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TED2014

Aziza Chaouni: How I brought a river, and my city, back to life

アジザ・シャウニ: フェズ川復興とメディナの再生について

March 17, 2014

モロッコの世界遺産であり中世の趣を残すフェズのメディナ(旧市街)を、フェズ川は迷路のように流れています。かつて、街の“魂”であったこの川も、1950年から現在まで少しずつ埋め立てられ下水、公害で損なわれています。TEDフェローのアジザ・シャウニがフェズ川の過去の栄光を取り戻すため、20年にわたる彼女のフェズ川と町の再生の過程をプレゼンします。

Aziza Chaouni - Architect + ecotourism specialist
Aziza Chaouni focuses on projects that integrate architecture and landscape, and that ultimately give back to their communities. For years, she has worked to revive the Fez River, which runs through her hometown of Fez, Morocco. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
本日は私が建築に関する取り組み方を改める
00:12
I would like to share with you today
きっかけとなったプロジェクトを
00:14
a project that has changed how I approach
皆さんに紹介したいと思います
00:16
and practice architecture:
フェズ川復興プロジェクトです
00:18
the Fez River Rehabilitation Project.
00:21
My hometown of Fez, Morocco,
私の地元であるモロッコの街 フェズには
川の流域にメディナという
00:23
boasts one of the largest walled
medieval cities in the world,
世界でも随一の中世城壁都市があります
00:27
called the medina, nestled in a river valley.
この街すべてが ユネスコ世界遺産地に登録されています
00:30
The entire city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
1950年以降 人口が増えるにつれて
00:33
Since the 1950s, as the
population of the medina grew,
緑地や下水道といった
00:37
basic urban infrastructure
都市基盤設備が変わっていき
00:39
such as green open spaces and sewage
大きなストレスを受けました
00:42
quickly changed and got highly stressed.
その中でもっとも被害を受けたのが
00:47
One of the biggest casualties of the situation
メディナを二分するフェズ川だったのです
00:50
was the Fez River, which bisects
the medina in its middle
この川は何世紀もの間
00:54
and has been considered for many centuries
この街の魂であると考えられていました
00:57
as the city's very soul.
実際に公共の噴水や泉といった場所で
00:59
In fact, one can witness the presence
この川の広範囲にわたる
01:01
of the river's extensive water network
水のネットワークの存在を
01:05
all throughout the city,
街中で確認することができます
01:06
in places such as private and public fountains.
残念ながら 1952年以降
01:10
Unfortunately, because of the pollution of the river,
川の汚染のため川は少しずつ
01:13
it has been covered little by little
コンクリートの破片で覆われていっています
01:16
by concrete slabs since 1952.
この消去プロセスに加え
01:19
This process of erasure was coupled
様々な機械を メディナの細道へ運び込むため
01:22
with the destruction of many houses
01:24
along the river banks
川岸にあった家々の取り壊しが行われました
01:26
to be able to make machineries
01:28
enter the narrow pedestrian network of the medina.
これらの都会の空隙は
01:33
Those urban voids quickly became illegal parking
急速に違法な駐車場やゴミ捨て場と化していったのです
01:36
or trash yards.
実際 川がメディナに到達するまでの水質に
01:38
Actually, the state of the river
01:40
before entering the medina is pretty healthy.
特に問題はありません
しかし 主に未処理の下水や
01:43
Then pollution takes its toll,
なめしのような工芸で使用された薬品が投棄され
01:45
mainly due to untreated sewage
川は汚染されてしまうのです
01:48
and chemical dumping from crafts such as tanning.
ある時 私は街にとって大切な川が
01:51
At some point, I couldn't bear
これ以上冒とくされるのが許せなくなり
01:53
the desecration of the river,
行動を起こすことにしました
01:55
such an important part of my city,
それに加え 下水を迂回させ 処理するための
01:58
and I decided to take action,
01:59
especially after I heard that the city
助成金が 市に提供されることが
02:02
received a grant to divert sewage water
決まったと聞いたので尚更でした
02:05
and to treat it.
川の水が綺麗になれば
02:07
With clean water, suddenly
川を覆うコンクリートを取り外すことができます
02:08
the uncovering of the river became possible,
運と根気よく交渉したことで
02:11
and with luck and actually a lot of pushing,
02:14
my partner Takako Tajima and I
私と同僚のタジマ・タカコ氏は
技術者チームと協力し
02:16
were commissioned by the city to
work with a team of engineers
川のふたを取り外すことを市から依頼されました
02:20
to uncover the river.
しかし私たちはそれだけでは満足せず
02:22
However, we were sneaky,
更なる提案をしました
02:24
and we proposed more:
川岸を舗装し歩道に作り直し
02:25
to convert riverbanks into pedestrian pathways,
こういった歩道を市の中心地に織り込み
02:30
and then to connect these pathways
02:32
back to the city fabric,
02:33
and finally to convert the urban voids
最終的には川岸にある都会の空隙を
02:36
along the riverbanks into public spaces
フェズ川のメディナに欠けている
公共スペースに変えていこうというものでした
02:39
that are lacking in the Medina of Fez.
02:42
I will show you briefly now
これから二つの公共スペースを
簡単に紹介したいと思います
02:43
two of these public spaces.
まず最初にルーシフ・プラザです
02:46
