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Mission Blue Voyage

Mike deGruy: Hooked by an octopus

マイク・ディグリー:タコに魅せられて

April 7, 2010

水中カメラマンのマイク・ディグリーは数十年にわたり海を観察しています 卓越した話術で、ミッション・ブルーのステージに立ち、わたしたちに彼の驚嘆と興奮、そして懸念を伝えています --- 地球の青い心臓である海について。

Mike deGruy - Filmmaker
Mike deGruy filmed in and on the ocean for more than three decades -- becoming almost as famous for his storytelling as for his glorious, intimate visions of the sea and the creatures who live in it. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I first became fascinated with octopus at an early age.
私は幼い頃にタコに夢中になりました
00:15
I grew up in Mobile, Alabama --
アラバマ州のモビールで育ちました
00:18
somebody's got to be from Mobile, right? --
ここにはモビール出身の方もおられるでしょうね
00:20
and Mobile sits at the confluence of five rivers,
モビールは5つの川が合流して形成される
00:22
forming this beautiful delta.
美しいデルタ地帯に位置しています
00:25
And the delta has alligators crawling
そこは ワニが這い
00:27
in and out of rivers filled with fish
たくさんの魚が泳ぎ
00:29
and cypress trees dripping with snakes,
ヌマスギからはヘビが垂れ下がり
00:31
birds of every flavor.
あらゆる種類の鳥がいます
00:33
It's an absolute magical wonderland to live in --
生き物に興味を持つ子供ならば
00:35
if you're a kid interested in animals, to grow up in.
そこはまったく魔法のような場所なのです
00:38
And this delta water flows to Mobile Bay, and finally into the Gulf of Mexico.
川の水はモビール湾から メキシコ湾に注ぎます
00:41
And I remember my first real contact with octopus
初めて本物のタコに遭遇したのは たぶん
00:45
was probably at age five or six.
5歳か6歳の頃でした メキシコ湾で泳いでいて
00:48
I was in the gulf, and I was swimming around and saw a little octopus on the bottom.
海底にいる小さなタコを見つけました
00:50
And I reached down and picked him up, and immediately
私は手を伸ばしてタコをつかまえ すぐに
00:53
became fascinated and impressed by its speed and its strength and agility.
その強さと敏捷さに夢中になりました
00:56
It was prying my fingers apart and moving to the back of my hand.
指をこじあけ 手の裏に回ろうとするので
00:59
It was all I could do to hold onto this amazing creature.
この暴れん坊を持っているのがやっとでした
01:03
Then it sort of calmed down in the palms of my hands
そのうち タコは手のひらの上で大人しくなり
01:05
and started flashing colors,
明滅させるように色を変えはじめ
01:08
just pulsing all of these colors.
脈打つように色を変えました
01:10
And as I looked at it, it kind of tucked its arms under it,
やがて 脚を下にしまいこみ
01:12
raised into a spherical shape
球形に丸まって
01:15
and turned chocolate brown with two white stripes.
2本の白い縞のある茶褐色に変わりました
01:17
I'm going, "My gosh!" I had never seen anything like this in my life!
「すごい こんな生物初めて!」感動しました
01:20
So I marveled for a moment, and then decided it was time to release him,
しばらく見とれたあと 放さねばと思い
01:23
so I put him down.
彼をそっと手から降ろすと
01:26
The octopus left my hands and then did the damnedest thing:
手から逃れたタコは 離れ業を見せたのです
01:28
It landed on the bottom in the rubble
海底の小石の上に着地した次の瞬間
01:32
and -- fwoosh! -- vanished
バシュッと一瞬で消えたのです
01:35
right before my eyes.
私の目の前でです
01:37
And I knew, right then, at age six,
そこで私は6歳にして決めました
01:38
that is an animal that I want to learn more about. So I did.
もっとこの生物について知るんだと
01:40
And I went off to college and got a degree in marine zoology,
やがて私は大学で海洋生物学の学士号を取り
01:43
and then moved to Hawaii and entered graduate school
ハワイに行き ハワイ大学の
01:46
at the University of Hawaii.
大学院に入学しました
01:48
And while a student at Hawaii, I worked at the Waikiki Aquarium.
