English-Video.net comment policy

The comment field is common to all languages

Let's write in your language and use "Google Translate" together

Please refer to informative community guidelines on TED.com

TEDWomen 2010

Tyrone Hayes + Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The toxic baby

タイロン・ヘイズとペネロピ・ジャゲッサー・シェイファー: 赤ちゃんが汚染される?

Filmed
Views 455,777

映画監督のペネロピ・ジャゲッサー・シェイファーは、妊娠中に自分自身が晒された化学物質について関心を持ちました。それらは、胎児に影響があるのだろうか?彼女は、コーンに使われる農薬、アトラジンの研究を行う科学者のタイロン・ヘイズに、説明を求めています。(両生類の専門家ヘイズは、カエルの発達に悪影響を及ぼすアトラジンの問題を指摘しています) TEDWomen でヘイズとシェイファーが共にステージに立ち、この問題について語ります。

- Biologist
Tyrone Hayes studies frogs and amphibians -- and the effects on their bodies of common farming chemicals. Full bio

- Filmmaker
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer made the film "Toxic Baby," exploring environmental toxins through interviews and surreal imagery. Full bio

Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: I was going to ask if there's a doctor in the house.
すみません お医者さんを呼んで下さい
00:15
No, I'm just joking.
いえ 冗談です
00:18
It's interesting, because it was six years ago
6年前に第1子を妊娠していた時
00:20
when I was pregnant with my first child
おかしな事を発見しました
00:23
that I discovered
ベビーケア商品に
00:25
that the most commonly used preservative
一番良く使われている
00:27
in baby care products
保存料が 体内に入ると
00:29
mimics estrogen
エストロゲンに似た
00:31
when it gets into the human body.
働きをするのです
00:33
Now it's very easy actually
実は 製品内の化学物質は
00:35
to get a chemical compound from products
とても簡単に
00:37
into the human body through the skin.
皮膚から体内に入り込みます
00:39
And these preservatives had been found
これらの保存料は
00:41
in breast cancer tumors.
乳がんの腫瘍から見つかっています
00:43
That was the start of my journey
これが映画 『汚染される赤ちゃん』を
00:45
to make this film, "Toxic Baby."
作るきっかけになりました
00:47
And it doesn't take much time
間もなく
00:49
to discover some really astonishing statistics
この問題の驚くべき統計を
00:51
with this issue.
見つけました
00:53
One is that you and I all have
私たちの体内にはある化学物質のうち
00:55
between 30 to 50,000 chemicals
3万から5万種類は
00:58
in our bodies
私たちの祖父母の体内には
01:00
that our grandparents didn't have.
ありませんでした
01:02
And many of these chemicals
これらの化学物質の多くは
01:04
are now linked to the skyrocketing incidents
先進工業国でよく見られる
01:06
of chronic childhood disease
慢性小児疾患が
01:09
that we're seeing across industrialized nations.
急増していることと関連があります
01:11
I'll show you some statistics.
統計をお見せしましょう
01:14
So for example, in the United Kingdom,
例えばイギリスでは
01:16
the incidence of childhood leukemia
小児白血病が
01:18
has risen by 20 percent just in a generation.
1世代で20%増えました
01:20
Very similar statistic for childhood cancer in the U.S.
アメリカの小児がんの統計も
とても似ています
01:23
In Canada, we're now looking at one in 10 Canadian children with asthma.
カナダでは子どもの10人に1人は喘息です
01:26
That's a four-fold increase.
4倍も増加しています
01:30
Again, similar story around the world.
世界中 同じ様子です
01:33
In the United States,
アメリカでは おそらく
01:35
probably the most astonishing statistic
最も驚くべき統計―
01:37
is a 600 percent increase
自閉症や 自閉症スペクトラム障害
01:39
in autism and autistic spectrum disorders
その他の学習障害が
01:41
and other learning disabilities.
7倍も増えています
01:44
Again, we're seeing that trend
またこの傾向は
01:46
across Europe, across North America.
欧州や 北米でも見られます
01:48
And in Europe,
ヨーロッパの
01:50
there's certain parts of Europe,
ある地域では
01:52
where we're seeing a four-fold increase
先天性生殖器異常が
01:54
in certain genital birth defects.
4倍も増えています
01:56
Interestingly, one of those birth defects
興味深いことに
01:59
has seen a 200 percent increase in the U.S.
アメリカではある疾患は3倍になりました
02:01
So a real skyrocketing
肥満や若年性糖尿病
02:04
of chronic childhood disease
性的早熟なども含め
02:06
