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TED2009

Saul Griffith: High-altitude wind energy from kites!

ソール・グリフィス:未来の再生可能エネルギーとしての凧

February 6, 2009

ソール・グリフィスが、彼の新しい会社Makani Powerの仕事について明らかにします:それは、巨大な凧を用いて驚くほど大量の、クリーンで再生可能なエネルギーを作り出すことです。

Saul Griffith - Inventor
Inventor Saul Griffith looks for elegant ways to make real things, from low-cost eyeglasses to a kite that tows boats. His latest projects include open-source inventions and elegant new ways to generate power. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
If you're at all like me,
もしあなたが私と同類なら
00:19
this is what you do with the sunny summer weekends in San Francisco:
晴れた夏のサンフランシスコではこういうことをしているでしょう
00:20
you build experimental kite-powered hydrofoils
凧を動力とする実験的な水中翼船
00:23
capable of more than 30 knots.
30ノット以上出ます
00:26
And you realize that there is incredible power in the wind,
風には信じられならい力があり、いろいろと
00:28
and it can do amazing things.
びっくりするようなことができるのです
00:31
And one day, a vessel not unlike this
そしてある日、これとさほど違わない船が
00:33
will probably break the world speed record.
たぶん世界最高速記録を打ち破るでしょう
00:35
But kites aren't just toys like this.
凧は、ただの子どものおもちゃではありません
00:37
Kites: I'm going to give you a brief history,
凧:その歴史を簡単に述べてから
00:40
and tell you about the magnificent future
子どものお気に入りのおもちゃの
00:42
of every child's favorite plaything.
壮大な未来をお話ししましょう
00:44
So, kites are more than a thousand years old,
凧は1000年以上の歴史を持ち
00:47
and the Chinese used them for military applications,
中国ではそれを軍事用に応用し
00:49
and even for lifting men.
人間まで乗せました
00:52
So they knew at that stage they could carry large weights.
その時点で重いものも運べると知っていたのです
00:53
I'm not sure why there is a hole in this particular man.
この男に穴があるのがなぜかは分かりませんが
00:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:58
In 1827, a fellow called George Pocock
1827年に、ジョージ・ポコックという男が
01:00
actually pioneered the use of kites for towing buggies
イギリスの田舎で、凧に二輪馬車を引かせて
01:03
in races against horse carriages across the English countryside.
馬の引く四輪馬車と競争しました
01:06
Then of course, at the dawn of aviation,
そしてもちろん、航空産業の黎明期には
01:11
all of the great inventors of the time --
たくさんの発明家たち―
01:13
like Hargreaves, like Langley,
ハーグリーヴズ、ラングレー、
01:15
even Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, who was flying this kite --
電話の発明者アレグザンダー・グレアム・ベルはこれで―
01:17
were doing so in the pursuit of aviation.
凧の飛行を試みていました
01:20
Then these two fellows came along,
そしてこの二人がやって来て
01:23
and they were flying kites to develop the control systems
飛行制御システムを開発するために凧を飛ばし
01:25
that would ultimately enable powered human flight.
最後は有人動力飛行を可能にしました
01:28
So this is of course Orville and Wilbur Wright,
もちろんオーヴィルとウィルバーのライト兄弟、
01:31
and the Wright Flyer.
ライトフライヤー号です
01:34
And their experiments with kites led to this
彼らの凧による実験が、この
01:36
momentous occasion, where we powered up and took off for the
歴史的瞬間を生み、動力で離陸して、世界最初の
01:38
first-ever 12-second human flight.
12秒の有人飛行ができたのです
01:41
And that was fantastic for the future of commercial aviation.
商用航空産業の未来の素晴らしい幕開けでした
01:45
But unfortunately, it relegated kites once again to be considered children's toys.
しかし残念なことに、これで凧はもとの子どものおもちゃに戻されました
01:49
That was until the 1970s, where we had the last energy crisis.
でもそれも、1970年代のエネルギー危機までのことです
01:53
And a fabulous man called Miles Loyd