ハワイ大学在籍中 ワイキキ水族館で働きました
01:50
And the aquarium had a lot of big fish tanks
そこには 魚類用の大水槽はたくさんありましたが
01:53
but not a lot of invertebrate displays,
無脊椎動物の展示はあまり多くありませんでした
01:55
and being the spineless guy, I thought, well
骨なし生物大好き人間の私は
01:57
I'll just go out in the field and collect these wonderful animals
すてきな仲間を連れてこようと思い立ちました
02:00
I had been learning about as a student
学生として無脊椎動物について学んでいたので
02:03
and bring them in, and I built these elaborate sets and put them on display.
それらを採集し 入念なセットをこしらえて展示しました
02:06
Now, the fish in the tanks were gorgeous to look at,
水槽の魚は鑑賞するにはすばらしいですが
02:09
but they didn't really interact with people.
彼らは人間と関わりません
02:13
But the octopus did.
でもタコは違います
02:16
If you walked up to an octopus tank,
タコの水槽に とくに早朝
02:18
especially early in the morning before anyone arrived,
まだ誰もいない時に行ってみてください
02:20
the octopus would rise up and look at you
タコは起き上がってあなたを見るでしょう
02:22
and you're thinking, "Is that guy really looking at me? He is looking at me!"
「アイツ 俺を見てるのか...あ、本当に見てる!」
02:24
And you walk up to the front of the tank. Then you realize
そして水槽の正面まで近づくと
02:27
that these animals all have different personalities:
一匹一匹に個性があることに気づくでしょう
02:29
Some of them would hold their ground,
その場を動かないタコもいますし
02:33
others would slink into the back of the tank and disappear in the rocks,
水槽の奥の岩陰に隠れるタコもいるでしょう
02:35
and one in particular, this amazing animal ...
その中にすごいのが一匹いて
02:39
I went up to the front of the tank, and he's just staring at me,
私が水槽の正面に来ると じっと私を見つめました
02:41
and he had little horns come up above his eyes.
彼の目の上に小さな角が出ていました
02:44
So I went right up to the front of the tank --
私は水槽の真正面で ガラスの
02:46
I was three or four inches from the front glass --
10センチほどのところにいました
02:48
and the octopus was sitting on a perch, a little rock,
タコは小さな岩の上に座っていましたが
02:50
and he came off the rock and he also came down right to the front of the glass.
岩を離れて水槽の正面にやって来ました
02:53
So I was staring at this animal about six or seven inches away,
ガラス越しに15センチ程の距離でにらみ合いました
02:57
and at that time I could actually focus that close;
実際このくらいの近さでしたね
03:00
now as I look at my fuzzy fingers I realize those days are long gone.
今は老眼でダメですが 昔はよく見えました
03:03
Anyway, there we were, staring at each other,
私たちはじっとにらみ合いました
03:07
and he reaches down and grabs an armful of gravel
タコは触腕を伸ばし 小石を一握り掴むと
03:09
and releases it in the jet of water entering the tank
濾過装置から水槽に注ぐ
03:12
from the filtration system,
流水の中に放ったのです
03:15
and -- chk chk chk chk chk! -- this gravel hits the front of the glass and falls down.
チチチチッ 小石はフロントガラスに当たって落ちました
03:17
He reaches up, takes another armful of gravel, releases it --
タコはもう一度小石を掴んでまた放ち…
03:20
chk chk chk chk chk! -- same thing.
チチチチッ 同じことを繰り返しました
03:23
Then he lifts another arm and I lift an arm.
次にタコは腕を一本上げました 私も上げました
03:26
Then he lifts another arm and I lift another arm.
続いてもう一本 私も もう一本
03:29
And then I realize the octopus won the arms race,
腕競べは私の負けです
03:32
because I was out and he had six left. (Laughter)
だって彼はまだ6本ありますからね
03:35
But the only way I can describe what I was seeing that day
その日私が見たことは
03:38
was that this octopus was playing,
遊びという言葉でしか説明できませんでした
03:42
which is a pretty sophisticated behavior for a mere invertebrate.
無脊椎動物には稀な 極めて洗練された行動です
03:45
So, about three years into my degree,
その後 私が博士課程3年の頃
03:49
a funny thing happened on the way to the office,
愉快な出来事がありました
03:51
which actually changed the course of my life.
実際それはその後の私の人生を変えるものでした
03:54
A man came into the aquarium. It's a long story, but essentially
手短に言うと ある男性が水族館を訪れ
03:56
he sent me and a couple of friends of mine to the South Pacific
私と数名の同僚たちに 南太平洋に行って
03:59
to collect animals for him,
彼のために生物を収集してほしいと言ったのです
04:02
and as we left, he gave us two 16-millimeter movie cameras.
