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TED2008

Jonathan Haidt: The moral roots of liberals and conservatives

ジョナサン・ハイト リベラル派と保守派のモラルの根源を語る

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心理学者ジョナサン・ハイトは、左派・右派の政治観の基礎を成す5つの倫理観について研究しています。目を開かせる話の中で、彼は両派が同様に称賛する倫理観を突き止めます。

- Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded. Full bio

Suppose that two American friends are traveling together in Italy.
アメリカ人 ダチ2人でイタリア旅行
00:19
They go to see Michelangelo's "David,"
ミケランジェロの「ダビデ像」を見に行った
00:22
and when they finally come face to face with the statue,
ご対面で見事
00:24
they both freeze dead in their tracks.
2人揃って立ちすくんだ
00:26
The first guy -- we'll call him Adam --
1人目 アダムは
00:28
is transfixed by the beauty of the perfect human form.
人間の完成美に ただただ愕然
00:30
The second guy -- we'll call him Bill --
2人目 ビルは
00:33
is transfixed by embarrassment, at staring at the thing there in the center.
真ん中のモノに ただただ狼狽
00:35
So here's my question for you:
さて ここで質問です
00:40
which one of these two guys was more likely to have voted for George Bush,
どちらがジョージ・ブッシュに投票するでしょう?
00:42
which for Al Gore?
またどちらがアル・ゴアに
00:46
I don't need a show of hands
挙手はけっこうです
00:48
because we all have the same political stereotypes.
政治的ステレオタイプは似たり寄ったりですから
00:49
We all know that it's Bill.
言うまでもなく ビルですよね
00:52
And in this case, the stereotype corresponds to reality.
この場合 ステレオタイプと現実は一致します
00:54
It really is a fact that liberals are much higher than conservatives
リベラル派の方が 性格特性の1つ―
00:58
on a major personality trait called openness to experience.
開放性が段違いに高いのです
01:01
People who are high in openness to experience
開放性が高いと こういうのを求めます
01:04
just crave novelty, variety, diversity, new ideas, travel.
目新しさ 変化 広がり 新思想 旅行
01:06
People low on it like things that are familiar, that are safe and dependable.
低いと 慣れた安全で信頼できるものを好みます
01:10
If you know about this trait,
これを押さえておくと
01:15
you can understand a lot of puzzles about human behavior.
人間行動の 多くの謎が解けます―
01:17
You can understand why artists are so different from accountants.
なぜ芸術家と会計士が かくも違うのか...
01:19
You can actually predict what kinds of books they like to read,
彼らの好む本や
01:22
what kinds of places they like to travel to,
好きな旅行先
01:24
and what kinds of food they like to eat.
食べ物の好みなどが予想できます
01:26
Once you understand this trait, you can understand
すると分かります 皆さんの周りが
01:28
why anybody would eat at Applebee's, but not anybody that you know.
人気ファミレス"Applebee's"に行かない理由が
01:31
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:35
This trait also tells us a lot about politics.
この特性は政治にも影響します
01:41
The main researcher of this trait, Robert McCrae says that,
研究の第一人者ロバート・マクレイ曰く
01:43
"Open individuals have an affinity for liberal, progressive, left-wing political views" --
“開放的な人がリベラル派 進歩 左派を好むのに対し”
01:46
they like a society which is open and changing --
オープンで変化する社会ですね
01:50
"whereas closed individuals prefer conservative, traditional, right-wing views."
“閉鎖的な人は保守派 伝統 右派を好む”
01:52
This trait also tells us a lot about the kinds of groups people join.
この特性は 参加グループにも影響します
01:57
So here's the description of a group I found on the Web.
こんなコミュニティをネットで見つけたのですが
02:01
What kinds of people would join a global community
どんな人が参加しているのでしょう?
02:03
welcoming people from every discipline and culture,
“人類の より良い未来のため
02:05
who seek a deeper understanding of the world,
より深く世界を理解したい方は
02:07
and who hope to turn that understanding into a better future for us all?
分野や文化を問わず 大歓迎!”
02:09
This is from some guy named Ted.
えぇ これTEDが書いてました
02:12
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:14
Well, let's see now, if openness predicts who becomes liberal,
さて開放性が リベラルや
02:16
and openness predicts who becomes a TEDster,
TED人間になる 決め手なら
02:20
then might we predict that most TEDsters are liberal?
大抵のTED人間はリベラル?
02:22
Let's find out.
調べてみましょう
02:25
I'm going to ask you to raise your hand, whether you are liberal, left of center --
先程の社会問題に対して
02:26
on social issues, we're talking about, primarily --
リベラル/中道左派か
02:30
or conservative, and I'll give a third option,
保守派かそれから
02:32
because I know there are a number of libertarians in the audience.
会場に多い自由主義派かで聞きます
02:34
So, right now, please raise your hand --
いきますよ 手を挙げてください
02:36
down in the simulcast rooms, too,
放送室の方もいいですか
02:38
let's let everybody see who's here --
では いきます
02:39
please raise your hand if you would say that you are liberal or left of center.
リベラル派/中道左派の方?
02:41
Please raise your hand high right now. OK.
高く挙げてください
02:44
Please raise your hand if you'd say you're libertarian.
