14:54
TEDxSummit

William Noel: Revealing the lost codex of Archimedes

Vilijam Noel (William Noel): Otkrivanje izgubljenog Arhimedovog kodeksa

Filmed:

Kako pročitati rukopis star dve hiljade godina, koji je bio brisan, seckan, dopisivan i oslikavan? Pomoću snažnog akceleratora čestica, naravno! Kustos drevnih knjiga Vilijam Noel izlaže fascinantnu priču o Arhimedovom palimsestu, vizantijskom molitveniku u kom se nalaze ranije nepoznati originalni zapisi starogrčkog matematičara Arhimeda i drugih.

- Curator, rare book scholar
William Noel is a curator who believes museums should make their collections free and available on the Internet. Full bio

The great texts of the ancient world
Sjajni tekstovi antičkog sveta
00:16
don't survive to us in their original form.
nisu opstali do danas u svom izvornom obliku.
00:18
They survive because medieval scribes copied them
Opstali su jer ih srednjovjekovni pisari prepisivali
00:22
and copied them and copied them.
i prepisivali i prepisivali.
00:25
And so it is with Archimedes,
Tako je bilo i sa Arhimedom,
00:27
the great Greek mathematician.
velikim grčkim matematičarem.
00:30
Everything we know about Archimedes as a mathematician
Sve što znamo o Arhimedu kao matematičaru,
00:32
we know about because of just three books,
znamo zbog samo tri knjige,
00:35
and they're called A, B and C.
koje se zovu A, B i C.
00:37
And A was lost by an Italian humanist in 1564.
A je izgubio italijanski humanista 1564. godine.
00:39
And B was last heard of in the Pope's Library
O knjizi B se poslednji put čulo u Papinoj biblioteci
00:44
about a hundred miles north of Rome in Viterbo in 1311.
oko 160 kilometara severno od Rima u Viterbu 1311. godine.
00:47
Now Codex C was only discovered in 1906,
Kodeks C otkriven je tek 1906. godine
00:53
and it landed on my desk in Baltimore
i stigao je na moj sto u Baltimoru
00:57
on the 19th of January, 1999.
19. januara 1999. godine.
01:00
And this is Codex C here.
Ovo ovde je Kodeks C.
01:04
Now Codex C is actually buried in this book.
Kodeks C je u stvari sakriven u ovoj knjizi.
01:06
It's buried treasure.
To je zakopano blago.
01:11
Because this book is actually a prayer book.
Jer ova knjiga je zapravo molitvenik.
01:13
It was finished by a guy called Johannes Myrones
Završio ju je čovek po imenu Johan Majron
01:15
on the 14th of April, 1229.
14. aprila 1229. godine.
01:18
And to make his prayer book he used parchment.
Za izradu svog molitvenika koristio je pergament.
01:22
But he didn't use new parchment,
Ali nije upotrebio nov pergament,
01:24
he used parchment recycled from earlier manuscripts,
već pergament recikliran od prethodnih rukopisa,
01:27
and there were seven of them.
kojih je bilo sedam.
01:30
And Archimedes Codex C was just one of those seven.
Arhimedov Kodeks C je bio samo jedan od tih sedam.
01:32
He took apart the Archimedes manuscript and the other seven manuscripts.
On je rastavio Arhimedov rukopis i ostalih sedam rukopisa.
01:35
He erased all of their texts,
Izbrisao je sve njihove tekstove,
01:41
and then he cut the sheets down in the middle,
zatim je razrezao stranice po sredini,
01:44
he shuffled them up,
promešao ih,
01:46
and he rotated them 90 degrees,
rotirao ih za 90 stepeni
01:49
and he wrote prayers on top of these books.
i pisao molitve po tim knjigama.
01:50
And essentially these seven manuscripts
U suštini, tih sedam rukopisa je
01:53
disappeared for 700 years, and we have a prayer book.
nestalo na 700 godina, a imamo molitvenik.
