関してです
20:43
So what the kids do depends first of all, how old are they --
環境と無関係に生きることは出来ません
20:48
and we go now from pre-school right through university.
幼稚園から大学まで
20:52
It's going to depend whether they're inner-city or rural.
都会でも田舎でも
20:56
It's going to depend if they're wealthy or impoverished.
裕福でも貧しくても関係あるのです
20:59
It's going to depend which part, say, of America they're in.
場所によって問題は違います
21:04
We're in every state now, and the problems in Florida
フロリダでの問題は
21:07
are different from the problems in New York.
ニューヨークとは違う
21:10
It's going to depend on which country they're in --
国によっても違う
21:13
and we're already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active groups --
5千ものグループが60ヶ国以上の
21:15
and there are groups all over the place that I keep hearing about
あらゆる場所で活動をしていて
21:21
that I've never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program
参加している子ども達が
21:25
and spreading it themselves.
活動を広めています
21:28
Why?
なぜでしょう?
21:30
Because they're buying into it,
主役は彼らで
21:32
and they're the ones who get to decide what they're going to do.
活動内容を決めるのも彼らです
21:34
It isn't something that their parents tell them,
親や教師に言われて
21:37
or their teachers tell them.
やることではありません
21:39
That's effective, but if they decide themselves,
自発的に始めるから効果があります
21:41
"We want to clean this river
“川をきれいにして
21:44
and put the fish back that used to be there.
魚を川に返したい
21:47
We want to clear away the toxic soil
有害物質を取り除いて
21:49
from this area and have an organic garden.
有機農園を作りたい
21:54
We want to go and spend time with the old people
お年寄りと話をして
21:56
and hear their stories and record their oral histories.
歴史を記録に残したい
21:59
We want to go and work in a dog shelter.
ドッグシェルターでボランティア
22:04
We want to learn about animals. We want ... "
動物の勉強がしたい”
22:06
You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me.
アイディアは尽きず 希望を感じます
22:08
As I travel around the world 300 days a year,
私は年間300日 世界を回り 至る所で
22:12
everywhere there's a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages.
様々なルーツ&シューツボランティアに会います
22:16
Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying,
各地で目を輝かせた子たちが
22:19
"Look at the difference we've made."
“この成果を見て” と言います
22:21
And now comes the technology into it,
科学技術も一役買っています
22:24
because with this new way of communicating electronically
ネットでコミュニケーションが取れるので
22:26
these kids can communicate with each other around the world.
世界中の子ども達が交流できます
22:31
And if anyone is interested to help us, we've got so many ideas
アイディアは豊富にあるけれど
22:35
but we need help -- we need help to create the right kind of system
若者が情熱を分かち合える適切な
22:38
that will help these young people to communicate their excitement.
ネットワークづくりに協力が必要です
22:44
But also -- and this is so important -- to communicate their despair,
忘れてならないのは 問題も起こります
22:48
to say, "We've tried this and it doesn't work, and what shall we do?"
“うまくいかない どうしたらいい?”
22:53
And then, lo and behold, there's another group answering these kids
アメリカやイスラエルや世界各地の
22:56
who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel,
子ども達が助言し合います
23:00
saying, "Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it."
“こうしたら上手くいくはずだよ” とね
23:03
The philosophy is very simple.
信念は至ってシンプル
23:08
We do not believe in violence.
暴力を容認しないこと
23:11
No violence, no bombs, no guns.
暴力 爆弾 銃はあってはならない
23:14
That's not the way to solve problems.
問題解決につながりません
23:17
Violence leads to violence, at least in my view.
暴力は暴力を生む 私の意見ではね
23:19
So how do we solve?
じゃあ どうすれば?
23:23
The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and understanding.
問題解決には知識と理解を使いましょう
23:25
Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big picture.
真相と関わり合いを見る事です
23:30
Hard work and persistence --don't give up --
勤勉と忍耐 あきらめない
23:33
and love and compassion leading to respect for all life.
あらゆる命を敬う愛と思いやり
23:36
How many more minutes? Two, one?
あと何分?
23:41
Chris Anderson: One -- one to two.
1~2分
23:43
Jane Goodall: Two, two, I'm going to take two.
2分もらうわ
23:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
23:47
Are you going to come and drag me off?
ステージから引きづり下ろす?
23:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
23:50
Anyway -- so basically, Roots and Shoots
とにかく ルーツ&シューツは
23:52
is beginning to change young people's lives.
若者の生活に変化をもたらしていて
23:56
It's what I'm devoting most of my energy to.
私は全身全霊を注いでいます
23:59
And I believe that a group like this can have a very major impact,
TEDのような団体の影響力は大きいと信じています
24:03
not just because you can share technology with us,
技術を共有できるからではなく
24:10
but because so many of you have children.
子どもがいる方が多いから
24:13
And if you take this program out, and give it to your children,
皆が実践してくれれば 子ども達にも伝わって
24:16
they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good,
子ども達も私たちにならってくれる
24:21
because they've got parents like you.
後ろ姿を見せましょう
24:25
And it's been so clear how much you all care
我々の世界を良くしようとする気配りの
24:27
about trying to make this world a better place.
影響力の大きさは明確です
24:31
It's very encouraging.
大きな励みです
24:33
But the kids do ask me --
子ども達に尋ねられます
24:35