出発の際 彼は16ミリカメラを2台持たせてくれ
04:04
He said, "Make a movie about this expedition."
この調査の記録を映像に残すようにと言いました
04:07
"OK, a couple of biologists making a movie --
よし 僕たちの映画か
04:10
this'll be interesting,"
これは面白いことになるぞ
04:13
and off we went. And we did, we made a movie,
私たちは調査を行い 記録を残しました
04:14
which had to be the worst movie ever made
それは映画史上
04:16
in the history of movie making,
最低の映画でしたが
04:18
but it was a blast. I had so much fun.
最高で最上の体験でした
04:20
And I remember that proverbial light going off in my head,
そこで頭の中でランプがひらめいて
04:22
thinking, "Wait a minute.
待てよ
04:24
Maybe I can do this all the time.
これからもこれをずっとやれるのでは?
04:26
Yeah, I'll be a filmmaker."
そうだ 映画制作者になろう!と決心したのです
04:28
So I literally came back from that job,
その仕事から帰るやいなや
04:30
quit school, hung my filmmaking shingle
何をやったら良いのかもよくわからないままに
04:32
and just never told anyone that I didn't know what I was doing.
大学院を中退し 映画制作の看板を掲げました
04:34
It's been a good ride.
幸運でした
04:37
And what I learned in school though was really beneficial.
それまでに学んだことがとても役立ちました
04:39
If you're a wildlife filmmaker
野生動物の映画制作者が
04:41
and you're going out into the field to film animals,
自然の中で動物を撮影する
04:43
especially behavior,
特に行動を撮影する場合
04:45
it helps to have a fundamental background
対象がどんな動物で
04:47
on who these animals are,
どのように振る舞うか 行動するかなど
04:49
how they work and, you know, a bit about their behaviors.
基礎的な知識はとても役に立ちます
04:51
But where I really learned about octopus
しかし タコの本当の姿は 海の中で
04:54
was in the field, as a filmmaker
映画制作の過程で学びました
04:56
making films with them,
彼らを映画に撮り
04:58
where you're allowed to spend large periods of time
海中の彼らの住み家で
05:00
with the animals, seeing octopus being octopus
彼らが本来の生活を送る様子を
05:03
in their ocean homes.
長期間共に過しながら学んだのです
05:06
I remember I took a trip to Australia,
以前 オーストラリアの
05:08
went to an island called One Tree Island.
ワンツリー島に行きました
05:10
And apparently, evolution had occurred
明らかにその島では進化が
05:13
at a pretty rapid rate on One Tree,
かなり早いペースで起こっていて
05:15
between the time they named it and the time I arrived,
私が行ったときには
05:17
because I'm sure there were at least three trees
少なくとも3本以上の木が
05:20
on that island when we were there.
島に生えていました
05:22
Anyway, one tree is situated right next to
とにかく 一本の木が
05:24
a beautiful coral reef.
美しいサンゴ礁のすぐそばに生えていました
05:26
In fact, there's a surge channel
そこは1日2回の満潮時に かなり激しく
05:28
where the tide is moving back and forth, twice a day, pretty rapidly.
潮が出入りする水路になっていました
05:30
And there's a beautiful reef,
そこは美しいサンゴ礁で
05:33
very complex reef, with lots of animals,
入り組んだ岩礁にはたくさんのタコを含む
05:34
including a lot of octopus.
多くの生物がいました
05:37
And not uniquely
タコにはよくあることですが
05:39
but certainly, the octopus in Australia
オーストラリアのタコは
05:41
are masters at camouflage.
まさに変装の名人です
05:43
As a matter of fact,
実際
05:45
there's one right there.
ほら ここに一匹いるでしょう
05:47
So our first challenge was to find these things,
最初の難関は 彼らを見つけることで
05:49
and that was a challenge, indeed.
それは本当に大変でした
05:51
But the idea is, we were there for a month
だからこう考えたのです 1ヵ月滞在して
05:53
and I wanted to acclimate the animals to us
タコたちが私たちに慣れれば
05:55
so that we could see behaviors without disturbing them.
彼らを脅かさずに 生態を観察できるだろうと
05:57
So the first week was pretty much spent
最初の約一週間で
06:00
just getting as close as we could,
近づける限界を探りました
06:02
every day a little closer, a little closer, a little closer.