01:54
The prayer book was discovered by this guy,
Molitvenik je otkrio ovaj čovek,
01:59
Johan Ludvig Heiberg, in 1906.
Johan Ludvig Hajberg, 1906. godine.
02:02
And with just a magnifying glass,
Koristeći samo lupu
02:05
he transcribed as much of the text as he could.
prepisao je onoliko teksta koliko je mogao.
02:06
And the thing is that he found two texts in this manuscript
Stvar je u tome da je pronašao dva teksta u ovom rukopisu
02:09
that were unique texts.
koji su bili jedinstveni.
02:12
They weren't in A and B at all;
Oni uopšte nisu bili u knjigama A i B;
02:14
they were completely new texts by Archimedes,
već su to bili potpuno novi Arhimedovi tekstovi,
02:15
and they were called "The Method" and "The Stomachion."
nazvani "Metoda" i "Stomahion".
02:17
And it became a world famous manuscript.
Rukopis je postao svetski slavan.
02:20
Now it should be clear by now
Do sada je valjda jasno
02:23
that this book is in bad condition.
da je ova knjiga u lošem stanju.
02:24
It got in worse condition in the 20th century
Njeno stanje se pogoršalo tokom 20. veka
02:27
after Heiberg saw it.
nakon što ju je Hajberg video.
02:31
Forgeries were painted over it,
Preko nje su slikani falsifikati
02:32
and it suffered very badly from mold.
i plesan ju je jako oštetila.
02:34
This book is the definition of a write-off.
Ova knjiga je definicija otpisanog.
02:37
It's the sort of book
To je ta vrsta knjige
02:41
that you thought would be in an institution.
kakva bi trebala biti u nekoj instituciji.
02:42
But it's not in an institution,
Ali ona nije u instituciji,
02:45
it was bought by a private owner in 1998.
već ju je kupio privatni vlasnik 1998. godine.
02:47
Why did he buy this book?
Zašto ju je kupio?
02:52
Because he wanted to make that which was fragile safe.
Zato što je želeo sačuvati ono što je krhko.
02:54
He wanted to make that which was unique ubiquitous.
Jedinstveno je želeo učiniti sveprisutnim.
02:57
He wanted to make that which was expensive free.
Želeo je da skupo napravi besplatnim.
03:00
And he wanted to do this as a matter of principle.
I želeo je to uraditi iz principa.
03:05
Because not many people are really going to read Archimedes in ancient Greek,
Mnogi ljudi zaista neće čitati Arhimeda na starogrčkom,
03:08
but they should have the chance to do it.
ali treba da dobiju priliku da to urade.
03:13
So he gathered around himself the friends of Archimedes,
Zbog toga je oko sebe okupio prijatelje Arhimeda
03:15
and he promised to pay for all the work.
i obećao da će platiti za sav trud.
03:19
And it was an expensive job,
Bio je to skup posao,
03:21
but actually it wouldn't be as much as you think
ali ne toliko koliko biste pomislili,
03:23
because these people, they didn't come from money,
jer ti ljudi nisu došli zbog novca,
03:26
they came from Archimedes.
već zbog Arhimeda.
03:28
And they came from all sorts of different backgrounds.
Bili su to ljudi različitih profila.
03:30
They came from particle physics,
Bili su tu stručnjaci fizike elementarnih čestica,
03:32
they came from classical philology,
klasične filologije,
03:34
they came from book conservation,
konzervacije knjiga,
03:36
they came from ancient mathematics,
antičke matematike,
03:37
they came from data management,
iz upravljanja podacima,
03:40
they came from scientific imaging and program management.
iz naučnog oslikavanja i upravljanja programima.
03:42
And they got together to work on this manuscript.
Svi su se okupili da bi radili na ovom rukopisu.
03:45
The first problem was a conservation problem.
Prvi problem je bila konzervacija.
03:48
And this is the sort of thing that we had to deal with:
Morali smo se nositi sa ovakvim stvarima:
03:52
There was glue on the spine of the book.
bilo je lepka na povezu knjige.
