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TEDGlobal 2013

George Monbiot: For more wonder, rewild the world

ジョージ・モンビオ: 「再野生化」で世界の驚異を取り戻そう

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狩猟により絶滅する前は、狼は米国イエローストーン国立公園に生息していました。1995年に、積極的な管理プログラムを開始して狼を導入し始めると、興味深いことが起きました。公園全体が、より健康的な新しいバランスを見つけたのです。かつては私達は野生の世界における複雑な食物連鎖に囲まれていましたが、それは今は失われました。ジョージ・モンビオは、これを人の手で復元することを考えています。

- Rewilding campaigner
In his book "Feral," George Monbiot advocates the large-scale restoration of complex natural ecosystems. Full bio

若い頃 6年をかけて
00:12
When I was a young man, I spent six years
調査ジャーナリストとして
00:14
of wild adventure in the tropics
熱帯地方の大自然を調べ
00:16
working as an investigative journalist
世界でも最も魅惑的な地域で過ごしました
00:18
in some of the most bewitching parts of the world.
若気の至りで
私は無鉄砲で愚かでした
00:21
I was as reckless and foolish as only young men can be.
戦争でもするような勢いです
00:25
This is why wars get fought.
しかし 何よりも生きがいを感じていました
00:26
But I also felt more alive than I've ever done since.
故国に戻ると
自分の存在の意義が
00:30
And when I came home, I found the scope of my existence
次第にあいまいになり
00:34
gradually diminishing
食器洗い機を使うのが
面白い挑戦だという有様でした
00:36
until loading the dishwasher seemed like an interesting challenge.
まるで人生の壁を
00:41
And I found myself sort of
かきむしり
00:43
scratching at the walls of life,
壁の向こうの広い空間へと
00:45
as if I was trying to find a way out
抜け出す道を探しているようでした
00:47
into a wider space beyond.
どうやら こんな環境では退屈だったのです
00:49
I was, I believe, ecologically bored.
人類は今よりも
もっと困難の多い時代に
00:53
Now, we evolved in rather more challenging times than these,
角や牙や爪の世界で
進化しました
00:58
in a world of horns and tusks and fangs and claws.
いまだに 恐れや勇気
01:03
And we still possess the fear and the courage
そういう時代を生き抜くための
攻撃性を持っています
01:05
and the aggression required to navigate those times.
快適で 安全で
人の多い土地では
01:08
But in our comfortable, safe, crowded lands,
他人に危害を 加えずに
01:13
we have few opportunities to exercise them
これらを行使する機会はありません
01:16
without harming other people.
私自身が突きあたっていたのは
01:19
And this was the sort of constraint that I found myself
この種の制約だと気付きました
01:23
bumping up against.
不確かさを克服し
01:26
To conquer uncertainty,
次に何が来るのかを知るのが
01:28
to know what comes next,
工業化社会の
主要な目的でした
01:32
that's almost been the dominant aim of industrialized societies,
まさにそこに到達しようとしたとき
01:36
and having got there, or almost got there,
満たされない 新しい欲求に
直面したのです
01:40
we have just encountered a new set of unmet needs.
私たちは経験よりも安全を優先してきました
01:43
We've privileged safety over experience
それで多くのことが
達成されましたが
01:46
and we've gained a lot in doing so,
何かを失いもしました
01:49
but I think we've lost something too.
原始時代を
美化してはいません
01:52
Now, I don't romanticize evolutionary time.
私はすでに大抵の
狩猟採集民の寿命を超えています
01:54
I'm already beyond the lifespan of most hunter-gatherers,
石槍を持ってよろめいている私と
01:58
and the outcome of a mortal combat between me
猛り狂った巨大なバイソンの
02:01
myopically stumbling around with a stone-tipped spear
死闘の結末を
02:04
and an enraged giant aurochs
予測するのは簡単なことです
02:07
isn't very hard to predict.
「本物」の何かをを探していたのでしょうか
02:09
Nor was it authenticity that I was looking for.
本物というのは有益でも
明瞭な概念でもないことが分かりました
02:12
I don't find that a useful or even intelligible concept.
英国や多くの工業国で
02:15
I just wanted a richer and rawer life
暮らすよりは
豊かで自然にあふれた
02:19
than I've been able to lead in Britain, or, indeed,
生活を望んでいただけでした
02:22
that we can lead in most parts of the industrialized world.
そしてなじみのないある言葉に
遭遇した時に
02:25
And it was only when I stumbled across an unfamiliar word
何を探していたのか
分かり始めました
02:31
that I began to understand what I was looking for.
その「言葉」を見つけた時
02:34
And as soon as I found that word,
残りの人生を 賭けようと
02:37
I realized that I wanted to devote
思い立ったのでした
02:39
much of the rest of my life to it.
その言葉は「再野生化」
02:43
The word is "rewilding,"
「再野生化」は新語ですが
02:46
and even though rewilding is a young word,
既に定義がありました
02:49
it already has several definitions.
特に私を魅了する
二つの定義があります
02:51
But there are two in particular that fascinate me.
一つ目は生態系の