The first one is the Rcif Plaza,
点線を引いた場所に川があり
02:49
which sits actually right on top of the river,
プラザは川の真上に位置しています
02:52
which you can see here in dotted lines.
以前はごちゃごちゃとした交通の中心であり
02:55
This plaza used to be a chaotic transportation hub
世界最大の歩道ネットワークをもつメディナの
02:59
that actually compromised the urban integrity
03:01
of the medina, that has the largest
都会としての整合性を損なうようなものでした
03:03
pedestrian network in the world.
見ていただくとわかるように
03:06
And right beyond the historic
bridge that you can see here,
プラザの隣にある この歴史的な橋の向こうに見える川は
03:09
right next to the plaza,
03:11
you can see that the river looked like
まるでゴミの川のようでした
03:13
a river of trash.
そこで私たちが提案したのは
03:15
Instead, what we proposed is to make
03:18
the plaza entirely pedestrian,
歩行者天国のプラザを造り
再生革の屋根で覆い
03:20
to cover it with recycled leather canopies,
川岸へと繋げるという事でした
03:23
and to connect it to the banks of the river.
二つ目に介入した場所は
03:27
The second site of intervention
こちらも川岸付近の都会の空隙で
03:28
is also an urban void along the river banks,
違法な駐車場として使われていました
03:31
and it used to be an illegal parking,
私たちはこのエリアをメディナ初の
03:34
and we proposed to transform it
遊び場へと変身させることを提案しました
03:35
into the first playground in the medina.
この遊び場には再生タイヤをふんだんに使い
03:38
The playground is constructed using recycled tires
また人口湿地を加えることで
03:42
and also is coupled with a constructed wetland
川の水を浄化するだけでなく
03:45
that not only cleans the water of the river
洪水が起きた際には保水することもできます
03:47
but also retains it when floods occur.
プロジェクトが進むにつれ
03:51
As the project progressed and
received several design awards,
幾つものデザイン賞を受賞しました
新しい出資者の介入もあり
03:54
new stakeholders intervened
プロジェクトの目標とデザインも変わっていきました
03:56
and changed the project goals and design.
このプロジェクトの一番の目的を達成するために
04:00
The only way for us to be able to bring
私たちは他の建築家が考えないような
04:03
the main goals of the project ahead
独自の方法をとりました
04:06
was for us to do something very unusual
04:08
that usually architects don't do.
04:10
It was for us to take our design ego
それは私たちのデザイナーとしてのプライドと
著作者としての意識を捨て
04:14
and our sense of authorship
04:15
and put it in the backseat
04:17
and to focus mainly on being activists
活動家としての立場を優先したのです
04:20
and on trying to coalesce
沢山の出資者の思惑を一つにまとめ
04:22
all of the agendas of stakeholders
プロジェクトの最も重要な目標に絞ったのです
04:24
and focus on the main goals of the project:
川を被っているふたを外し 水を綺麗にし
04:27
that is, to uncover the river, treat its water,
みんなのための公共のスペースを作ることです
04:29
and provide public spaces for all.
私たちは非常に運がよく
04:31
We were actually very lucky,
大多数の目標はもう既に達成されているか
04:33
and many of those goals happened
達成に向かって動いています
04:35
or are in the process of happening.
先ほどのルーシフ・プラザですが
04:37
Like, you can see here in the Rcif Plaza.
これが六年前の姿です
04:39
This is how it looked like about six years ago.
これが現在の姿です
04:42
This is how it looks like today.
まだ建設中ではありますが
04:44
It's still under construction,
地元の人々に頻繁に使われています
04:45
but actually it is heavily used
04:47
by the local population.
04:49
And finally, this is how the Rcif Plaza will look like
そして最後に これがプロジェクト完成後の
ルーシフ・プラザです
04:51
when the project is completed.
ここはゴミ捨て場として利用されていた川です
04:53
This is the river, covered, used as a trash yard.
何年もの活動を経て
04:57
Then after many years of work,
コンクリートが外され 綺麗な水の流れる川になりました
04:59
the river with clean water, uncovered.
そして最後に これがプロジェクト完了後の姿です
05:02
And finally, you can see here the river
05:04
when the project will be completed.
05:06
So for sure, the Fez River Rehabilitation
フェズ川復興プロジェクトは
街の社会政治的な環境によって変化し
05:09
will keep on changing and adapting
適応してゆくでしょう
05:11
to the sociopolitical landscape of the city,
しかし建築家としての役割と取り組み方を考え直すことで
05:13
but we strongly believe that by reimagining
このプロジェクトの核となる概念を
05:16
the role and the agency of the architect,
実行に移すことが出来たと信じています
05:19
we have set up the core idea
of the project into motion;
つまり フェズ川を下水から公共スペースへ変えて
05:23
that is, to transform the river from sewage
05:25
to public space for all,
05:27
thereby making sure that the city of Fez
フェズという街を
ミイラ化した遺産にしてしまわず
05:30
will remain a living city for its inhabitants
住人にとって生きている街にすることです
05:32
rather than a mummified heritage.
ありがとうございました
05:35
Thank you very much.
(拍手)
05:36
(Applause)
Translator:Satoko Tasaka
Reviewer:Daiji Kuwano