03:55
And if you look at this photograph carefully,
Ako pažljivo pogledate ovu fotografiju,
03:57
the bottom half of this is rather brown.
donja polovina je prilično smeđa.
03:59
And that glue is hide glue.
Taj lepak je skriveni lepak.
04:01
Now if you're a conservator,
Ako ste konzervator,
04:03
you can take off this glue reasonably easily.
ovaj lepak možete prilično lako skinuti.
04:04
The top half is Elmer's wood glue.
Gornja polovina je Elmerov lepak za drvo.
04:06
It's polyvinyl acetate emulsion
To je emulzija polivinil acetata
04:09
that doesn't dissolve in water once it's dry.
koja se ne otapa u vodi nakon što se osuši.
04:12
And it's much tougher than the parchment that it was written on.
Mnogo je čvršća od pergamenta na kojem je pisana.
04:14
And so before we could start imaging Archimedes,
Pre nego što smo mogli početi sa slikanjem Arhimeda,
04:17
we had to take this book apart.
morali smo da rastavimo knjigu.
04:21
So it took four years to take apart.
Trebalo nam je četiri godine za to.
04:22
And this is a rare action shot, ladies and gentlemen.
Ovo je retka fotografija akcije, dame i gospodo.
04:25
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
04:29
Another thing is that we had to get rid of all the wax,
Pored toga, morali smo da se rešimo svog voska,
04:31
because this was used in the liturgical services
koji je korišćen za liturgijsku službu
04:36
of the Greek Orthodox Church
Grčke pravoslavne crkve,
04:38
and they'd used candle wax.
a oni su koristili vosak za sveće.
04:40
And the candle wax was dirty,
Vosak za sveće je bio prljav
04:41
and we couldn't image through the wax.
i nismo mogli slikati kroz njega.
04:43
So very carefully we had to mechanically scrape off all the wax.
Jako pažljivo smo morali mehanički ostrugati sav vosak.
04:44
It's hard to tell you exactly
Teško je tačno reći
04:47
how bad this condition of this book is,
koliko je loše stanje ove knjige,
04:49
but it came out in little bits very often.
ali ona se vrlo često raspadala u komadiće.
04:52
And normally in a book, you wouldn't worry about the little bits,
Inače se ne biste brinuli zbog komadića knjige,
04:55
but these little bits might contain unique Archimedes text.
ali ovi komadići su mogli sadržati jedinstven Arhimedov tekst.
04:57
So, tiny fragments
Sićušne deliće smo
05:00
we actually managed to put back in the right place.
zaista uspeli vratiti na pravo mesto.
05:02
Then, having done that, we started to image the manuscript.
Pošto smo to učinili, počeli smo stvarati sliku rukopisa.
05:07
And we imaged the manuscript
Projektovali smo na rukopis
05:11
in 14 different wavebands of light.
14 različitih svetlosnih frekvencija.
05:12
Because if you look at something in different wavebands of light,
Jer kad nešto pogledate u različitim svetlosnim frekvencijama,
05:14
you see different things.
vidite različite stvari.
05:18
And here is an image of a page
Ovo je slika stranice
05:19
imaged in 14 different wavebands of light.
oslikane u 14 različitih svetlosnih frekvencija.
05:21
But none of them worked.
Ali nijedna od njih nije valjala.
05:24
So what we did was we processed the images together,
Tako da smo slike obradili zajedno
05:26
and we put two images into one blank screen.
i stavili dve slike na jedan prazan ekran.
05:30
And here are two different images of the Archimedes manuscript.
Ovo su dve različite slike Arhimedovog rukopisa.
05:33
And the image on the left
Slika sa leve strane je
05:36
is the normal red image.
normalna crvena slika.
05:38
And the image on the right is an ultraviolet image.
Slika desno je ultraljubičasta slika.
05:39
And in the image on the right
I na slici desno
05:41
you might be able to see some of the Archimedes writing.
mogli biste videti nešto od Arhimedovih zapisa.