02:55
The first one is the mass restoration
大規模な復元です
02:59
of ecosystems.
過去半世紀において
もっとも興奮する科学的発見の一つは
03:01
One of the most exciting scientific findings
03:04
of the past half century
03:06
has been the discovery of widespread trophic cascades.
広範囲に存在する
「栄養カスケード」でした
これは食物連鎖の頂点から始まり
03:11
A trophic cascade is an ecological process
下層まで影響を及ぼす
03:14
which starts at the top of the food chain
生態学的過程です
03:16
and tumbles all the way down to the bottom,
1995年に狼を再導入した
03:20
and the classic example is what happened
イエローストーン国立公園で
03:22
in the Yellowstone National Park in the United States
起きたことが
典型例になります
03:25
when wolves were reintroduced in 1995.
狼は多くの動物を殺しますが
03:29
Now, we all know that wolves kill various species of animals,
彼らが多くの動物を生かしてもいる
03:33
but perhaps we're slightly less aware
ということはあまり知られていません
03:36
that they give life to many others.
奇妙なことですが聞いてください
03:40
It sounds strange, but just follow me for a while.
狼は70年間
03:43
Before the wolves turned up,
姿を消していました
03:45
they'd been absent for 70 years.
鹿を捕らえる動物がいないので
03:46
The numbers of deer, because there was nothing to hunt them,
公園で鹿は増えに増え
03:49
had built up and built up in the Yellowstone Park,
人間が鹿の数をコントロールしようとしましたが
03:52
and despite efforts by humans to control them,
植物のほとんどを
03:55
they'd managed to reduce much of the vegetation there
食いつくしました
03:58
to almost nothing, they'd just grazed it away.
初めは少数でしたが
04:01
But as soon as the wolves arrived,
狼が現れると
04:03
even though they were few in number,
目覚しい効果を上げ始めました
04:05
they started to have the most remarkable effects.
少数の鹿を 殺すことは
04:09
First, of course, they killed some of the deer,
大した事ではありません
04:11
but that wasn't the major thing.
それよりも遥かに意味深いことは
04:13
Much more significantly,
狼が鹿の習性を
根底から変えたということです
04:15
they radically changed the behavior of the deer.
鹿は公園内でも
簡単に追い詰められるような
04:18
The deer started avoiding certain parts of the park,
場所を避け始めたので
04:21
the places where they could be trapped most easily,
特に渓谷や山峡で
04:24
particularly the valleys and the gorges,
すぐに植物が再生し始めました
04:26
and immediately those places started to regenerate.
一部の地域では木の高さが
04:29
In some areas, the height of the trees
わずか6年で5倍になりました
04:32
quintupled in just six years.
裸だった渓谷沿いの土地はすぐに
ヤマナラシ、ヤナギ
04:35
Bare valley sides quickly became forests of aspen
ハコヤナギの林になりました
04:39
and willow and cottonwood.
すると
04:41
And as soon as that happened,
鳥が訪れ始めました
04:43
the birds started moving in.
鳴き鳥や渡り鳥の数が
04:45
The number of songbirds, of migratory birds,
大きく増え始めました
04:48
started to increase greatly.
木を食べるのが好きな
ビーバーの数も
04:50
The number of beavers started to increase,
増え始めました
04:52
because beavers like to eat the trees.
狼同様に ビーバーも
生態系の技術者です
04:54
And beavers, like wolves, are ecosystem engineers.
他の動物の
生息地を作ります
04:58
They create niches for other species.
彼らが川に作ったダムは
05:00
And the dams they built in the rivers
カワウソ マスクラット
アヒル 魚 は虫類 両生類に
05:03
provided habitats for otters and muskrats
生息地を提供しました
05:06
and ducks and fish and reptiles and amphibians.
狼がコヨーテを殺した結果
05:10
The wolves killed coyotes, and as a result of that,
ウサギとハツカネズミの数が増え
05:14
the number of rabbits and mice began to rise,
それは鷹やイタチ 狐やアナグマも
05:16
which meant more hawks, more weasels,
増えるということです
05:19
more foxes, more badgers.
ワタリガラスや白頭ワシが
05:22
Ravens and bald eagles came down to feed
狼の食べ残しをついばみに来て
05:24
on the carrion that the wolves had left.
熊もそれを餌にし
個体数も増えました
05:26
Bears fed on it too, and their population began to rise as well,
低木が再生し
05:30
partly also because there were more berries
ベリーが沢山育っていたせいです
05:32
growing on the regenerating shrubs,
熊は小鹿を殺すことで
05:35
and the bears reinforced the impact of the wolves
狼の影響を補強しました
05:38
by killing some of the calves of the deer.
さらに興味深いことがあります
05:42
But here's where it gets really interesting.
狼が川の生態系を変えたことです
05:46
The wolves changed the behavior of the rivers.
川の蛇行が減少しました
05:51
They began to meander less.
川沿いの侵食が少なくなり
水路は狭くなりました
05:53
There was less erosion. The channels narrowed.