毎日少しずつ近づいて行き
06:04
And you knew what the limit was: they would start getting twitchy
彼らが落ち着かなくなる距離を測ったのです
06:06
and you'd back up, come back in a few hours.
数時間毎に 近づいたり離れたりを繰り返すうち
06:08
And after the first week, they ignored us.
一週間後には 私たちを無視するようになりました
06:11
It was like, "I don't know what that thing is, but he's no threat to me."
「どうやら悪さはしないらしい」と考え
06:14
So they went on about their business
普段通りの生活を始めました
06:16
and from a foot away, we're watching mating
ほんとうにごく近い距離から 交尾や
06:18
and courting and fighting
求婚や喧嘩を見守りました
06:20
and it is just an unbelievable experience.
それはほんとうに信じられないような経験でした
06:22
And one of the most fantastic displays
目撃し 記憶している中で
06:25
that I remember, or at least visually,
一番すばらしかったのは
06:27
was a foraging behavior.
採餌行動です
06:29
And they had a lot of different techniques
彼らはさまざまな技術を持っていて
06:31
that they would use for foraging,
それを餌を捕まえるために使っているのです
06:33
but this particular one used vision.
そのうちの1つは視覚を使うものでした
06:35
And they would see a coral head,
3メートル先から
06:37
maybe 10 feet away,
珊瑚の塊を見つけて
06:39
and start moving over toward that coral head.
泳ぎ寄ります
06:41
And I don't know whether they actually saw crab in it, or imagined that one might be,
カニが見えるのかどうかはわかりませんが
06:44
but whatever the case, they would leap off the bottom
海底から跳び上がり
06:48
and go through the water and land right on top of this coral head,
珊瑚の塊の上に乗るのです
06:51
and then the web between the arms
そして触腕を広げると
06:54
would completely engulf the coral head,
珊瑚をすっぽり覆い
06:56
and they would fish out, swim for crabs.
隠れているカニを探し出すのです
06:58
And as soon as the crabs touched the arm, it was lights out.
触腕に触れたが最後 カニはお陀仏です
07:00
And I always wondered what happened under that web.
この中がどうなっているのか知りたかったので
07:03
So we created a way to find out, (Laughter)
観察する方法を工夫しました
07:05
and I got my first look at that famous beak in action.
話に聞いていたくちばしの動きを初めて観察できました
07:08
It was fantastic.
すばらしかったです
07:11
If you're going to make a lot of films about a particular group of animals,
特定の種類の生物の映画をたくさん撮りたいならば
07:13
you might as well pick one that's fairly common.
広範囲に分布している生き物を選ぶでしょう
07:16
And octopus are, they live in all the oceans.
タコはどの海にもいて
07:18
They also live deep.
深海に住んでいるものもいます
07:20
And I can't say octopus are responsible
潜水艇に乗って深海へ行きたいという
07:22
for my really strong interest
私の強い願望が
07:24
in getting in subs and going deep,
タコのせいかどうかはわかりませんが
07:26
but whatever the case, I like that.
とにかく私は深海が大好きなのです
07:28
It's like nothing you've ever done.
それはまったく新しい体験です
07:30
If you ever really want to get away from it all
もしあなたがすべてから逃れて
07:32
and see something that you have never seen,
これまで見たこともないものを見たいと思うなら
07:34
and have an excellent chance of seeing something
絶好のチャンスは
07:36
no one has ever seen, get in a sub.
潜水艇に乗ることです
07:38
You climb in, seal the hatch, turn on a little oxygen,
潜水艇に乗り込んでハッチを閉め
07:41
turn on the scrubber,
酸素のバルブをひねり
07:43
which removes the CO2 in the air you breathe, and they chuck you overboard.
空気浄化装置をオンにして 出発です
07:45
Down you go. There's no connection to the surface
下へと降りてきます 地上とのつながりは切れ
07:48
apart from a pretty funky radio.
陽気なラジオともお別れです
07:50
And as you go down, the washing machine
潜水艇が下降するにつれ
07:52
at the surface calms down.
外は静まり
07:54
And it gets quiet.
静寂が広がります
07:56
And it starts getting really nice.
楽しい時間の始まりです
07:58
And as you go deeper, that lovely, blue water you were launched in
潜行するにつれ 水の青さは
08:00
gives way to darker and darker blue.
どんどん深く濃くなり
08:03
And finally, it's a rich lavender,
やがて深いラベンダー色になり
08:06
and after a couple of thousand feet, it's ink black.