that includes other things
慢性小児疾患は
02:08
like obesity and juvenile diabetes,
ものすごい勢いで
02:10
premature puberty.
増えているのです
02:12
So it's interesting for me,
意外な人物を
02:14
when I'm looking for someone who can really talk to me
ご紹介しましょう
02:16
and talk to an audience about these things,
これらの事柄について話ができ
02:18
that probably one of the most important people in the world
赤ちゃんに対する毒性について議論ができる
02:21
who can discuss toxicity in babies
おそらく世界で最も重要な人物の1人-
02:24
is expert in frogs.
カエルの専門家です
02:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:29
Tyrone Hayes: It was a surprise to me as well
私も驚きました
02:31
that I would be talking about pesticides,
殺虫剤や公衆衛生について
02:34
that I'd be talking about public health,
私がお話をするなんて-
02:37
because, in fact, I never thought I would do anything useful.
有益な事をしてるつもりはなかったので
02:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:44
Frogs.
だってカエルですよ
02:47
In fact, my involvement in the whole pesticide issue
この殺虫剤の問題に
私が関わるようになった事にも
02:50
was sort of a surprise as well
実のところ驚いています
02:53
when I was approached by the largest chemical company in the world
世界で最も大きい化学メーカーが
02:55
and they asked me if I would evaluate
アトラジンの両生類やカエルへの
02:58
how atrazine affected amphibians, or my frogs.
影響を調べてほしいと頼んできたのです
03:00
It turns out, atrazine is the largest selling product
アトラジンは世界最大の化学メーカーの
03:03
for the largest chemical company in the world.
売れ筋商品でしたが
03:06
It's the number one contaminant
地下水、飲み水、雨水を
03:08
of groundwater, drinking water, rain water.
最も汚染する化学物質でした
03:10
In 2003, after my studies, it was banned in the European Union,
2003年にヨーロッパでは
使用禁止になりましたが
03:13
but in that same year,
同年 アメリカの環境保護庁は
03:16
the United States EPA re-registered the compound.
この化学物質を再登録したのです
03:18
We were a bit surprised when we found out
研究結果にはちょっと驚きました
03:20
that when we exposed frogs
カエルをとても低い値の-
03:23
to very low levels of atrazine -- 0.1 parts per billion --
10億分の1のアトラジンにつけたところ
03:25
that it produced animals that look like this.
このようになってしまったのです
03:28
These are the dissected gonads of an animal
生殖巣を解剖すると
03:31
that has two testes, two ovaries,
睾丸が2つ 卵巣が2つに
03:33
another large testis, more ovaries,
肥大した睾丸や卵巣-
03:35
which is not normal ...
普通じゃありませんよね
03:37
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:39
even for amphibians.
両生類にでさえ-
03:41
In some cases, another species like the North American Leopard Frog
キタヒョウガエルという種類には
03:43
showed that males exposed to atrazine grew eggs in their testes.
精巣に卵子があるオスもいました
03:46
And you can see these large, yolked-up eggs
この大きく育った卵は
03:49
bursting through the surface of this male's testes.
オスの睾丸からはじけ出ています
03:51
Now my wife tells me, and I'm sure Penelope can as well,
妻も おそらくペネロピも同意見でしょうが
03:54
that there's nothing more painful than childbirth --
出産ほど痛いものはないでしょう
03:57
which that I'll never experience, I can't really argue that --
私は経験できませんから
何とも言えないのですが
04:00
but I would guess that a dozen chicken eggs in my testicle
おそらく1ダースの鶏の卵が
04:03
would probably be somewhere in the top five.
睾丸にあるのと 匹敵するかもしれません
04:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:08
In recent studies that we've published,
私たちが出版した最近の研究で
04:10
we've shown that some of these animals when they're exposed to atrazine,
アトラジンに晒された生物の
04:12
some of the males grow up
オスの中には完全に
04:14
and completely become females.
メスになったものもいました
04:16
So these are actually two brothers consummating a relationship.
このように2匹のオスが交尾をしています
04:18
And not only do these genetic males mate with other males,
遺伝的にはオスであるにもかかわらず
04:21
they actually have the capacity to lay eggs
交尾をするだけでなく
04:24
even though they're genetic males.
実際に卵を産む事も可能なのです
04:26
What we proposed,