05:42
If you merge them together into one digital canvas,
Ako ih zajedno spojite u jedno digitalno platno,
05:45
the parchment is bright in both images
pergament je na obe slike svetao
05:48
and it comes out bright.
i ispada svetao.
05:51
The prayer book is dark in both images
Molitvenik je na obe slike taman
05:53
and it comes out dark.
i ispada taman.
05:56
The Archimedes text is dark in one image and bright in another.
Na jednoj slici Arhimedov tekst je taman, a na drugoj svetao.
05:57
And it'll come out dark but red,
I ispašće taman, ali crven
06:01
and then you can start to read it rather clearly.
i onda ga možete prilično jasno čitati.
06:03
And that's what it looks like.
Ovako to izgleda.
06:05
Now that's a before and after image,
Ovo je slika pre i posle,
06:08
but you don't read the image on the screen like that.
ali ne čitate sliku ovako na ekranu.
06:11
You zoom in and you zoom in
Zumirate i zumirate
06:14
and you zoom in and you zoom in,
pa zatim još zumirate i zumirate
06:17
and you can just read it now.
i sada je možete čitati.
06:21
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
06:23
If you process the same two images in a different way,
Ako dve iste slike obradite na različite načine,
06:29
you can actually get rid of the prayer book text.
možete se rešiti teksta molitvenika.
06:33
And this is terribly important,
To je veoma važno,
06:35
because the diagrams in the manuscript
jer su dijagrami u rukopisu
06:36
are the unique source for the diagrams
jedinstven izvor za dijagrame
06:39
that Archimedes drew in the sand in the fourth century B.C.
koje je Arhimed crtao u pesku u četvrtom veku p.n.e.
06:42
And there we are, I can give them to you.
Evo, mogu vam ih pokazati.
06:44
With this kind of imaging --
Pomoću ovakvog oslikavanja --
06:47
this kind of infrared, ultraviolet, invisible light imaging --
oslikavanja pomoću infracrvene, ultraljubičaste, nevidljive svetlosti --
06:50
we were never going to image through the gold ground forgeries.
nikad nećemo projektovati sliku kroz krivotvorine od zlata.
06:53
How were we going to do that?
Kako smo to uradili?
06:55
Well we took the manuscript,
Uzeli smo rukopis
06:57
and we decided to image it in X-ray fluorescence imaging.
i odlučili da ga projektujemo sa X-zracima fluorescentnog oslikavanja.
06:59
So an X-ray comes in in the diagram on the left
X-zrak dolazi na dijagram levo
07:03
and it knocks out an electron from the inner shell of an atom.
i izbacuje elektron iz unutrašnje ljuske atoma.
07:06
And that electron disappears.
Taj elektron nestaje.
07:10
And as it disappears, an electron from a shell farther out
Dok on nestaje, elektron iz udaljenije spoljne ljuske
07:12
jumps in and takes its place.
uskače i zauzima njegovo mesto.
07:16
And when it takes its place,
A kad preuzme njegovo mesto
07:18
it sheds electromagnetic radiation.
ispušta elektromagnetno zračenje.
07:20
It sheds an X-ray.
Ispušta X-zrak.
07:22
And this X-ray is specific in its wavelength
Taj X- zrak ima posebnu talasnu dužinu
07:24
to the atom that it hits.
prema atomu koji pogađa.
07:27
And what we wanted to get
Ono što smo zapravo hteli dobiti
07:28
was the iron.
bilo je gvožđe.
07:31
Because the ink was written in iron.
Jer je mastilo bilo sa gvožđem.
07:32
And if we can map
Ako možemo mapirati
07:34
where this X-ray that comes out, where it comes from,
mesto dolaska i odlaska tog X-zraka,
07:36
we can map all the iron on the page,
mogli bismo mapirati svo gvožđe na stranici,
07:38
then theoretically we can read the image.
potom bismo teoretski mogli čitati sliku.
07:41
The thing is that you need a very powerful light source to do this.
Stvar je u tome da vam treba jako snažan izvor svetlosti da biste to mogli uraditi.