さらに600mほど潜ると漆黒です
08:08
And now you've entered the realm
ここは中深海の
08:11
of the mid-water community.
領域です
08:13
You could give an entire talk
中深海の生物についてだけでも
08:16
about the creatures that live in the mid-water.
たっぷりお話しすることがあります
08:18
Suffice to say though, as far as I'm concerned,
私が知る限り 疑いもなく
08:20
without question, the most bizarre designs
最高にへんてこな形状の
08:23
and outrageous behaviors
とんでもない振る舞いをする
08:26
are in the animals that live in the mid-water community.
生物が 中深海にいる といえば十分でしょう
08:29
But we're just going to zip right past this area,
この領域は海の95%の領域を占めます
08:32
this area that includes about 95 percent
ここをさっと通り過ぎて
08:34
of the living space on our planet
中央海嶺に降りて行きましょう
08:37
and go to the mid-ocean ridge, which I think is even more extraordinary.
ここはさらに驚くべき所です
08:39
The mid-ocean ridge is a huge mountain range,
中央海嶺は広大な海底山脈で
08:42
40,000 miles long, snaking around the entire globe.
64万kmの長さで地球の海底をうねっています
08:45
And they're big mountains, thousands of feet tall,
海嶺は巨大な山脈で数百から
08:48
some of which are tens of thousands of feet
数千メートルの高さにもなり
08:50
and bust through the surface,
それが海面にまで至ると
08:52
creating islands like Hawaii.
ハワイ諸島のような島を形成します
08:54
And the top of this mountain range
この山脈の頂は
08:56
is splitting apart, creating a rift valley.
パックリと開いていて地溝帯を作っています
08:58
And when you dive into that rift valley, that's where the action is
この地溝帯こそ 活動の現場なのです
09:01
because literally thousands of active volcanoes
ここには文字通り数千の活火山が
09:04
are going off at any point in time
6万kmの長さに渡って
09:07
all along this 40,000 mile range.
常時噴火を続けているからです
09:09
And as these tectonic plates are spreading apart,
大陸を載せたプレートが動き
09:11
magma, lava is coming up and filling those gaps,
マグマがわき上がって隙間を埋めます
09:14
and you're looking land -- new land --
新しい海底が 目の前で
09:17
being created right before your eyes.
形成されていくのを目撃できます
09:20
And over the tops of them is 3,000 to 4,000 meters of water
地溝帯の上にある3千~4千mの海水は
09:22
creating enormous pressure,
すさまじい圧力となり 海水を地球の中心まで
09:25
forcing water down through the cracks toward the center of the earth,
押し込もうとします
09:27
until it hits a magma chamber
マグマ溜りにぶつかった海水は
09:30
where it becomes superheated
超高温に熱せられて
09:32
and supersaturated with minerals,
ミネラルで過飽和の状態になり
09:34
reverses its flow and starts shooting back to the surface
逆流し 海底近くまで押し戻されて
09:36
and is ejected out of the earth like a geyser at Yellowstone.
イエローストーンの間欠泉のように噴き出すのです
09:38
In fact, this whole area
実際この辺り一帯は 飾りたてた
09:41
is like a Yellowstone National Park with all of the trimmings.
イエローストーン国立公園のようです
09:43
And this vent fluid is about 600 or 700 degrees F.
噴出する熱水は摂氏300~400度にもなる一方
09:46
The surrounding water is just a couple of degrees above freezing.
あたりの海水はほぼ氷点の温度です
09:49
So it immediately cools,
急激に冷やされるため
09:52
and it can no longer hold in suspension
溶けていたミネラルが
09:54
all of the material that it's dissolved,
析出され 凝固したミネラルが
09:56
and it precipitates out, forming black smoke.
黒煙を形成します
09:58
And it forms these towers, these chimneys
塔や煙突のような噴出孔を形成し
10:01
that are 10, 20, 30 feet tall.
3~10mもの高さになります
10:03
And all along the sides of these chimneys
この煙突の回りの熱水には
10:05
is shimmering with heat and loaded with life.
生物がひしめき合っています
10:08
You've got black smokers going all over the place
ブラックスモーカーが立ち並び
10:11
and chimneys that have tube worms
3mはあろうかという
10:13
that might be eight to 10 feet long.
チューブワームがいます
10:15
And out of the tops of these tube worms
チューブワームの頭には
10:18
are these beautiful red plumes.