私たちが提唱し
04:29
and what we've now generated support for,
今や多くに支持されているのは
04:31
is that what atrazine is doing
アトラジンがホルモンのバランスを
04:33
is wreaking havoc causing a hormone imbalance.
崩しているという事実です
04:35
Normally the testes should make testosterone,
通常 精巣は男性ホルモンである
04:37
the male hormone.
テストステロンを作ります
04:39
But what atrazine does is it turns on an enzyme,
しかしアトラジンはエンザイムの1種
04:41
the machinery if you will, aromatase,
アロマターゼを働かせ
04:44
that converts testosterone into estrogen.
テストステロンをエストロゲンに変えます
04:46
And as a result, these exposed males
結果としてこのオスは
04:48
lose their testosterone, they're chemically castrated,
テストステロンを失い
化学的に去勢され
04:50
and they're subsequently feminized
女性ホルモンを作るようになり
04:53
because now they're making the female hormone.
メス化したのです
04:55
Now this is what brought me to the human-related issues.
私は人間の問題にも目を向けました
04:57
Because it turns out
女性に一番多い乳がんが
05:00
that the number one cancer in women, breast cancer,
エストロゲンとエンザイムアロマターゼによって
05:02
is regulated by estrogen and by this enzyme aromatase.
引き起こされると分かったからです
05:05
So when you develop a cancerous cell in your breast,
胸に がん細胞ができると
05:08
aromatase converts androgens into estrogens,
アロマターゼが
アンドロゲンをエストロゲンに変えます
05:10
and that estrogen turns on or promotes
それが がんを成長させ
05:14
the growth of that cancer
腫瘍にし
05:16
so that it turns into a tumor and spreads.
広げるのです
05:18
In fact, this aromatase is so important in breast cancer
事実 アロマトーゼは乳がんの主要原因ですが
05:21
that the latest treatment for breast cancer
レトロゾールという化学物質を使う
05:24
is a chemical called letrozole,
最新治療は
05:27
which blocks aromatase, blocks estrogen,
アロマターゼとエストロゲンをブロックし
05:29
so that if you developed a mutated cell, it doesn't grow into a tumor.
細胞が変異しても腫瘍になりません
05:31
Now what's interesting is, of course,
不思議な事に 未だに
05:34
that we're still using 80 million pounds of atrazine,
3万6千トンものアトラジンが使われています
05:36
the number one contaminant in drinking water, that does the opposite --
それは最も飲み水を汚染し その一方で
05:39
turns on aromatase, increases estrogen
アロマターゼやエストロゲンを増やし
05:42
and promotes tumors in rats
ラットに腫瘍を発生させ
05:44
and is associated with tumors, breast cancer, in humans.
人間の腫瘍 乳がんとも関係しているのです
05:46
What's interesting is, in fact,
おかしなことに 3万6千トンの
05:50
the same company that sold us 80 million pounds of atrazine,
アトラジンを売るこの会社は
05:52
the breast cancer promoter,
乳がんを発症させる一方で
05:54
now sells us the blocker -- the exact same company.
乳がんのブロッカーを売っています
同じ会社がです
05:56
And so I find it interesting
おかしいと思いませんか
05:59
that instead of treating this disease
この化学物質を避けて
06:01
by preventing exposure to the chemicals that promote it,
病気を予防するどころか
06:03
we simply respond
さらに多くの化学物資を
06:06
by putting more chemicals into the environment.
環境に投入しているんですよ
06:08
PJC: So speaking of estrogen,
エストロゲンと言えば
06:11
one of the other compounds that Tyrone talks about in the film
タイロンが映画の中で述べていた
06:13
is something called bisphenol A, BPA,
ビスフェノールA BPAという化学物質が
06:16
which has been in the news recently.
最近取り上げられています
06:19
It's a plasticizer.
これは可塑剤です
06:22
It's a compound that's found in polycarbonate plastic,
ポリカーボネイト樹脂に混ぜられている物質で
06:24
which is what baby bottles are made out of.
哺乳瓶にも使われています
06:27
And what's interesting about BPA
BPAの面白いところは
06:29
is that it's such a potent estrogen
エストロゲンと同じ働きをし
06:31
that it was actually once considered for use
かつて実際に合成エストロゲンとして
06:34
as a synthetic estrogen in hormone placement therapy.
ホルモン補充療法で
使われる事を検討されていた事です
06:36
And there have been many, many, many studies that have shown
いまや大変多くの研究が証明しています
06:39
that BPA leaches from babies' bottles
BPAが哺乳瓶からしみだし ミルクに溶け
06:42
into the formula, into the milk,
赤ちゃんの体内に
06:45