多くの水たまりや浅瀬ができ
05:57
More pools formed, more riffle sections,
野生生物の住処に最適でした
05:59
all of which were great for wildlife habitats.
川が狼への反応で
06:01
The rivers changed
変わった理由は
06:03
in response to the wolves,
再生している森林が
斜面を安定化させたことで
06:06
and the reason was that the regenerating forests
崩落の頻度が減り
06:09
stabilized the banks so that they collapsed less often,
川の流れが安定してきたのです
06:13
so that the rivers became more fixed in their course.
同じ様に 鹿を追い出すことで
06:16
Similarly, by driving the deer out of some places
川岸の植生が 回復し
06:20
and the vegetation recovering on the valley sides,
土壌を安定化させ
06:24
there was less soil erosion,
浸食が減りました
06:26
because the vegetation stabilized that as well.
狼は少数でしたが
06:29
So the wolves, small in number,
イエローストーン国立公園の
06:33
transformed not just the ecosystem
広大な土地の生態系だけではなく
06:36
of the Yellowstone National Park, this huge area of land,
地形も変えました
06:39
but also its physical geography.
南洋での鯨は
06:43
Whales in the southern oceans
同じように 広範な影響を与えます
06:45
have similarly wide-ranging effects.
日本政府による
捕鯨に関しての
06:47
One of the many post-rational excuses
数ある時代遅れの言い訳の一つは
06:50
made by the Japanese government for killing whales
「魚とオキアミの数が増加し
06:53
is that they said, "Well, the number of fish and krill will rise
人々がもっと食べられるようになる」
と言うことです
06:56
and then there'll be more for people to eat."
馬鹿げた 釈明ですが
06:58
Well, it's a stupid excuse, but it sort of
道理に適って聞こえます
07:00
kind of makes sense, doesn't it,
鯨が大量の魚や
07:02
because you'd think that whales eat huge amounts
オキアミを 食べるので
07:04
of fish and krill, so obviously take the whales away,
鯨を捕獲すれば魚とオキアミが増えます
07:06
there'll be more fish and krill.
しかし逆のことが起こりました
07:08
But the opposite happened.
鯨を捕獲すると
07:11
You take the whales away,
オキアミの 数が減ったのです
07:12
and the number of krill collapses.
何故そんなことが起きたのでしょう
07:15
Why would that possibly have happened?
鯨が生態系全体を
07:17
Well, it now turns out that the whales are crucial
保持するのに重要なのです
07:20
to sustaining that entire ecosystem,
その理由の一つは
07:23
and one of the reasons for this
鯨は深海で餌を食べ
07:25
is that they often feed at depth
海水面に出てきて
07:27
and then they come up to the surface and produce
―生物学者は糞の上昇流と呼びますが
07:29
what biologists politely call large fecal plumes,
大量の糞を海水表面にまき散らします
07:33
huge explosions of poop right across the surface waters,
光合成に十分な光量のある深度にもたらされるので
07:37
up in the photic zone, where there's enough light
07:41
to allow photosynthesis to take place,
この肥料の上昇流は
07:44
and those great plumes of fertilizer
食物連鎖の底辺にいる
植物性プランクトンの成長を促し
07:47
stimulate the growth of phytoplankton,
食物連鎖の底辺にいる
植物性プランクトンの成長を促し
07:49
the plant plankton at the bottom of the food chain,
これが動物性プランクトンの
成長を促して
07:51
which stimulate the growth of zooplankton,
魚やオキアミその他もろもろを
養っていることになります
07:53
which feed the fish and the krill and all the rest of it.
そのほかに鯨のすることは
07:55
The other thing that whales do is that,
水の中を上下運動し
07:57
as they're plunging up and down through the water column,
植物プランクトンが
08:00
they're kicking the phytoplankton
生存し 再生産できるよう
08:02
back up towards the surface
海面に向かって蹴り上げます
08:04
where it can continue to survive and reproduce.
興味深いことに
08:07
And interestingly, well, we know
海洋の 植物プランクトンは
08:10
that plant plankton in the oceans
大気から 炭素を吸収します
08:13
absorb carbon from the atmosphere --
植物プランクトンが多くなれば
08:14
the more plant plankton there are,
さらに炭素を吸収し
08:16
the more carbon they absorb --
最終的には深海に沈み
08:18
and eventually they filter down into the abyss
大気から炭素を取り除きます
08:21
and remove that carbon from the atmospheric system.
鯨の固体数が昔のように多かったときには
08:24
Well, it seems that when whales were at their historic populations,
大気圏から
08:28
they were probably responsible for sequestering
毎年数千万トンもの炭素を
08:31
some tens of millions of tons of carbon
取り除いたでしょう
08:35
every year from the atmosphere.
このようなことを知ると
08:38
And when you look at it like that, you think,
ちょっと待てよ
これは狼が
08:41
wait a minute, here are the wolves
イエローストーンの地形を変えているのと同じだと
気付きます
08:43
changing the physical geography of the Yellowstone National Park.