赤い羽毛のようなものがついています
10:20
And living amongst the tangle of tube worms
チューブワームの集団の中に
10:22
is an entire community of animals:
さまざまな生物が住んでいます
10:25
shrimp, fish, lobsters, crab,
小エビ 魚 ロブスター カニ
10:27
clams and swarms of arthropods
二枚貝や節足動物の集団が
10:29
that are playing that dangerous game
凍り付く寒さと煮えたぎる熱の間で
10:31
between over here is scalding hot and freezing cold.
危険なゲームをしてします
10:33
And this whole ecosystem
この生態系の存在が
10:36
wasn't even known about
発見されたのは
10:38
until 33 years ago.
33年前のことです
10:40
And it completely threw science on its head.
発見は科学の常識ををひっくり返し
10:42
It made scientists rethink
科学者たちに
10:46
where life on Earth might have actually begun.
地球上の生命の起源を再考させました
10:48
And before the discovery of these vents,
この熱水噴出孔の発見以前は
10:50
all life on Earth, the key to life on Earth,
地球上の全ての生命の源は
10:53
was believed to be the sun and photosynthesis.
太陽と光合成にあると思われていました
10:55
But down there, there is no sun,
しかしここには太陽光はなく
10:57
there is no photosynthesis;
光合成もありません
10:59
it's chemosynthetic environment down there driving it,
化学合成の環境が生命の源です
11:01
and it's all so ephemeral.
そしてここでは全てが 短命です
11:04
You might film this
この 驚異の熱水噴出孔を
11:06
unbelievable hydrothermal vent,
撮影すると きっと
11:08
which you think at the time has to be on another planet.
他の星にいるのだと思うでしょう
11:10
It's amazing to think that this is actually on earth;
これが地球上であるというのは驚くべきことです
11:13
it looks like aliens in an alien environment.
まるでエイリアンがいる異星のようですから
11:15
But you go back to the same vent eight years later
しかし8年後同じ熱水噴出孔に行くと
11:18
and it can be completely dead.
そこは死の世界となっている可能性があります
11:21
There's no hot water.
熱い海水はなく
11:23
All of the animals are gone, they're dead,
生物は死に絶えています
11:25
and the chimneys are still there
煙突は立っていますが
11:27
creating a really nice ghost town,
ゴーストタウンのようです
11:29
an eerie, spooky ghost town,
薄気味悪いゴーストタウンで
11:31
but essentially devoid of animals, of course.
生物はいません
11:33
But 10 miles down the ridge...
しかし15kmほど下がったところでは
11:35
pshhh! There's another volcano going.
プシュー!別の火山があり 熱水噴出孔の
11:38
And there's a whole new hydrothermal vent community that has been formed.
新しい生態系ができあがっているのです
11:40
And this kind of life and death of hydrothermal vent communities
この熱水噴出孔の生物たちの誕生と死は
11:43
is going on every 30 or 40 years
30~40年単位で
11:46
all along the ridge.
海嶺全体で繰り返されます
11:48
And that ephemeral nature
この熱水噴出孔の生物群の
11:50
of the hydrothermal vent community
短命な性質は 35年間
11:52
isn't really different from some of the
私が撮影旅行をしながら
11:54
areas that I've seen
見てきたものと 実はあまり変わらないのです
11:56
in 35 years of traveling around, making films.
ある湾に行き すばらしいシーンをいくつか
11:58
Where you go and film a really nice sequence at a bay.
撮影したとします
12:01
And you go back, and I'm at home,
帰宅して 家で考えます
12:04
and I'm thinking, "Okay, what can I shoot ...
「さて 次に何を撮ろうかな
12:06
Ah! I know where I can shoot that.
そうだ あの湾に行けば撮影できる
12:08
There's this beautiful bay, lots of soft corals and stomatopods."
ソフトサンゴと口脚類がたくさんいるから」
12:10
And you show up, and it's dead.
行ってみると 皆死に絶えています
12:12
There's no coral, algae growing on it, and the water's pea soup.
珊瑚の形もなく 一面の藻類で豆スープのようです
12:15
You think, "Well, what happened?"
一体何が起きたんだ?
12:18
And you turn around,
あたりを見回すと
12:20
and there's a hillside behind you with a neighborhood going in,
後ろの丘の斜面が開発され
12:22
and bulldozers are pushing piles of soil back and forth.
ブルドーザーが大量の土砂を掘り起こしています
12:24
And over here
こちらでは
12:27
there's a golf course going in.