and therefore into the babies.
取りこまれているのです
06:47
So we're dosing our babies,
私たちは 新生児や乳幼児に
06:49
our newborns, our infants,
合成エストロゲンを
06:51
with a synthetic estrogen.
与えているのです
06:53
Now two weeks ago or so,
2週間ほど前に欧州連合は
06:55
the European Union passed a law
哺乳瓶と乳児用カップに
06:57
banning the use of BPA
BPAを使う事を
06:59
in babies' bottles and sippy cups.
禁止する法案を可決しました
07:01
And for those of you who are not parents,
乳児用カップとは
07:03
sippy cups are those little plastic things
幼児が哺乳瓶を卒業する段階で
07:05
that your child graduates to after using bottles.
使うプラスチックカップの事です
07:07
But just two weeks before that,
しかしちょうどその2週間前に
アメリカの上院は
07:10
the U.S. Senate refused to even debate
哺乳瓶と乳児用カップへの
07:13
the banning of BPA
BPAの禁止について
07:16
in babies' bottles and sippy cups.
論じる事さえ拒んだのです
07:18
So it really makes you realize
これでおわかりでしょう
07:21
the onus on parents
親の責任で
07:23
to have to look at this and regulate this and police this
自分たちの生活を規制し
07:25
in their own lives
守らなければいけないのです
07:27
and how astonishing that is.
驚くべきことです
07:29
(Video) PJC: With many plastic baby bottles
多くの哺乳瓶からは
ビスフェノールAという
07:31
now proven to leak the chemical bisphenol A,
化学物質が溶け出していることが
分かっています
07:34
it really shows how sometimes
親が注意する事でしか
07:37
it is only a parent's awareness
子どもを化学物質から
07:39
that stands between chemicals and our children.
守る事は出来ません
07:41
The baby bottle scenario proves
哺乳瓶の例が示すように
07:45
that we can prevent unnecessary exposure.
体内への侵入は防ぐことが出来ます
07:47
However, if we parents are unaware,
しかし親が気をつけなければ
07:50
we are leaving our children
子どもたちを
07:52
to fend for themselves.
守るものはいません
07:54
TH: And what Penelope says here
ペネロピが言っている事は
08:03
is even more true.
確かな真実です
08:05
For those of you who don't know, we're in the middle of the sixth mass extinction.
私たちは大量絶滅の危機にひんしています
08:07
Scientists agree now.
科学者も今は同意しています
08:10
We are losing species from the Earth
多くの種が恐竜よりも早く
08:12
faster than the dinosaurs disappeared,
絶滅しようとしています
08:14
and leading that loss are amphibians.
両生類もいなくなるでしょう
08:16
80 percent of all amphibians
両生類の80%は
08:18
are threatened and in come decline.
絶滅の危機にあります
08:20
And I believe, many scientists believe
科学者たちも私も
08:22
that pesticides are an important part of that decline.
殺虫剤が主な原因だと信じています
08:24
In part, amphibians are good indicators and more sensitive
また両生類はとても繊細で
良い指標になります
08:27
because they don't have protection from contaminants in the water --
殻や膜や胎盤で
08:30
no eggshells, no membranes
保護されておらず
08:32
and no placenta.
水中の汚染から身を守れないためです
08:34
In fact, our invention -- by "our" I mean we mammals --
事実 我々哺乳類の最大の発明の一つは
08:36
one of our big inventions was the placenta.
胎盤です しかし哺乳類も
08:39
But we also start out as aquatic organisms.
起源は水中動物です
08:42
But it turns out that this ancient structure
そして この古代からの組織 -
08:44
that separates us from other animals, the placenta,
他の動物には無い
哺乳類特有の胎盤は
08:46
cannot evolve or adapt fast enough
私たちが新しい化学物質を
08:49
because of the rate that we're generating new chemicals
造り出すスピードに
進化や適応が
08:51
that it's never seen before.
追いついていません
08:53
The evidence of that is that studies in rats, again with atrazine,
ネズミの研究では
アトラジンによるホルモンの不均衡が
08:55
show that the hormone imbalance atrazine generates causes abortion.
流産を引き起こすと証明されています
08:58
Because maintaining a pregnancy is dependent on hormones.
妊娠を維持させるには
ホルモンが必要だからです
09:01
Of those rats that don't abort,
流産せずに生まれても
09:04
atrazine causes prostate disease
アトラジンはオスに
09:06
in the pups so the sons
老人の病気
09:08
are born with an old man's disease.
前立腺疾患を発症させます
09:10
Of those that don't abort,
また 子宮内のメスは
09:12
atrazine causes impaired mammary, or breast, development
アトラジンに晒される事で
09:14