07:43
So we took it to the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory
Tako da smo ga odneli u Laboratoriju sinhrotronog zračenja na Stenfordu
07:47
in California,
u Kaliforniji,
07:51
which is a particle accelerator.
koja je akcelerator čestica.
07:52
Electrons go around one way,
Elektroni kruže na jednu stranu,
07:54
positrons go around the other.
pozitroni na drugu.
07:56
They meet in the middle,
Sreću se u sredini,
07:57
and they create subatomic particles
i stvaraju subatomske čestice
07:59
like the charm quark and the tau lepton.
poput čarobnih kvarkova ili tau leptona.
08:01
Now we weren't actually going to put Archimedes in that beam.
U stvari nismo nameravali da stavimo Arhimeda u taj zrak.
08:03
But as the electrons go round at the speed of light,
Ali kako elektroni kruže brzinom svetlosti,
08:06
they shed X-rays.
oni ispuštaju X-zrake.
08:10
And this is the most powerful light source in the solar system.
To je najsnažniji izvor svetlosti u Sunčevom sistemu.
08:11
This is called synchrotron radiation,
To se zove sinhrotrono zračenje
08:14
and it's normally used to look at things
i obično se koristi da bi se nešto posmatralo,
08:16
like proteins and that sort of thing.
kao proteini i slično.
08:17
But we wanted it to look at atoms, at iron atoms,
Želeli smo da posmatramo atome, atome gvožđa,
08:19
so that we could read the page from before and after.
da bismo mogli pročitati stranicu pre i posle.
08:23
And lo and behold, we found that we could do it.
Zadivljujuće, otkrili smo da možemo to uraditi.
08:26
It took about 17 minutes to do a single page.
Bilo je potrebno oko 17 minuta da bi se obradila jedna jedina stranica.
08:28
So what did we discover?
Šta smo otkrili?
08:32
Well one of the unique texts in Archimedes
Jedan od jedinstvenih tekstova u Arhimedovom rukopisu
08:34
is called "The Stomachion."
naziva se "Stomahion".
08:37
And this didn't exist in Codices A and B.
On nije postojao u Kodeksima A i B.
08:38
And we knew that it involved this square.
Znali smo da on sadrži ovaj kvadrat.
08:41
And this is a perfect square,
To je savršen kvadrat,
08:43
and it's divided into 14 bits.
izdeljen na 14 delića.
08:45
But no one knew what Archimedes was doing with these 14 bits.
Niko nije znao šta je Arhimed radio sa tih 14 delića.
08:47
And now we think we know.
Sada mislimo da znamo.
08:50
He was trying to work out
Pokušavao je shvatiti
08:52
how many ways you can recombine those 14 bits
na koliko je načina moguće organizovati tih 14 delića
08:54
and still make a perfect square.
i dobiti savršen kvadrat.
08:56
Anyone want to guess the answer?
Da li iko želi da pogodi?
08:59
It's 17,152 divided into 536 families.
Ima ih 17.152 podeljenih na 536 porodica.
09:02
And the important point about this
U tom smislu važno je reći da je
09:07
is that it's the earliest study in combinatorics in mathematics.
reč o najranijem proučavanju matematičke kombinatorike.
09:10
And combinatorics is a wonderful and interesting branch of mathematics.
Kombinatorika je čudesna i zanimljiva grana matematike.
09:14
The really astonishing thing though about this manuscript
Ono što zaista zapanjuje kod ovog rukopisa
09:17
is that we looked at the other manuscripts
je to da smo razgledajući druge rukopise
09:21
that the palimpsester had made,
koje je tvorac palimpsesta napravio,
09:23
the scribe had made his book out of,
od kojih je pisar napravio svoju knjigu,
09:24
and one of them was a manuscript containing text by Hyperides.
našli u jednom od njih Hiperidov tekst.
09:27
Now Hyperides was an Athenian orator from the fourth century B.C.
Hiperid je bio atinski govornik iz četvrtog veka pre Hrista.
09:30
He was an exact contemporary of Demosthenes.
