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TED2006

Peter Gabriel: Fight injustice with raw video

ピーター・ガブリエル:ビデオを用いた不正との戦い

February 23, 2006

音楽家であり活動家であるピーター・ガブリエルが、監視グループWITNESSと共に人権を擁護するきっかけとなった個人的動機について、またシチズンジャーナリストたちの活動について話します。

Peter Gabriel - Musician, activist
Peter Gabriel writes incredible songs but, as the co-founder of WITNESS and TheElders.org, is also a powerful human rights advocate. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
私は木が大好きで 運がいいことに
00:15
I love trees, and I'm very lucky,
美しい植物園の近くに住んでいます
00:18
because we live near a wonderful arboretum,
普段 日曜にはそこに妻と
00:21
and Sundays, usually, I'd go there with my wife
4歳の子どもと一緒に出かけます
00:24
and now, with my four-year-old,
そこで木登りしたり かくれんぼをする
00:26
and we'd climb in the trees, we'd play hide and seek.
私が通った二つ目の学校にも大木がありました
00:29
The second school I was at had big trees too,
たしか英国最大の 見事なユリノキです
00:33
had a fantastic tulip tree, I think it was the biggest in the country,
素晴らしい潅木や植物が周りに茂っていて
00:37
and it also had a lot of wonderful bushes and vegetation
グラウンドの近くにありました
00:41
around it, around the playing fields.
ある日 同級生たちに捕らえられた私は
00:43
One day I was grabbed by some of my classmates,
茂みに連れ込まれ服を脱がされ 暴行されました
00:47
and taken in the bushes -- I was stripped; I was attacked;
全くの不意の出来事でした
00:51
I was abused; and this came out of the blue.
そのあと校舎に戻った私は 自分が汚され裏切られたと―
00:56
Now, the reason I say that, because, afterwards, I was thinking --
情けなく感じました 特に無力感でいっぱいだった
01:00
well, I went back into the school -- I felt dirty; I felt betrayed;
なぜ今 私がこの話をするかというと―
01:06
I felt ashamed, but mainly -- mainly, I felt powerless.
その30年後 私は飛行機に座っていました
01:13
And 30 years later I was sitting in an airplane,
隣には チリ出身のベロニカという女性がいて
01:16
next to a lady called Veronica, who came from Chile,
人権問題のツアー中でした
01:19
and we were on a human rights tour,
彼女は拷問の体験について 話してくれました
01:22
and she was starting to tell me what it was like to be tortured,
恵まれた環境にいた私にとって
01:27
and, from my very privileged position,
この学校の事件しか 比較できるものがなかった
01:30
this was the only reference point that I had.
この経験は私にいろんなことを教えてくれました
01:34
And it was an amazing learning experience
以前は人権問題とは 私にとって
01:36
because, for me, human rights have been something in which I had,
時々思い出して考えるけど
01:39
you know, a part-time interest, but, mainly,
どこか 対岸の火事のようなものでした
01:42
it was something that happened to other people over there.
1985年 ボノから電話がありました ご存知のように
01:45
But I got a phone call from Bono in 1985 and, as you know,
彼は素晴らしいシンガーだが 素晴らしいハスラーでもある
01:52
he's a great singer, but he's a magnificent hustler, and --
(笑)
01:57
(Laughter) --
有無を言わさぬ男 ボノが
01:59
a very hard guy to say no to, and he was saying,
ビコの歌の後 こう言ったんです
02:02
you know, just after I'd done the Biko song,
俺たちアムネスティのツアーをする
02:04
we're going to do a tour for Amnesty,
お前も当然来るよな この電話がきっかけで
02:06
you have to be on it, and really that was the first time
私もツアーに出て 人に会うようになりました
02:09
that I'd been out and started meeting people
目の前で家族が撃たれたり
02:13
who'd watched their family being shot in front of them,
飛行機から海に大切な人を落とされた人たちです
02:16
who'd had a partner thrown out of an airplane into an ocean,
そうやって 突然人権問題が私の世界に飛び込んできて
02:19
and suddenly this world of human rights arrived in my world,
以前のように歩み去ることが出来なくなりました
02:24