in the exposed daughters in utero,
乳房の発達障害が
09:16
so that their breast don't develop properly.
引き起こされます
09:18
And as a result, when those rats grow up,
そのネズミが成長し
09:20
their pups experience retarded growth and development
十分なミルクを子どもに与えられないと
09:22
because they can't make enough milk to nourish their pups.
その子どもも発達障害を負います
09:25
So the pup you see on the bottom is affected by atrazine
祖母がアトラジンに晒されると
09:28
that its grandmother was exposed to.
孫まで影響を受けるのです
09:31
And given the life of many of these chemicals,
多くの化学物質に 何代も 何十年も
09:33
generations, years, dozens of years,
晒される事で
09:36
that means that we right now
私たちの孫や
09:39
are affecting the health
その孫の代の健康にまで
09:41
of our grandchildren's grandchildren
影響が及びます
09:43
by things that we're putting into the environment today.
私たちが今日使う化学物質によってです
09:45
And this is not just philosophical, it's already known,
理論上だけではありません
09:48
that chemicals like diethylstilbestrol and estrogen,
エストロゲンや
09:50
PCBs, DDT
PCBやDDTなどが
09:52
cross the placenta
胎盤を通して
09:54
and effectively determine
子宮内の胎児の
09:56
the likelihood of developing breast cancer
乳ガンや肥満
09:58
and obesity and diabetes
糖尿病になる確率を
10:00
already when the baby's in the womb.
高める事が分かっています
10:02
In addition to that, after the baby's born,
また 我々哺乳類は
10:04
our other unique invention as mammals
出産後も子孫に
10:06
is that we nourish our offspring after they're born.
栄養を与え続けます
10:08
We already know that chemicals
DDTやDESやアトラジンのような
10:10
like DDT and DES and atrazine
化学物質は
10:12
can also pass over into milk,
赤ちゃんが生まれた後も
10:14
again, affecting our babies
ミルクを通して
10:16
even after their born.
影響を与えます
10:18
PJC: So when Tyrone tells me
タイロンが 胎盤は
10:21
that the placenta is an ancient organ,
古代からの器官であると言った時
10:23
I'm thinking, how do I demonstrate that?
どのようにお見せしようかと
10:26
How do you show that?
考えました
10:28
And it's interesting when you make a film like this,
このようなビデオにすれば
10:30
because you're stuck trying to visualize science
見えない事も
10:32
that there's no visualization for.
イメージ化できると考え
10:35
And I have to take a little bit of artistic license.
擬人化してみました
10:37
(Video) (Ringing)
(ビデオ)(電話が鳴っている)
10:45
Old man: Placenta control.
おじいさん: 胎盤管理局です
10:50
What is it?
なんですか?
10:52
Oh what?
え?
10:54
(Snoring)
(いびき)
10:57
(Honk)
(グーグー)
11:00
Puffuffuff, what?
は?何と?ペルペル・・・ 何ですか?
11:05
Perflourooctanoic acid.
ペルフルオロオクタン酸
11:11
Blimey.
なんとまあ
11:18
Never heard of it.
聞いたこともない物質じゃ
11:20
PJC: And neither had I actually
私もこのビデオを作り始めるまで
11:23
before I started making this film.
聞いたことがありませんでした
11:27
And so when you realize that chemicals can pass the placenta
母親の胎盤から 胎児が
11:29
and go into your unborn child,
化学物質も吸収すると知った時
11:32
it made me start to think,
私はこう考え始めました
11:35
what would my fetus say to me?
私のお腹の赤ちゃんは何と言うかしら
11:37
What would our unborn children say to us
来る日も来る日も
11:40
when they have an exposure
汚染にさらされている赤ちゃんは私たちに
11:43
that's happening everyday, day after day?
何を言うのでしょうか
11:46
(Music)
(音楽)(ビデオ)
11:49
(Video) Child: Today,
子ども:今日 私は
12:07
I had some octyphenols,
オクチルフェノールと
12:09
some artificial musks
人工香料と
12:13
and some bisphenol A.
ビスフェノールAを与えられました
12:16
Help me.
助けてください
12:21
PJC: It's a very profound notion
私たち女性がこの関心事の
12:26
to know that we as women
先頭に立っているという事は
12:29
are at the vanguard of this.
大変重要なことです
12:31
This is our issue,
これは私たちの大問題です
12:33
because we collect these compounds our entire life
一生をかけて
これらの化合物を体内に蓄え
12:35
and then we end up dumping it and dumping them
それらを最終的に胎児に
12:38
into our unborn children.
負わせているのです
12:41
We are in effect
自分の子ども達を
12:44
polluting our children.
汚染してしまっています
12:46
And this was something that was really brought home to me a year ago