Bio je Demostenov savremenik.
09:34
And in 338 B.C. he and Demosthenes together
338. p.n.e. on i Demosten su zajednički
09:37
decided that they wanted to stand up
odlučili da se žele suprotstaviti
09:41
to the military might of Philip of Macedon.
vojnoj moći Filipa Makedonskog.
09:43
So Athens and Thebes went out to fight Philip of Macedon.
Tako su Atina i Teba počele borbu protiv Filipa Makedonskog.
09:45
This was a bad idea,
Bila je to loša ideja,
09:48
because Philip of Macedon had a son called Alexander the Great,
jer je Filip Makedonski imao sina zvanog Aleksandar Veliki
09:50
and they lost the battle of Chaeronea.
i izgubili su bitku kod Heroneje.
09:53
Alexander the Great went on to conquer the known world;
Aleksandar Veliki je pošao da osvoji do tad znani svet,
09:55
Hyperides found himself on trial for treason.
a Hiperida su optužili za izdaju.
09:58
And this is the speech that he gave when he was on trial --
Ovo je govor koji je održao na suđenju --
10:01
and it's a great speech:
i to je odličan govor:
10:04
"Best of all," he says, "is to win.
"Najbolje od svega je", kaže on, "pobediti.
10:06
But if you can't win,
Ali ako ne možeš da pobediš,
10:08
then you should fight for a noble cause,
tada bi trebalo da se boriš za plemenit cilj,
10:10
because then you'll be remembered.
jer ćeš biti zapamćen.
10:12
Consider the Spartans.
Pogledajte Spartance.
10:13
They won enumerable victories,
Ostvarili su bezbrojne pobede,
10:15
but no one remembers what they are
ali niko se ne seća koje su to pobede,
10:17
because they were all fought for selfish ends.
jer su se za sve borili iz sebičnih razloga.
10:18
The one battle that the Spartans fought that everybody remembers
Jedina bitka u kojoj su se Spartanci borili, a koje se svi sećaju
10:21
is the the battle of Thermopylae
je bitka kod Termopila,
10:24
where they were butchered to a man,
gde su poklani svi do poslednjeg čoveka,
10:26
but fought for the freedom of Greece."
jer su se borili za slobodu Grčke."
10:28
It was such a great speech
Bio je to tako dobar govor
10:30
that the Athenian law courts let him off.
da su ga atinski sudovi oslobodili.
10:32
He lived for another 10 years,
Živeo je još 10 godina,
10:36
then the Macedonian faction caught up with him.
kada ga je uhvatila makedonska frakcija.
10:38
They cut out his tongue in mockery of his oratory,
Odsekli su mu jezik radi ismevanja njegovog govorništva
10:41
and no one knows what they did with his body.
i niko ne zna šta su učinili s njegovim telom.
10:43
So this is the discovery of a lost voice from antiquity,
Ovo je otkriće izgubljenog glasa iz antike,
10:47
speaking to us, not from the grave,
koji nam se obraća, ne iz groba,
10:50
because his grave doesn't exist,
jer njegov grob ne postoji,
10:52
but from the Athenian law courts.
nego iz atinskih sudova.
10:53
Now I should say at this point
Treba da kažem da,
10:55
that normally when you're looking
obično kad proučavate
10:57
at medieval manuscripts that have been scraped off,
srednjovekovne rukopise koji su sastrugani,
10:59
you don't find unique texts.
ne pronalazite jedinstvene tekstove.
11:01
And to find two in one manuscript is really something.
Pronalazak dva u jednom rukopisu je zaista nešto posebno.
11:03
To find three is completely weird.
Pronalazak tri takva teksta je totalno čudno.
11:06
And we found three.
A mi smo pronašli tri.
11:09
Aristotle's "Categories"
Aristotelove "Kategorije" su
11:11
is one of the foundational texts of Western philosophy.
jedan od temeljnih tekstova zapadne filozofije.
11:12
And we found a third century A.D. commentary on it,
Pronašli smo komentare na njega iz trećeg veka naše ere,
11:15
possibly by Galen and probably by Porphyry.