and I couldn't really walk away in quite the same way as before.
こう言った訳で アムネスティ・ツアーに参加し
02:29
So I got involved with this tour, which was for Amnesty,
88年に ボノの仕事を継いだ訳です その強引さも継ぎたかったが
02:33
and then in '88 I took over Bono's job trying to learn how to hustle.
難しかったね まあユッスー・ンドゥール スティング
02:38
I didn't do it as well, but we managed to get Youssou N'Dour, Sting,
トレーシー・チャップマン スプリングスティーンが参加してくれ
02:42
Tracy Chapman, and Bruce Springsteen to go 'round the world for Amnesty,
ツアーは素晴らしい経験でした
02:47
and it was an amazing experience.
そして再度貴重な知識を習得したのです
02:50
And, once again, I got an extraordinary education,
これが最初の体験でしたね
02:54
and it was the first time, really,
いろんな国でたくさんの人たちに会い
02:56
that I'd met a lot of these people in the different countries,
この人権問題が 実際に形となって見えてきたのです
03:00
and these human rights stories became very physical,
そして再び 気軽に歩み去ることが出来なくなった
03:05
and, again, I couldn't really walk away quite so comfortably.
しかし驚いたのは 想像もしなかったけれど
03:11
But the thing that really amazed me, that I had no idea,
このように苦しめられた人々の
03:14
was that you could suffer in this way
その体験 その物語が否定され埋もれ
03:17
and then have your whole experience, your story, denied,
忘れ去られることでした
03:23
buried and forgotten.
でも 事実をビデオや写真で残してしまえば
03:26
And it seemed that whenever there was a camera around,
力がある者にとっても
03:31
or a video or film camera,
物語を封印するのは相当難しくなるようですね
03:34
it was a great deal harder to do -- for those in power to bury the story.
リーボックは「ヒューマンライツ・ナウ」ツアー後に基金を設立しました
03:41
And Reebok set up a foundation after these Human Rights Now tours
当時ある決定がありました
03:45
and there was a decision then --
人権活動家にカメラを渡せるような
03:49
well, we made a proposal, for a couple of years,
部門を作って欲しいと
03:52
about trying to set up a division
何年かにわたり 提案を続けていたのです
03:54
that was going to give cameras to human rights activists.
しかし結果は芳しくなかった
03:59
It didn't really get anywhere,
その後 ロドニー・キング事件が起きたとき
04:00
and then the Rodney King incident happened, and people thought,
カメラを適切な場所でタイミングよく持っていれば
04:03
OK, if you have a camera in the right place at the right time,
人によってはそれで都合が悪くなるわけですが
04:06
or, perhaps, the wrong time, depending who you are,
何かができると やっと皆が悟ったのです
04:10
then you can actually start doing something,
キャンペーンをして 何が起こっているのか
04:15
and campaigning, and being heard,
皆に聞いてもらえる
04:19
and telling people about what's going on.
このWITNESS運動は92年に始まり
04:21
So, WITNESS was started in '92
以来60カ国以上にカメラが贈られました
04:25
and it's since given cameras out in over 60 countries.
活動家グループとキャンペーンを行い
04:31
And we campaign with activist groups
彼らの物語を伝える手助けをしました
04:37
and help them tell their story and, in fact,
このあと 最新のキャンペーンをお見せします
04:41
I will show you in a moment one of the most recent campaigns,
これはウガンダの話です
04:45
and I'm afraid it's a story from Uganda,
昨日はウガンダの素晴らしい話を聴きましたが
04:48
and, although we had a wonderful story from Uganda yesterday,
残念ながらこれは良くない話です
04:52
this one isn't quite so good.
ウガンダの北部には
04:54
In the north of Uganda,
およそ150万人の国民が 国内追放されています
04:56
there are something like 1.5 million internally displaced people,
彼らは他の国に逃れた難民ではないが
04:59
people who are not refugees in another country,
もう約20年も続く内戦によって
05:02
but because of the civil war, which has been going on for about 20 years,
住処を失った人たちです
05:06
they have nowhere to live.
そして 2万人の子供たちが少年兵として拉致されている
05:08