1年前 妊娠が分かった時に
12:48
when I found out I was pregnant
この事実を実感しました
12:52
and the first scan revealed
最初の超音波診断で
赤ちゃんは
12:54
that my baby had a birth defect
エストロゲンに似ている物質に晒された為
12:56
associated with exposure
先天性欠損があったと
12:59
to estrogenic chemicals in the womb
わかりました
13:01
and the second scan
2回目の診断の時には
13:03
revealed no heartbeat.
心拍がありませんでした
13:05
So my child's death, my baby's death,
自分の子どもを失った事で
この映画を通し
13:07
really brought home the resonance of what I was trying to make in this film.
メッセージを伝える必要性を本当に感じました
13:10
And it's sometimes a weird place
意図したわけでなく
13:13
when the communicator becomes part of the story,
語り手が話しの一部になった事は
13:15
which is not what you originally intend.
不思議な感じです
13:18
And so when Tyrone talks about
胎児が汚染された環境に
閉じ込められていると
13:20
the fetus being trapped in a contaminated environment,
タイロンは話しました
13:23
this is my contaminated environment.
これは私の汚染された環境で
13:26
This is my toxic baby.
私の汚染された赤ちゃん
13:30
And that's something
何という
13:33
that's just profound and sad,
悲しいことでしょう
13:36
but astonishing
でも驚く事に
13:39
because so many of us don't actually know this.
この事はほとんど知られていません
13:41
TH: One of this things that's exciting and appropriate
TEDWomen への参加に
13:46
for me to be here at TEDWomen
興奮し光栄に思う理由の1つは
13:48
is that, well, I think it was summed up best last night at dinner
昨夜のディナー席での
どなたかのスピーチに要約されます
13:50
when someone said, "Turn to the man at your table and tell them,
「そばに座る男性に言ってください
13:54
'When the revolution starts, we've got your back.'"
私たち女性は あなた方男性を
いつまでも護るでしょう」
13:56
The truth is, women,
実は 女性はずっと
13:59
you've had our back on this issue for a very long time,
男性を護って来ているのです
14:01
starting with Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring"
カーソンの『沈黙の春』に始まり
14:04
to Theo Colborn's "Our Stolen Future"
シーア・コルボーンの『奪われし未来』も
14:06
to Sandra Steingraber's books
サンドラ・スタイングラーバーの本
14:08
"Living Downstream" and "Having Faith."
『がんと環境』も 『信頼を持つ』もしかり
14:10
And perhaps it's the connection to our next generation --
次世代への繋がりのためでしょう
14:13
like my wife and my beautiful daughter here about 13 years ago --
13年前の私の家内と娘のように -
14:16
perhaps it's that connection
その繋がりのお陰で女性は
14:19
that makes women activists
よく この分野で
14:21
in this particular area.
活動家になるのかもしれません
14:23
But for the men here, I want to say
しかし危険にさらされるのは
14:25
it's not just women and children that are at risk.
女性や子どもだけではありません
14:27
And the frogs that are exposed to atrazine,
アトラジンにさらされたカエルは
14:29
the testes are full of holes and spaces,
ホルモンの不均衡のせいで
14:32
because the hormone imbalance,
睾丸に多くの穴があき
14:34
instead of allowing sperm to be generated,
精子を作れません
14:36
such as in the testis here,
睾丸管が空になり
14:38
the testicular tubules end up empty
繁殖力が50%も
14:40
and fertility goes down by as much as 50 percent.
下がります
14:42
It's not just my work in amphibians,
私の両生類の研究においてだけではなく
14:44
but similar work has been shown in fish in Europe,
ヨーロッパでは魚の研究で
同じような結果が見られます
14:47
holes in the testes and absence of sperm in reptiles in a group from South America
南アメリカでは
睾丸に穴がある無精子の爬虫類
14:50
and in rats, an absence of sperm
睾丸管に
14:53
in the testicular tubules as well.
精子がないネズミも見られます
14:55
And of course, we don't do these experiments in humans,
人間では研究出来ませんが
14:58
but just by coincidence,
ある研究者が偶然発見したのは
15:00
my colleague has shown
精子の数や質の低い男性の
15:02
that men who have low sperm count, low semen quality
尿中アトラジンのレベルは
15:04
have significantly more atrazine in their urine.
かなり高いということです
15:06
These are just men who live
こちらは 農業地帯に
15:09
in an agricultural community.
住んでいる男性です
15:11
Men who actually work in agriculture
実際 農業をしている男性の
15:13
have much higher levels of atrazine.
アトラジンのレベルは