ゴルフコースが建設中です
12:29
And this is the tropics.
しかもここは熱帯で
12:31
It's raining like crazy here.
狂ったように雨が降ります
12:33
So this rainwater is flooding down the hillside,
雨水は斜面を流れ
12:35
carrying with it sediments from the construction site,
建設現場の土砂を押し流し
12:38
smothering the coral and killing it.
サンゴを覆って死なせます
12:40
And fertilizers and pesticides
ゴルフコースの肥料や殺虫剤も
12:42
are flowing into the bay from the golf course --
湾に流れ込みます
12:44
the pesticides killing all the larvae and little animals,
殺虫剤は幼生や小さな生物を皆殺しにし
12:47
fertilizer creating this beautiful plankton bloom --
肥料は鮮やかな色のプランクトンを増殖させ
12:50
and there's your pea soup.
その結果が豆スープです
12:52
But, encouragingly, I've seen just the opposite.
しかし心強いことに 真逆の現象も見てきています
12:54
I've been to a place that was a pretty trashed bay.
以前 ゴミためのような湾に行きました
12:57
And I looked at it, just said, "Yuck,"
見るなり うへっと思い
13:00
and go and work on the other side of the island.
島の反対側に行って撮影をしました
13:02
Five years later, come back,
5年後 再訪すると
13:04
and that same bay is now gorgeous. It's beautiful.
あの同じ湾がすばらしく美しく回復しています
13:06
It's got living coral, fish all over the place,
生きたサンゴに魚が群れています
13:09
crystal clear water, and you go, "How did that happen?"
海水は澄み切っていて 何が起こったの?と思うでしょう
13:11
Well, how it happened is
これはどうしたのかというと
13:14
the local community galvanized.
地域の共同体が行動を起こしたのです
13:16
They recognized what was happening on the hillside and put a stop to it;
丘陵での自然破壊を知り 阻止したのです
13:18
enacted laws and made permits required
法律を作り 認可を制定し
13:21
to do responsible construction
住宅建設とゴルフコースの管理に
13:23
and golf course maintenance
責任を負わせ
13:25
and stopped the sediments flowing into the bay,
堆積物や化学物質が
13:27
and stopped the chemicals flowing into the bay,
湾に流れこむのを阻止したのです
13:29
and the bay recovered.
湾はよみがえりました
13:31
The ocean has an amazing ability
海はすばらしい回復能力を持っています
13:33
to recover, if we'll just leave it alone.
私たちはそっとしておけばいいのです
13:35
I think Margaret Mead
マーガレット・ミードが
13:38
said it best.
いみじくも言っています
13:40
She said that a small group of thoughtful people
思慮深い少数の集団が
13:42
could change the world.
世界を変えるのだと
13:44
Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has.
全く そのとおりのことが起きています
13:46
And a small group of thoughtful people
思慮深い小さなグループが
13:49
changed that bay.
湾を変えたのです
13:51
I'm a big fan of grassroots organizations.
私は草の根運動の大ファンです
13:53
I've been to a lot of lectures
講演もたくさんしていますが
13:56
where, at the end of it, inevitably,
毎回の講演の終わりの
13:58
one of the first questions that comes up is,
最初の質問はこれです
14:00
"But, but what can I do?
「でも私に何ができます?
14:02
I'm an individual. I'm one person.
私は1人の人間でしかなく
14:04
And these problems are so large and global, and it's just overwhelming."
問題は巨大で世界規模なので圧倒されます」
14:06
Fair enough question.
もっともな質問です
14:09
My answer to that is don't look
私の回答は それを巨大で
14:11
at the big, overwhelming issues of the world.
圧倒される世界的な問題ととらないで
14:13
Look in your own backyard.
あなたの裏庭を いや
14:16
Look in your heart, actually.
あなたの心をみつめて
14:18
What do you really care about that isn't right where you live?
あなたの住む場所の問題を
14:21
And fix it.
直してください ということです
14:24
Create a healing zone in your neighborhood
あなたの近所に癒しのスポットをつくって
14:26
and encourage others to do the same.
他の人にも同じ事をするように薦めてください
14:28
And maybe these healing zones can sprinkle a map,
その癒しのスポットが地図上に
14:30
little dots on a map.
点在するようになるかもしれません
14:32
And in fact, the way that we can communicate today --
今の私たちは通信手段があるため
14:34
where Alaska is instantly knowing what's going on in China,
中国で起きていることをアラスカですぐ知ることができます
14:37
and the Kiwis did this, and then over in England they tried to ...