ここでは鯨が大気の
08:46
Here are the whales changing
組成を変えているのです
08:48
the composition of the atmosphere.
ジェイムズ・ラブロックの
08:50
You begin to see that possibly,
世界は首尾一貫した
08:53
the evidence supporting James Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis,
自己制御的な生き物であるという
08:56
which conceives of the world as a coherent,
ガイア仮説の裏付けが
08:59
self-regulating organism,
少なくとも生態系のレベルでは
集積し始めています
09:01
is beginning, at the ecosystem level, to accumulate.
「栄養カスケード」は
09:07
Trophic cascades
私達が思っている以上に
09:09
tell us that the natural world
自然界が
魅力的で複雑だと示しています
09:11
is even more fascinating and complex than we thought it was.
大型動物を取り除くと
09:16
They tell us that when you take away the large animals,
大型動物がいた時とは全く違った
09:19
you are left with a radically different ecosystem
生態系となるということを示すものです
09:23
to one which retains its large animals.
これらの例は
失われた動物を
09:26
And they make, in my view, a powerful case
再導入する意義を
強く支持していると思います
09:29
for the reintroduction of missing species.
私にとって「再野生化」は
09:33
Rewilding, to me,
失われた植物や動物を取り戻すことです
09:35
means bringing back some of the missing plants and animals.
柵を取り除くことです
09:39
It means taking down the fences,
排水溝を取り除くことです
09:40
it means blocking the drainage ditches,
大きな海域で
商業的漁業をやめさせることです
09:42
it means preventing commercial fishing in some large areas of sea,
しかしこれはある意味では後退です
09:45
but otherwise stepping back.
どのような生態系が正しいか
09:49
It has no view as to what a right ecosystem
どのような種の組み合わせがよさそうか
という議論ではありません
09:52
or a right assemblage of species looks like.
低木の荒れ地や 草地を作ろうと
目指しているのではありません
09:55
It doesn't try to produce a heath or a meadow
雨林 海藻の森 珊瑚礁を
作ろうというのでもありません
09:59
or a rain forest or a kelp garden or a coral reef.
自然に 任せることです
10:04
It lets nature decide,
自然は概ね的確に判断します
10:06
and nature, by and large, is pretty good at deciding.
「再野生化」には
10:09
Now, I mentioned that there are two definitions
二つの定義があると申しました
10:12
of rewilding that interest me.
もう一つは
10:14
The other one
人間の生活の再野生化です
10:15
is the rewilding of human life.
それが文明の代案とは
10:18
And I don't see this as an alternative
思いません
10:20
to civilization.
現在のように最先端技術の恩得に
10:22
I believe we can enjoy the benefits of advanced technology,
浴したままに
自分たちの選択によって
10:25
as we're doing now, but at the same time, if we choose,
いつでももっと豊かで野性的な
冒険の生活を送ることも
10:29
have access to a richer and wilder life of adventure
できるはずです
10:34
when we want to because
野生化した 素晴らしい生息地を
整えれば良いのです
10:36
there would be wonderful, rewilded habitats.
このような機会は
10:40
And the opportunities for this
予想を遥かに超え
急速に発展しています
10:42
are developing more rapidly than you might think possible.
ある推定では
アメリカ合衆国の
10:47
There's one estimate which suggests that in the United States,
国土の三分の二は
かつて森林で覆われていました
10:50
two thirds of the land which was once forested and then cleared
その後これが一掃されましたが
林業や農業が撤退すると
10:54
has become reforested as loggers and farmers have retreated,
特に国土の東半分では
再森林化が進んでいます
10:57
particularly from the eastern half of the country.
他の推定では
11:00
There's another one which suggests
ヨーロッパで
ポーランドの面積と同じ
11:02
that 30 million hectares of land in Europe,
30万平方 キロメートルから
11:05
an area the size of Poland,
2000年から2030年の間に
11:08
will be vacated by farmers
農民がいなくなります
11:10
between 2000 and 2030.
このような状況に直面して
11:13
Now, faced with opportunities like that,
狼やヤマネコや熊やビーバー
11:16
does it not seem a little unambitious
バイソンやイノシシやムース
その他の野生動物を
11:19
to be thinking only of bringing back wolves, lynx,
連れ戻すことだけを考えているのでは
とても野心的とは言えません
11:22
bears, beavers, bison, boar, moose,
これらの動物はすでにヨーロッパ中で
11:26
and all the other species which are already beginning
移動し始めているのです
11:28
to move quite rapidly across Europe?
たぶん何種類かの
11:31
Perhaps we should also start thinking
絶滅した大型動物の復帰を
考え始めるべきかもしれません
11:33
about the return of some of our lost megafauna.
大型動物だと?
と 言うでしょう
11:37
What megafauna, you say?
南極大陸は別として
11:39
Well, every continent had one,
各大陸にいました
11:42
apart from Antarctica.
ロンドンの
トラファルガー広場が
11:43
When Trafalgar Square in London was excavated,