čiji su autori možda Galen i verovatno Porfirije.
11:19
Now all this data that we collected,
Svi ti podaci koje smo prikupili,
11:22
all the images, all the raw images,
sve slike, sve neobrađene slike,
11:24
all the transcriptions that we made and that sort of thing
svi prepisi koje smo načinili i slično,
11:27
have been put online under a Creative Commons license
stavljeni su na internet pod licencom Creative Commons,
11:29
for anyone to use for any commercial purpose.
da ih može koristiti bilo ko, za bilo koju komercijalnu svrhu.
11:33
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
11:36
Why did the owner of the manuscript do this?
Zašto je vlasnik rukopisa to učinio?
11:42
He did this because he understands data as well as books.
Učinio je to jer razume podatke podjednako dobro kao i knjige.
11:45
Now the thing to do with books,
Što se tiče knjiga,
11:49
if you want to ensure their long-term utility,
ako želite obezbediti njihovu dugotrajnu upotrebljivost,
11:51
is to hide them away in closets
morate ih sakriti u ormare
11:53
and let very few people look at them.
i dopustiti vrlo malom broju ljudi da ih gleda.
11:55
The thing to do with data, if you want it to survive,
Što se tiče podataka, ako želite da prežive,
11:57
is to let it out and have everybody have it
morate ih objaviti i pobrinuti se da ih svi imaju,
11:59
with as little control on that data as possible.
sa što manje moguće kontrole nad njima.
12:02
And that's what he did.
On je upravo to uradio.
12:05
And institutions can learn from this.
Institucije treba da uče iz toga.
12:07
Because institutions at the moment
U ovom trenutku institucije
12:10
confine their data with copyright restrictions and that sort of thing.
ograničavaju svoje podatke, ograničavajući autorska prava i slično.
12:13
And if you want to look at medieval manuscripts on the Web,
Ako želite da proučavate srednjovekovne rukopise na internetu,
12:16
at the moment you have to go to the National Library of Y's site
u ovom trenutku morate otići na stranicu neke nacionalne biblioteke
12:18
or the University Library of X's site,
ili stranicu neke univerzitetske biblioteke,
12:21
which is about the most boring way
a to je skoro najdosadniji način
12:24
in which you can deal with digital data.
na koji se možete baviti digitalnim podacima.
12:26
What you want to do is to aggregate it all together.
Vi u stvari želite da ih sve zajedno skupite.
12:28
Because the Web of the ancient manuscripts of the future
Jer mrežu drevnih rukopisa za budućnost
12:31
isn't going to be built by institutions.
neće izgraditi institucije.
12:34
It's going to be built by users,
Izgradiće je korisnici,
12:36
by people who get this data together,
ljudi koji prikupljaju te podatke,
12:39
by people who want to aggregate all sorts of maps
ljudi koji žele skupiti sve vrste mapa
12:41
from wherever they come from,
odakle god da su,
12:44
all sorts of medieval romances
sve vrste srednjovjekovnih romansi,
12:46
from wherever they come from,
odakle god dolazile,
12:48
people who just want to curate their own glorious selection
ljudi koji žele biti kustosi vlastite veličanstvene selekcije
12:49
of beautiful things.
prekrasnih stvari.
12:53
And that is the future of the Web.
To je budućnost interneta.
12:55
And it's an attractive and beautiful future,
To je privlačna i prekrasna budućnost,
12:56
if only we can make it happen.
samo kad bismo je mogli ostvariti.
13:00
Now we at the Walters Art Museum have followed this example,
Sledeći ovaj primer, mi smo u Volters muzeju umetnosti
13:01
and we have put up all our manuscripts on the Web
postavili sve naše rukopise na internet
13:04
for people to enjoy --
da bi ljudi mogli uživati u njima --
13:08
all the raw data, all the descriptions, all the metadata.
sve neobrađene podatke, sve opise, sve meta-podatke,
13:09
under a Creative Commons license.
pod licencom Creative Commons.