より高くなっています
15:15
And the men who actually apply atrazine
直接アトラジンが
15:18
have even more atrazine in their urine,
肌に付く男性の尿は
15:20
up to levels that are 24,000 times what we know to be active
アトラジンのレベルが
15:23
are present in the urine of these men.
普通の人の24,000倍にもなります
15:26
Of course, most of them, 90 percent are Mexican, Mexican-American.
もちろん 90%がメキシコ人です
15:29
And it's not just atrazine they're exposed to.
アトラジンだけではなく
15:32
They're exposed to chemicals like chloropicrin,
元々 神経ガスとして使われた
クロロピクリンなどの
15:34
which was originally used as a nerve gas.
化学物質にも晒されています
15:37
And many of these workers
労働者の多くの平均寿命は
15:39
have life expectancies of only 50.
たったの50歳です
15:41
It shouldn't come to any surprise that the things that happen in wildlife
野生動物に起こっていることは
15:43
are also a warning to us,
レイチェル・カーソンらの言う通り
15:46
just like Rachel Carson and others have warned.
私たちへの警告です
15:48
As evident in this slide from Lake Nabugabo in Uganda,
ウガンダのナブガボ湖では
15:50
the agricultural runoff from this crop,
作物からの農業排水が
15:53
which goes into these buckets,
最終的にバケツに回収され
15:55
is the sole source of drinking, cooking and bathing water for this village.
村の唯一の飲み水や料理
お風呂に使われます
15:57
Now if I told the men in this village
この村の男性達に
16:00
that the frogs have pour immune function
カエルの免疫機能が弱まり
16:02
and eggs developing in their testes,
睾丸には卵子があるという事を教えたら
16:04
the connection between environmental health and public health
環境と人間の健康との関係を
16:06
would be clear.
理解してもらえるでしょう
16:08
You would not drink water that you knew was having this kind of impact
水中生物にひどい影響を
与えていることが分かれば
16:10
on the wildlife that lived in it.
水を飲まないでしょう
16:13
The problem is, in my village, Oakland,
私の村 オークランドでも
16:15
in most of our villages,
住人のほとんどは
16:17
we don't see that connection.
この関係に気づいていません
16:19
We turn on the faucet, the water comes out, we assume it's safe,
蛇口を開ければ安全な水が出て
16:21
and we assume that we are masters of our environment,
私たちは
人間は環境の一部ではなく
16:23
rather than being part of it.
環境の支配者であると思ってしまいます
16:26
PJC: So it doesn't take much to realize
これは環境の問題であると
16:29
that actually this is an environmental issue.
すぐに分かるでしょう
16:31
And I kept thinking over and over again
私はこの問題を懸念し
16:34
this question.
ずっと考えています
16:37
We know so much about global warming and climate change,
私たちは地球温暖化や気候変化については
16:39
and yet, we have no concept
よく分かっていますが
16:42
of what I've been calling internal environmentalism.
体内の環境保護については考えません
16:44
We know what we're putting out there,
世界に撒き散らしている物の
16:46
we have a sense of those repercussions,
影響は知っていますが
16:48
but we are so ignorant of this sense
自分の体に
16:50
of what happens when we put things, or things are put
取り入れた時の影響に関する知識が
16:52
into our bodies.
欠けています
16:55
And it's my feeling
私個人の考えを
16:57
and it's my urging being here
ここで述べたいと思います
16:59
to know that, as we women move forward
私たち女性の役割は
17:01
as the communicators of this,
伝達者として
17:03
but also as the ones who carry that burden
行動をするだけではありません
17:05
of carrying the children, bearing the children,
子どもを産み 育てる性
17:08
we hold most of the buying power in the household,
家庭で消費の実権を握る私たち女性が
17:11
is that it's going to be us moving forward
将来 タイロンのような世界中の
17:14
to carry the work of Tyrone and other scientists around the world.
科学者の仕事を前進させるのです
17:17
And my urging is
覚えていてください
17:20
that when we think about environmental issues
環境の問題とは
17:22
that we remember that it's not just about melting glaciers and ice caps,
溶けている氷河や凍土の事だけではなく
17:24
but it's also about our children as well.
私たちの子どもの問題でもあるのです
17:28
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
17:30
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:32