掘り起こされたとき
川砂利は
11:47
the river gravels there were found
カバ サイ 象 ハイエナ
11:49
to be stuffed with the bones of hippopotamus,
ライオンの骨の宝庫でした
11:52
rhinos, elephants, hyenas, lions.
そうです皆さん!
11:56
Yes, ladies and gentlemen,
ネルソン記念柱より以前に
11:58
there were lions in Trafalgar Square
ライオンがいました
12:00
long before Nelson's Column was built.
最終間氷期に
12:03
All these species lived here
これらの動物が
12:06
in the last interglacial period,
住んでいて
気温は今と良く似ていました
12:08
when temperatures were pretty similar to our own.
気候が
12:11
It's not climate, largely,
大型動物を
追い出したのではありません
12:13
which has got rid of the world's megafaunas.
人間が狩猟し
12:17
It's pressure from the human population
生息地を破壊して
12:19
hunting and destroying their habitats
追い立てたのでした
12:21
which has done so.
にもかかわらず
現在の生態系でこれらの雄大な
12:23
And even so, you can still see the shadows
獣類の名残を 確認できます
12:26
of these great beasts in our current ecosystems.
落葉樹の幹が折れると
12:29
Why is it that so many deciduous trees
何故そこから
芽が出てくるのでしょう?
12:32
are able to sprout from whatever point the trunk is broken?
何故多くの樹皮を失っても
12:37
Why is it that they can withstand the loss
生き延びられるのでしょう?
12:39
of so much of their bark?
低木層の木は
12:40
Why do understory trees,
風から受ける力も弱く
12:43
which are subject to lower sheer forces from the wind
大きな樹冠木よりも
12:48
and have to carry less weight
軽い重量しか担っていないのに
12:50
than the big canopy trees,
樹冠木よりもずっと強く
12:52
why are they so much tougher and harder to break
折れにくいのでしょう?
12:56
than the canopy trees are?
象です
13:00
Elephants.
象に適応していたのです
13:02
They are elephant-adapted.
ヨーロッパでは 例えば
13:04
In Europe, for example,
古代ゾウのストレート・タスク・ゾウのような
13:06
they evolved to resist the straight-tusked elephant,
巨大な動物に耐えるよう進化しました
13:10
elephas antiquus, which was a great beast.
アジア象に類似した
13:12
It was related to the Asian elephant,
温厚な温帯林の動物でした
13:14
but it was a temperate animal, a temperate forest creature.
アジア象よりずっと大型でした
13:17
It was a lot bigger than the Asian elephant.
とげをもつ灌木がありますが
13:19
But why is it that some of our common shrubs
鹿の摂食に耐えるだけでは
13:22
have spines which seem to be over-engineered
確かに過剰スペックです
13:25
to resist browsing by deer?
多分 サイの摂食に
13:28
Perhaps because they evolved
耐えて進化したのです
13:30
to resist browsing by rhinoceros.
公園や大通り 並木道では
13:33
Isn't it an amazing thought
偉大な獣類の名残を見られ
13:35
that every time you wander into a park
不思議に思うことでしょう
13:38
or down an avenue or through a leafy street,
凄いことだと思いませんか?
13:40
you can see the shadows of these great beasts?
過去の生態系を研究する古生態学は
13:44
Paleoecology, the study of past ecosystems,
自分たちを 理解する上でも
13:48
crucial to an understanding of our own,
極めて重要であり
13:52
feels like a portal through which you may pass
その扉は
魅惑の王国に通じているかのようです
13:55
into an enchanted kingdom.
先ほど私が利用できると言った位の
13:58
And if we really are looking at areas of land
大きさの土地のことを考えて見ると
14:02
of the sort of sizes I've been talking about becoming available,
失われた大型動物
あるいは
14:06
why not reintroduce some of our lost megafauna,
すっかり絶滅してしまった種の関連動物を
14:09
or at least species closely related to those
再導入してみてはどうかと思うのです
14:11
which have become extinct everywhere?
私たちの家の前に
14:14
Why shouldn't all of us
セレンゲティを持とうではありませんか
14:16
have a Serengeti on our doorsteps?
「希望」こそが
14:19
And perhaps this is the most important thing
われわれの生活に欠けており
14:22
that rewilding offers us,
「再野生化」がもたらす
14:24
the most important thing that's missing from our lives:
最も重要なものではないでしょうか
14:27
hope.
自然界への愛と保護を
人々に動機づける時に
14:29
In motivating people to love and defend the natural world,
大きな絶望があったとしても
わずかでも「希望」は大切です
14:34
an ounce of hope is worth a ton of despair.
「再野生化」の物語が
私たちに語っていることは
14:39
The story rewilding tells us
生態系の変化は必ずしも
14:41
is that ecological change need not always proceed
一方向に進む必要はなく
14:45
in one direction.
そこには希望もあります
14:47
It offers us the hope
我々の「沈黙の春」を
14:50
that our silent spring
「大騒ぎの夏」が取って替わるかもしれません
14:52
could be replaced by a raucous summer.
ありがとう
14:54
Thank you.
(拍手)
14:56
(Applause)
Translated by Yoshiko Million N
Reviewed by Masaki Yanagishita