13:12
Now the Walters Art Museum is a small museum
Volters muzej umetnosti je mali muzej
13:15
and it has beautiful manuscripts,
i ima prekrasne rukopise,
13:16
but the data is fantastic.
ali su podaci fantastični.
13:18
And the result of this
Rezultat toga je
13:20
is that if you do a Google search on images right now
da ako sada izvršite pretragu slika na Google-u
13:22
and you type in "Illuminated manuscript Koran" for example,
i ukucate, na primer, "Osvetljeni rukopis Kurana",
13:25
24 of the 28 images you'll find come from my institution.
24 od 28 slika koje ćete pronaći, doći će iz moje institucije.
13:28
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
13:32
Now, let's think about this for a minute.
Razmislimo o tome na trenutak.
13:38
What's in it for the institution?
Šta institucija time dobija?
13:43
There are all sorts of things that are in it for the institution.
Mnogo razih stvari.
13:45
You can talk about the Humanities and that sort of thing,
Možete govoriti o društvenim naukama i slično,
13:48
but let's talk about selfish things.
ali razgovarajmo o sebičnim stvarima.
13:50
Because what's really in it for the institution is this:
Ono šta institucija time zaista dobija je ovo:
13:52
Now why do people go to the Louvre?
zašto ljudi idu u Luvr?
13:56
They go to see the Mona Lisa.
Idu da vide Mona Lizu.
13:59
Why do they go to see the Mona Lisa?
Zašto idu da vide Mona Lizu?
14:02
Because they already know what she looks like.
Zato što već znaju kako ona izgleda.
14:05
And they know what she looks like
A znaju kako ona izgleda
14:07
because they've seen pictures of her absolutely everywhere.
jer su svuda videli njene slike.
14:09
Now, there is no need
Uopšte nema potrebe
14:14
for these restrictions at all.
za tim ograničenjima.
14:18
And I think that institutions should stand up
Mislim da bi institucije trebale početi
14:21
and release all their data under unrestricted licenses,
da objavljuju sve svoje podatke pod neograničenim licencama.
14:23
and it would be a great benefit to everybody.
Svi bismo imali velike koristi od toga.
14:26
Why don't we just let everybody have access to this data
Zašto ne bismo svima dopustili pristup tim podacima
14:28
and curate their own collection
da budu čuvari vlastite kolekcije
14:31
of ancient knowledge and wonderful and beautiful things
drevnog znanja, čudesnih i predivnih stvari
14:34
and increase the beauty and the cultural significance
i time povećali lepotu i kulturni značaj
14:36
of the Internet.
interneta.
14:39
Thank you very much indeed.
Mnogo vam hvala.
14:40
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
14:42
Translated by Tatjana Jevdjic
Reviewed by Nela Kacmarcik

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About the Speaker:

William Noel - Curator, rare book scholar
William Noel is a curator who believes museums should make their collections free and available on the Internet.

Why you should listen

William Noel is the Curator of Manuscripts and Rare Books at the Walters Art Museum. But for someone who spends the majority of his time analyzing ancient and medieval artifacts, he also embraces social media and stresses its value even for the oldest, most established academic and cultural institutions. Noel believes passionately that institutions should free their digital data.

Since 1999 Noel has spearheaded the conservation of a manuscript known as the Archimedes Palimpsest. The palimpsest is a unique Byzantine prayer book made up of parchments which contain hidden writings from three original previously-unknown texts: treatises written by Archimedes; works by the 4th-century B.C. Attic Orator Hyperides; and 3rd-century commentary on Aristotle’s Categories, by an unknown author. Using a powerful particle accelerator Noel and his team were able to uncover the hidden texts and publish all their images and findings on the Internet, available to anyone for free under a Creative Commons license.

Noel currently lives in Baltimore, Maryland, where he curates at the Walters, working to ensure that the public has free digital access to his collection.

Read more about William Noel in the TED Blog Q&A >>

More profile about the speaker
William Noel | Speaker | TED.com