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Aziza Chaouni - Architect + ecotourism specialist
Aziza Chaouni focuses on projects that integrate architecture and landscape, and that ultimately give back to their communities. For years, she has worked to revive the Fez River, which runs through her hometown of Fez, Morocco.

Why you should listen

Civil engineer and architect Aziza Chaouni creates sustainable, built environments in the developing world, focusing on the deserts of the Middle East. Chaouni’s design philosophy holds that it is not enough for sustainable buildings to have zero impact—they must give back to the community on social, economic, infrastructural and environmental levels too. The founding principal of Aziza Chaouni Projects, she collaborates closely with local communities and experts from other disciplines to integrate architecture, landscape and infrastructure in innovative ways.

Born and raised in Fez, Morocco, Chaouni has long found herself fascinated with the Fez River, which winds through the city's ancient Medina. Once considered the city's soul, sending water to both public and private fountains, in the 1950s, the stream started to become a toxic sewer because of overcrowding, over-development and pollution. The city responded by covering the river over with concrete slabs, bit by bit, in the process destroying houses and creating dumping grounds. When Fez received a grant to divert and clean the river's water, Chaouni proposed the Fez River Project to uncover the river, restore its riverbanks and create pedestrian pathways. Her vision: to reclaim these areas as public spaces and reconnect them to the rest of the city.

A project that Chaouni has been working on for two decades, her mission to transform the Fez River began with her thesis in graduate school and has continued throughout her career. Over the course of years, the river is gradually being uncovered—illegal parking lots are being transformed into playgrounds, trees and vegetation are being planted to create public spaces. Overall, the project is revitalizing Fez as a living city.

 

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