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About the speaker:

George Monbiot - Rewilding campaigner
In his book "Feral," George Monbiot advocates the large-scale restoration of complex natural ecosystems.

Why you should listen

In summer 2013, journalist and campaigner George Monbiot published Feral: Rewilding the Land, the Sea and Human Life. Part personal journal, part essay on natural science and wildlife (and on our own wild side), the book follows Monbiot's efforts to re-engage with nature. He shows how, by restoring and rewilding our damaged ecosystems on land and at sea, we can bring wonder back into our lives, and lays out a new, positive environmental vision, in which nature is allowed to find its own way. 

After studying zoology at Oxford, Monbiot worked for the BBC’s natural history unit, making investigative environmental programs, one of which won a Sony Award. He left the BBC to spend six wild years in the tropics. Investigating the Indonesian transmigration program, he walked and canoed across West Papua, becoming lost in the forest, eating insects and rats to stay alive and being stung almost to death by hornets. Investigating evictions in Brazil, he was beaten up by gunmen and nearly shot by military police. The radio program he made about his encounter with a police torturer in Maranhão was used for several years on the BBC’s health and safety training course - as an example of what not to do. Back in Britain, he founded the landrights campaign The Land Is Ours and started writing columns for the Guardian. His other books include Amazon WatershedCaptive StateThe Age of Consent and Heat.

Read a sample chapter from Feral >>

More profile about the speaker
George Monbiot | Speaker | TED.com