And 20,000 kids have been taken away to become child soldiers,
国際刑事裁判所が反乱軍を率いた5人の行方を追っています
05:14
and the International Criminal Court is going after five of the leaders of the --
軍の名前は
05:22
now, what's it called?
名前がパッと出てこないな
05:24
I forget the name of the of the army --
確か「神の抵抗軍」だったと思います
05:26
it's Lord's Resistance Army, I believe --
しかし政府にも汚点がないとは言えないんです
05:29
but the government, also, doesn't have a clean sheet,
最初のビデオを流しましょう
05:31
so if we could run the first video.
(音楽)
05:33
(Music)
女:収容施設暮らしは簡単じゃない 毎日大変さ
05:36
Woman: Life in the camp is never simple. Even today life is difficult.
でもまだ故郷ではひどい状況が続いてるから
05:39
We stay because of the fear that what pushed us into the camp ...
ここに居続けるしかない
05:43
still exists back home.
「二つの砲撃の間で:北ウガンダでの拷問と追放」
05:49
Text: "Between Two Fires: Torture and Displacement in Northern Uganda"
男:故郷にいるときは コニーの抵抗軍から虐げられた
06:00
Man: When we were at home, it was Kony's [rebel] soldiers disturbing us.
最初はこの施設も安全だったけど
06:07
At first, we were safe in the camp.
次第に政府軍兵士が 皆を手荒く扱うようになってきたんだ
06:10
But later the government soldiers began mistreating us a lot.
(歌)
06:15
(Chanting)
ジェニファー:兵士が歩きながら私らを探してたから
06:18
Jennifer: A soldier walked onto the road, asking where we'd been.
私とイヴリンは母の後ろに隠れた
06:22
Evelyn and I hid behind my mother.
イブリン:兵士は私たちに座れと言った
06:28
Evelyn: He ordered us to sit down, so we sat down.
そしたら別の兵士が来たんだ
06:31
The other soldier also came.
ジェニファー:男が来て私の服を脱がし始めた
06:34
Jennifer: The man came and started undressing me.
もう一人はイブリンを脇に連れて行った
06:38
The other one carried Evelyn aside.
私を暴行した男は 今度はイブリンをレイプしに行き
06:41
The one who was defiling me then left me and went to rape Evelyn.
イブリンを犯していた男が 今度は私を暴行しに来た
06:46
And the one who was raping Evelyn came and defiled me also.
男:こんなに長い棍棒を持った兵士が 自白させようと殴ってきた
06:50
Man: The soldiers with clubs this long beat us to get a confession.
殴るたびに 「白状しろ!」と怒鳴っていた
06:58
They kept telling us, "Tell the truth!" as they beat us.
女:私が嘘ついてると言い張って
07:10
Woman: They insisted that I was lying.
その瞬間に 発砲して私の指を撃ち落とし
07:15
At that moment, they fired and shot off my fingers.
走り去った…倒れた私を見殺しにするつもりで
07:20
I fell. They ran to join the others ... leaving me for dead.
(音楽)
07:33
(Music)
ウガンダは 1986年に拷問等禁止条約を批准した
07:35
Text: Uganda ratified the Convention Against Torture in 1986.
拷問とは 以下のように定義される
07:44
Torture is defined as any act by which severe pain of suffering,
公的な資格で行動する者により
07:48
whether physical or mental,
情報・自白を取得し 処罰・脅迫・威圧することを目的に
07:51
is intentionally inflicted by a person acting in an official capacity
肉体的・精神的に 激しい苦痛を故意に加える行為である
07:55
to obtain information or a confession, to punish, coerce or intimidate.
拷問は必ずしも遠い世界のものではありません
08:03
Peter Gabriel: So torture is not something that always happens on other soil.
私の国でも
08:09
In my country, it was --
英国軍兵士が イラクの若者を殴打する写真が公開されましたし
08:11
we had been looking at pictures of British soldiers beating up young Iraqis;
アブグレイブやグアンタナモもあった
08:18
we've got Abu Ghraib; we've got Guantanamo Bay.
ある日ニューアーク空港へ向かう途中 ドライバーが
08:20
I had a driver on my way to Newark Airport,
こんな話をしてくれました 午前4時に
08:23
and he told me a story that, in the middle of the night, 4 a.m.,
クィーンズにある彼の自宅から中西部まで連行され
08:29
he'd been taken out of his home in Queens -- taken to a place in the Midwest,
そこで尋問を受け 拷問されたと
08:35