ニュージーランドではこうで イギリスでは…
14:40
and everybody is talking to everyone else --
世界中の人ががお互いに話しているのです
14:42
it's not isolated points on a map anymore,
地図上の孤立した地点というのは今やありえません
14:44
it's a network we've created.
ネットワークを作っているからです
14:46
And maybe these healing zones can start growing,
この癒しのスポットが広がり始め
14:48
and possibly even overlap, and good things can happen.
もっと広がり 重なることで 良い事が起きるでしょう
14:50
So that's how I answer that question.
これが私の回答です
14:53
Look in your own backyard, in fact, look in the mirror.
裏庭を いや鏡をみてください
14:56
What can you do that is more responsible
今やっていることよりも
14:59
than what you're doing now?
もっと責任あることができますか?
15:01
And do that, and spread the word.
できるならばやりなさい 広めなさい
15:03
The vent community animals
熱水噴出孔の生物たちは
15:06
can't really do much
自分たちの住む世界の生と死について
15:08
about the life and death
ほとんど何もできませんが
15:10
that's going on where they live, but up here we can.
地上の私たちは違います
15:12
In theory, we're thinking, rational human beings.
私たちは思考し理性を持っているはずです
15:15
And we can make changes to our behavior
私たちの行動を変えることで
15:18
that will influence and affect the environment,
あの湾の健康を取り戻した人々のように
15:21
like those people changed the health of that bay.
環境に影響を与えることができるのです
15:24
Now, Sylvia's TED Prize wish
TEDPrize受賞者のシルヴィアは
15:26
was to beseech us to do anything we could,
受賞記念講演で 海を保護するために
15:29
everything we could,
私たちにできることを ほんのちょっとでなく
15:32
to set aside not pin pricks,
できるかぎりたくさん
15:34
but significant expanses
何でもしてくださいと
15:36
of the ocean for preservation,
懇願しています
15:38
"hope spots," she calls them.
「希望のスポット」と彼女は呼んでいます
15:40
And I applaud that. I loudly applaud that.
私はこれに大賛成です
15:42
And it's my hope that some of these "hope spots"
私の希望はそれらの「希望のスポット」の中に
15:46
can be in the deep ocean,
深海も入れてくださいということです
15:49
an area that has historically
歴史的にこの領域は
15:51
been seriously neglected, if not abused.
乱用されないまでも ひどく無視されてきました
15:54
The term "deep six" comes to mind:
海洋投棄などでです
15:57
"If it's too big or too toxic for a landfill,
埋め立てには大きすぎる 毒性が強すぎるものは
15:59
deep six it!"
海洋投棄が行われています
16:02
So, I hope that we can also keep
私は深海にも
16:04
some of these "hope spots" in the deep sea.
「希望のスポット」ができることを望んでいます
16:06
Now, I don't get a wish,
今私の願いはかなっていませんが
16:09
but I certainly can say
こう言うことはできます
16:12
that I will do anything I can
シルヴィアの願いをかなえるために
16:15
to support Sylvia Earle's wish.
私はできることをなんでもするでしょう
16:17
And that I do.
そして私は実行します
16:19
Thank you very much. (Applause)
ありがとうございます
16:21
Translator:HIROKO ITO
Reviewer:Haruo Nishinoh

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Mike deGruy - Filmmaker
Mike deGruy filmed in and on the ocean for more than three decades -- becoming almost as famous for his storytelling as for his glorious, intimate visions of the sea and the creatures who live in it.

Why you should listen

Mike deGruy was a graduate student in marine biology when he first picked up a 16mm film camera. Thirty-plus years on, his company, the Film Crew Inc., travels the oceans making underwater films for the BBC, PBS, National Geographic and Discovery Channel. He dived beneath both poles and visited the hydrothermal vents in both the Atlantic and the Pacific. And as you can imagine, he collected many stories along the way.

An accomplished diver and underwater cinematographer, deGruy also became a go-to host and expedition member on shows like the recent Mysteries of the Shark Coast with Céline Cousteau and Richard Fitzpatrick. (He was a regular on Shark Week -- and a shark attack survivor himelf.) But his first passion was cephalopods, and in fact deGruy and his team were the first to film two rarely seen cephalopods, the nautilus and the vampire squid, in their home ocean.

 

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