マイルス・ロイドという信じられない男が
01:57
who lives on the outskirts of San Francisco,
サンフランシスコ郊外にに住んでいますが
01:59
wrote this seminal paper that was completely ignored
「the Journal of Energy」誌に、当時完全に無視された
02:01
in the Journal of Energy
画期的な論文を発表しました
02:04
about how to use basically an airplane on a piece of string
それはヒモの先につけた飛行機を使って、莫大な電気エネルギーを
02:05
to generate enormous amounts of electricity.
発生させることでした
02:09
The real key observation he made is that
彼の発見の鍵は、自由に飛行する翼は、
02:12
a free-flying wing can sweep through more sky and generate more power
固定翼タービンよりも、より多く空中を移動し、単位時間に
02:14
in a unit of time than a fixed-wing turbine.
より多くの力を発生させる可能性があるということでした
02:18
So turbines grew. And they can now span up to three hundred feet at the hub height,
固定翼タービンは発達し、ハブ高が100メートルまできましたが
02:22
but they can't really go a lot higher,
さらにそれ以上には行けません
02:26
and more height is where the more wind is, and more power --
しかしさらに高いところにはもっと風があり―
02:28
as much as twice as much.
電力は2倍にもなります
02:31
So cut to now. We still have an energy crisis,
現在に飛びましょう エネルギー危機はいまだに存在し
02:33
and now we have a climate crisis as well. You know,
気象異状もあります
02:36
so humans generate about 12 trillion watts,
人類は12兆ワット、あるいは
02:39
or 12 terawatts, from fossil fuels.
12テラワットを化石燃料から発電しています
02:42
And Al Gore has spoken to why we need to hit one of these targets,
アル・ゴアが、なぜこれら三つの目標の一つを達成する必要があるか、
02:44
and in reality what that means is in the next 30 to 40 years,
それはつまりこの30年か40年で10兆ワットのクリーンエネルギーを
02:48
we have to make 10 trillion watts or more of new clean energy somehow.
なんとかして生み出す必要があることを語りました
02:52
Wind is the second-largest renewable resource after solar:
風力は、太陽光に次ぐ二番目の再生可能な資源です
02:58
3600 terawatts, more than enough to supply humanity 200 times over.
3600テラワットあり、人類をまかなう200倍の力があります
03:02
The majority of it is in the higher altitudes, above 300 feet,
その大半は高度100メートル以上の高空にあり
03:06
where we don't have a technology as yet to get there.
そこに到達する技術がまだありません
03:10
So this is the dawn of the new age of kites.
そこで凧の新しい時代の夜明けになるわけです
03:14
This is our test site on Maui, flying across the sky.
これは私たちのマウイ島の実験場で、凧を飛ばしています
03:16
I'm now going to show you
お見せしているのは
03:20
the first autonomous generation of power
全ての子どものお気に入りのおもちゃによる
03:22
by every child's favorite plaything.
最初の、自律的な発電です
03:25
As you can tell, you need to be a robot to fly this thing for thousands of hours.
こういうものを何千時間も飛ばすにはロボットにでもならない限り無理ですね
03:28
It makes you a little nauseous.
ちょっと気分が悪くなりますよね
03:32
And here we're actually generating about 10 kilowatts --
これが、実際に10キロワットの発電をしているところで
03:34
so, enough to power probably five United States households --
アメリカの家庭ほぼ5つを十分まかなえるもので
03:36
with a kite not much larger than this piano.
凧の大きさはこのピアノよりちょっと大きいくらいです
03:39
And the real significant thing here
そしてここで一番意義があるのは
03:42
is we're developing the control systems,
我々が制御システムを開発していて、それにより
03:44
as did the Wright brothers, that would enable sustained, long-duration flight.
ライト兄弟のように、長時間の持続的な飛行ができることです
03:46
And it doesn't hurt to do it in a location like this either.
こういう場所でも問題ありません
03:51
So this is the equivalent for a kite flier of peeing in the snow --
これは凧版の「雪の上におしっこ」で
03:56
that's tracing your name in the sky.
空に航跡で名前を書いています
03:59
And this is where we're actually going.
今後の計画をお見せします
04:01
So we're beyond the 12-second steps.
ライト兄弟の段階は越えていて