that he was interrogated and tortured
4週間後に解放されたそうです
08:39
and returned to the street four weeks later,
彼は中東出身で 同時多発テロの
08:43
because he had the same -- he was Middle Eastern,
パイロットの一人と同じ名前だったからです
08:46
and he had the same name as one of the 9/11 pilots,
作り話かも知れませんが
08:50
and that may or may not be true --
嘘には聞こえませんでした
08:54
I didn't think he was a liar, though.
そして 世界中を見渡したとき
08:57
And, I think, if we look around the world,
極地の氷冠が解けていくのと同様に
09:01
as well as the polar ice caps melting,
人権問題というものは 場合によっては
09:03
human rights, which have been fought for,
何百年もの間争われますが
09:06
for many hundreds of years in some cases,
摩滅するのも非常に速い
09:09
are, also, eroding very fast,
これこそ私たちが目を向け 運動しなくては
09:12
and that is something that we need to take a look at
いけないものだと思うんです
09:16
and, maybe, start campaigning for.
私たちのパートナーが バン・ジョーンズのプロジェクトと
09:20
I mean, here, too, one of our partners was at Van Jones
連動し ビデオを製作して
09:25
and the Books Not Bars project -- they have managed,
カリフォルニアにおける青少年矯正の
09:29
with their footage in California
システムを見直すことに成功しました
09:32
to change the youth correction systems employed,
今では 以前より随分人道的な方法で
09:37
and it's much -- much -- I think, more humane methods
若者に対する監禁方法が取られていると思います
09:42
are being looked at, how you should lock up young kids,
まあ 監禁自体が疑問なのですが
09:46
and that's questionable to start off.
モラレス死刑囚のように こう聞かれたらどうでしょう
09:48
And as the story of Mr. Morales, just down the road,
すみません ガブリエルさん
09:54
excuse me, Mr. Gabriel,
少しあなたの処刑を遅らせたら困りますか?
09:56
would you mind if we delayed your execution a little bit?
ぜんぜん問題ありません どうぞごゆっくり
10:00
No, not at all, no problem, take your time.
しかし その人が誰であろうとも たとえ何をしたとしても
10:03
But this, surely, whoever that man is, whatever he's done,
こういったことは 残酷で異常な刑罰です
10:09
this is cruel and unusual punishment.
さて WITNESSは 世界中で自分の命を危険に晒す
10:13
Anyway, WITNESS has been trying to arm the brave people
勇敢な人々を カメラで武装させる努力を続けてきました
10:19
who often put their lives at risk around the world, with cameras,
少しそれについてご覧いただきたいと思います
10:23
and I'd like to show you just a little more of that. Thank you.
(雷鳴)
10:31
(Thunder) Text: You can say a story is fabricated.
(音楽)
10:34
(Music)
陪審が不正であると言える
10:38
Text: You can say a jury is corrupt.
人が嘘をついていると言える
10:43
You can say a person is lying.
新聞など信頼できないと言える
10:50
You can say you don't trust newspapers.
しかし今 目にしたものを
10:56
But you can't say
起こらなかったことだと
11:02
what you just saw
言うことはできない
11:05
never happened.
世界中にカメラを配る運動を支援しよう
11:12
Help WITNESS give cameras to the world.
ビデオを撮ろう
11:17
Shoot a video;
不正を暴露しよう
11:26
expose injustice;
真実を明らかにしよう
11:32
reveal the truth;
世界中の不条理を晒そう
11:37
show us what's wrong with the world;
そうすれば 私たちも
11:42
and maybe
不正を正す手伝いが
11:44
we can help
できるかもしれない
11:46
make it
WITNESS
11:48
right.
今ご覧になったビデオは WITNESSに賛同する
11:56
WITNESS.
人権保護団体によって録画されました
12:02
All the video you have just seen was recorded by
(拍手)
12:04
human rights groups working with WITNESS.
WITNESSは技術革新から生まれました
12:07
(Applause)
小さな持ち運びできるDVカメラが
12:12
PG: WITNESS was born of technological innovation --
ある意味 この運動の誕生を可能にしたのです
12:16
in a sense the small, portable, DV cam
私たちは世界にコンピュータを届ける努力をしてきました
12:18
was really what allowed it to come into being.
情報伝達やキャンペーンを
12:22
And we've also been trying to get computers out to the world,