▲Back to top

About the speakers:

Tyrone Hayes - Biologist
Tyrone Hayes studies frogs and amphibians -- and the effects on their bodies of common farming chemicals.

Why you should listen

At the University of California, Berkeley, and in ponds around the world, professor Tyrone Hayes studies frogs and other amphibians. He's become an active critic of the farm chemical atrazine, which he's found to interfere with the development of amphibians' endocrine systems.

Hayes is the subject of the chidren's book The Frog Scientist, and lectures frequently. His work was recently covered in Mother Jones.

More profile about the speaker
Tyrone Hayes | Speaker | TED.com
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer - Filmmaker
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer made the film "Toxic Baby," exploring environmental toxins through interviews and surreal imagery.

Why you should listen

Penelope Jagessar Chaffer is the director and producer of the documentary/surrealist film Toxic Baby. She works to bring to light the issue of environmental chemical pollution and its effect on babies and children.

Her first British Academy Award Nomination came for her BBC4 debut, Me and My Dad, which followed her on a trip to Trinidad as she confronted her father, a magistrate who was sent to prison for bribery and corruption. After working on 2005'sShakespeare's Stories for the BBC, for which she received a BAFTA nomination, Chaffer was inspired to begin her research on Toxic Baby.

More profile about the speaker
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer | Speaker | TED.com