04:03
And we're working towards megawatt-scale machines
メガワット級の機材を開発中で
04:05
that fly at 2000 feet and generate tons of clean electricity.
それは600メートル以上の高空で莫大なクリーンエネルギーを生み出します
04:07
So you ask, how big are those machines?
この機械はどれくらい大きいのか?
04:11
Well, this paper plane would be maybe a -- oop!
そう、この紙飛行機が―おっと!
04:13
That would be enough to power your cell phone.
これがだいたい携帯電話を起動できます
04:16
Your Cessna would be 230 killowatts.
セスナ機なら230キロワットくらいでしょう
04:19
If you'd loan me your Gulfstream, I'll rip its wings off and generate you a megawatt.
ガルフストリーム機を貸していただけるなら、羽をもぎとって1メガワットを発電します
04:22
If you give me a 747, I'll make six megawatts,
ボーイング747だったら、6メガワット、それは
04:26
which is more than the largest wind turbines today.
今日の最大の風力タービンを凌駕します
04:29
And the Spruce Goose would be a 15-megawatt wing.
スプルースグースH-4なら15メガワットになります
04:32
So that is audacious, you say. I agree.
無謀なことですか? ですよね
04:35
But audacious is what has happened many times before in history.
しかし無謀さは過去の歴史に何度もあることです
04:38
This is a refrigerator factory,
これは冷蔵庫の工場でしたが
04:41
churning out airplanes for World War II.
第二次大戦中は飛行機を量産していました
04:43
Prior to World War II, they were making 1000 planes a year.
第二次大戦以前、飛行機生産は毎年1000機でした
04:46
By 1945, they were making 100,000.
1945年には、10万機を作っていました
04:49
With this factory and 100,000 planes a year,
こんな生産体制で、しかも年間10万機を作れるなら
04:52
we could make all of America's electricity in about 10 years.
10年もあればアメリカの総電力需要を満たせます
04:54
So really this is a story about the audacious plans of young people
それで、これは、夢に満ちた若者の無謀な話であり
04:58
with these dreams. There are many of us.
たくさんの仲間がいます
05:01
I am lucky enough to work with 30 of them.
幸運にも私も30人の仲間と一緒です
05:03
And I think we need to support all of the dreams
そして、我々はあそこでクレイジーなことしている
05:05
of the kids out there doing these crazy things.
人たちの夢を支援する必要があるのです
05:07
Thank you.
ありがとう
05:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:11
Translator:Masahiro Kyushima
Reviewer:Masaaki Ueno

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Saul Griffith - Inventor
Inventor Saul Griffith looks for elegant ways to make real things, from low-cost eyeglasses to a kite that tows boats. His latest projects include open-source inventions and elegant new ways to generate power.

Why you should listen

Innovator and inventor Saul Griffith has a uniquely open approach to problem solving. Whether he's devising a way to slash the cost of prescription eyeglasses or teaching science through cartoons, Griffith makes things and then shares his ideas with the world.

A proponent of open-source information, he established Instructables , an open website showing how to make an array of incredible objects. He is the co-founder of numerous companies including Squid Labs, Low Cost Eyeglasses, Potenco and Makani Power, where he is President and Chief Scientist. His companies have invented a myriad of new devices and materials, such as a "smart" rope that senses its load, or a machine for making low-cost eyeglass lenses through a process inspired by a water droplet. He is a columnist at Make magazine and co-writes How Toons! He's fascinated with materials that assemble themselves, and with taking advantage of those properties to make things quickly and cheaply.

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