効果的に行うためです
12:26
so that groups can communicate much more effectively,
だが現在 携帯電話付属のカメラが
12:28
campaign much more effectively,
素晴らしい可能性を私たちに与えてくれています
12:30
but now we have the wonderful possibility,
携帯のカメラは 安価でアクセスしやすく
12:36
which is given to us from the mobile phone with the camera in it,
世界中に出回っている 素晴らしいことです
12:40
because that is cheap; it's ubiquitous; and it's moving fast
そして 理想は 誰かに
12:45
all around the world -- and it's very exciting for us.
この種の災難が起こった時 それを転送して
12:48
And so, the dream is that we could have a world
誰かに 見てもらい 聞いてもらえる―
12:52
in which anyone who has anything bad happen to them of this sort
そういうことが可能であり
12:58
has a chance of getting their story uploaded,
その可能性を皆が理解しているという世界です
13:02
being seen, being watched,
例えば 巨大なウェブサイトがあるとして
13:05
that they really know that they can be heard,
グーグルアースのようなね
13:08
that there would be a giant website,
その上を飛んで各地で何が起こっているのか
13:12
maybe, a little like Google Earth,
確認できる仕組みです
13:14
and you could fly over and find out the realities of what's going,
このテクノロジーが可能にしているものは
13:18
for the world's inhabitants. In a way
問題を抱える人たちの存在を伝達できること
13:21
what this technology is allowing is, really,
誰がエイズで命を落としそうなのか
13:24
that a lot of the problems of the world can have a human face,
あるいは 誰が暴行を加えられているのか
13:28
that we can actually see who's dying of AIDS
ブログのように 彼らの事情を実際に知ることができる
13:31
or who's being beaten up, for the first time,
私たちがこういう世界を目指して行けば
13:36
and we can hear their stories in a way that the blogger culture --
様々な事を 変革することができると思います
13:40
if we can move that into these sort of fields,
新しい運動も まるで木のように
13:43
I think we can really transform the world in all sorts of ways.
光を求め 力強く 大きく育つことができるのです
13:50
There could be a new movement growing up,
どうもありがとう
13:54
rising from the ground, reaching for the light,
13:59
and growing strong, just like a tree. Thank you.
Translator:Junko Fundeis
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Peter Gabriel - Musician, activist
Peter Gabriel writes incredible songs but, as the co-founder of WITNESS and TheElders.org, is also a powerful human rights advocate.

Why you should listen

Peter Gabriel was a founding member of the extraordinarily successful progressive rock band Genesis. He left the band in 1975 to go solo and, in 1980, set up the international arts festival WOMAD (which stands for World of Music, Arts and Dance) and the record label Real World, both to champion music and artistic innovation from all over the world. Gabriel's stop motion video for "Sledgehammer" has been named the most-played music video in the history of MTV.  

Gabriel is also very interested in human rights. In 1992, he co-founded WITNESS.org, an organization that helps human rights activists and citizen witnesses worldwide make change happen through the use of video. The organization not only distributes digital cameras to empower people to document human-rights abuses, but provides a platform for the spread of video that reveals what is really going on in places all over the globe.

In 2007, Gabriel also co-founded theElders.org with Richard Branson and Nelson Mandela, an independent group of global leaders working together for peace and human rights.

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