and this won't take more than two minutes, I promise --
すぐ終わらせますから
24:37
the kids say, "Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the future?
“将来への望みはある?
24:39
You travel, you see all these horrible things happening."
世界中の酷い事実を見てきたでしょ”
24:44
Firstly, the human brain -- I don't need to say anything about that.
人間の脳に関してはコメントしません
24:48
Now that we know what the problems are around the world,
表面化した世界の問題点は
24:52
human brains like yours are rising to solve those problems.
人間の脳が責任を持ちましょう
24:55
And we've talked a lot about that.
既に話した内容です
24:59
Secondly, the resilience of nature.
次は 自然の回復力
25:01
We can destroy a river,
我々は破壊する力もあれば
25:04
and we can bring it back to life.
修復する力だってある
25:06
We can see a whole area desolated,
荒れ果てた土地だって
25:08
and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help.
時間と援助があれば 元気になるんです
25:13
And thirdly, the last speaker talked about -- or the speaker before last,
先ほど ある方が不屈の精神について
25:18
talked about the indomitable human spirit.
話をされましたが
25:24
We are surrounded by the most amazing people
我々は不可能を可能にする―
25:27
who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible.
偉大な人に囲まれているんです
25:31
Nelson Mandela -- I take a little piece of limestone
これはマンデラが 27年収容された
25:35
from Robben Island Prison, where he labored for 27 years,
刑務所からの石ですが 彼は
25:38
and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people
釈放後 暴力を行使せず アパルトヘイトの恐怖から
25:41
from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath.
人々を解放しました
25:46
Even after the 11th of September -- and I was in New York
同時多発テロの後 ニューヨークにいた私は
25:49
and I felt the fear -- nevertheless, there was so much human courage,
恐怖を感じましたが それでもなお そこには人々の勇気
25:53
so much love and so much compassion.
愛や思いやりが溢れていました
25:59
And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear --
その後 アメリカを回った時
26:02
the fear that was leading to people feeling
環境どころではない という恐怖を
26:06
they couldn't worry about the environment any more,
人々の中に感じました
26:08
in case they seemed not to be patriotic --
愛する国のために
26:10
and I was trying to encourage them,
私は励ましたかった
26:13
somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma Gandhi,
ある人が言ったガンディーの明言です
26:15
"If you look back through human history,
“歴史上 どんな邪悪な体制も
26:18
you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good."
正義で乗り越えてきた”
26:21
And just after that a woman brought me this little bell,
ある女性が “希望と平和を語る時に
26:25
and I want to end on this note.
鳴らして” と私にくれた―
26:29
She said, "If you're talking about hope and peace, ring this.
この鈴を鳴らして終わります
26:31
This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine,
これは歴史に残る暴君の一人 ポルポト支配下
26:36
from the killing fields of Pol Pot --
虐殺が行われた刑場から
26:42
one of the most evil regimes in human history --
取り除かれた地雷で作ったものです
26:45
where people are now beginning to put their lives back together
そこでは政権崩壊後に人々が
26:48
after the regime has crumbled.
生活を取り戻しつつあります
26:52
So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope?
希望とはどこにあるのでしょう?
26:55
Is it out there with the politicians?
政治家が握っているのですか?
26:59
It's in our hands.
我々の手中です
27:03
It's in your hands and my hands
あなたや私の手の中です
27:05
and those of our children.
そして子ども達です
27:07
It's really up to us.
私達次第です
27:09
We're the ones who can make a difference.
変化をもたらすのは私達です
27:11
If we lead lives where we consciously leave
環境にダメージを出来るだけ出さない―
27:13
the lightest possible ecological footprints,
生活を意識して
27:15
if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy
道徳的に正しい買い物をし
27:19
and don't buy the things that are not,
そうじゃない商品は購入しなければ
27:22
we can change the world overnight.
世界は一晩で変えられます
27:25
Thank you.
ありがとう
27:28
Translator:Takako Sato
Reviewer:Kayo Mizutani

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Jane Goodall - Primatologist; environmentalist
Jane Goodall, dubbed by her biographer "the woman who redefined man," has changed our perceptions of primates, people, and the connection between the two. Over the past 45 years, Goodall herself has also evolved -- from steadfast scientist to passionate conservationist and humanitarian.

Why you should listen

Jane Goodall hasn't exactly found the missing link, but she's come closer than just about anyone else on Earth. Her extensive research into the behavior of chimpanzees, which started in Africa in the 1960s and continues today, fundamentally altered scientific thinking about the relationship between humans and other mammals.

Goodall, who founded a research institute in her name in 1977, is an internationally recognized authority on the primate world. She's written books for adults and children, contributed to documentaries, and serves as a National Geographic explorer-in-residence, a United Nations peace messenger, and the president of Advocates for Animals. For her efforts to observe and preserve all species, Goodall has received honors and accolades from governments, nonprofits, universities, and professional organizations, including a medal from UNESCO and the French Legion of Honor in 2006.

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