では自由主義派の方?
02:48
OK, about a -- two dozen.
はい...約25人ですね
02:51
And please raise your hand if you'd say you are right of center or conservative.
では保守派/中道右派の方?
02:53
One, two, three, four, five -- about eight or 10.
1 2 3 4 5... 約8人か10人ですね
02:56
OK. This is a bit of a problem.
ふむ これはいささか厄介です…
03:02
Because if our goal is to understand the world,
TEDのゴールが “より深く世界を理解”
03:05
to seek a deeper understanding of the world,
することなら
03:08
our general lack of moral diversity here is going to make it harder.
モラルの多様性に欠けるとまずいのです
03:10
Because when people all share values, when people all share morals,
同じ価値観やモラルの人が集まると
03:13
they become a team, and once you engage the psychology of teams,
チームが生まれます チーム心理が芽生えると―
03:17
it shuts down open-minded thinking.
柔軟な思考を妨げます
03:20
When the liberal team loses, as it did in 2004,
2004年や おおかた2000年のように敗れると
03:25
and as it almost did in 2000, we comfort ourselves.
リベラル・チームは慰め合います
03:29
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:33
We try to explain why half of America voted for the other team.
アメリカ半分が 別チームに投票した弁明をします
03:35
We think they must be blinded by religion, or by simple stupidity.
神がかりにあったかノータリンなんだろう…と話します
03:39
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:44
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:47
So, if you think that half of America votes Republican
ホントにそんな理由で 共和党を
03:55
because they are blinded in this way,
支持しているとお考えなら
04:01
then my message to you is that you're trapped in a moral matrix,
失礼ですが モラル・マトリックスに
04:04
in a particular moral matrix.
引っかかっていますよ
04:07
And by the matrix, I mean literally the matrix, like the movie "The Matrix."
まさに映画「マトリックス」の”マトリックス”です
04:08
But I'm here today to give you a choice.
だが 今日ここで選択肢をあげよう
04:12
You can either take the blue pill and stick to your comforting delusions,
この青を飲めば 甘美な妄想は続く
04:14
or you can take the red pill,
この赤を飲めば
04:18
learn some moral psychology and step outside the moral matrix.
モラル心理学の何たるかと
04:20
Now, because I know --
モラル・マトリックスの外を覗かせよう
04:23
(Applause) --
(拍手)
04:25
OK, I assume that answers my question.
…多数決を
04:28
I was going to ask you which one you picked, but no need.
するまでもありませんね
04:30
You're all high in openness to experience, and besides,
皆さん さすが開放性が高い!
04:32
it looks like it might even taste good, and you're all epicures.
それに美食家ですね 赤おいしそう
04:34
So anyway, let's go with the red pill.
ともあれ 赤を飲みましょう
04:37
Let's study some moral psychology and see where it takes us.
モラル心理学入門のはじまり
04:39
Let's start at the beginning.
ここから始めましょう
04:41
What is morality and where does it come from?
モラリティとは?どこから来るのか?
04:43
The worst idea in all of psychology
心理学上最悪の見解は
04:45
is the idea that the mind is a blank slate at birth.
“誕生時 精神は真っ白” です
04:47
Developmental psychology has shown
発達心理学は こう示しています
04:50
that kids come into the world already knowing so much
人は物理・社会的な知識を
04:52
about the physical and social worlds,
多く備えて誕生するため
04:54
and programmed to make it really easy for them to learn certain things
ある種のものは容易に習得できるが
04:56
and hard to learn others.
その逆も然りである
05:00
The best definition of innateness I've ever seen --
脳科学者ゲイリー・マーカスが
05:01
this just clarifies so many things for me --
非常に納得のいく
05:03
is from the brain scientist Gary Marcus.
”生得性”の定義をしています
05:05
He says, "The initial organization of the brain does not depend that much on experience.
“脳の初期構造は さして経験に根付いていない
05:07
Nature provides a first draft, which experience then revises.
先天性が初稿を書き 経験が改訂する
05:12
Built-in doesn't mean unmalleable;
生来は普遍とは違う―
05:15
it means organized in advance of experience."
それは経験と共に編さんされる”
05:17
OK, so what's on the first draft of the moral mind?
ではモラルの初稿には何が?
05:20
To find out, my colleague, Craig Joseph, and I
私は同僚のクレイグ・ジョセフと共に
05:22
read through the literature on anthropology,
人類学の文献を読みました
05:25
on culture variation in morality
モラル思考様式の差異を調べ
05:27
and also on evolutionary psychology, looking for matches.
進化心理学の文献を読み漁りました
05:29
What are the sorts of things that people talk about across disciplines?
宗教を超えた普遍的なテーマとは?
05:31
That you find across cultures and even across species?
文化や種を超えた共通点は?
05:34
We found five -- five best matches,
そして 5つのものに行き当たりました
05:36
which we call the five foundations of morality.
5つのモラリティの根源です
05:38
The first one is harm/care.
1. 危害/親切
05:40
We're all mammals here, we all have a lot of neural and hormonal programming
人間は神経やホルモンの働きもあって
05:42
that makes us really bond with others, care for others,
絆を結んだり 慕ったりします
05:46
feel compassion for others, especially the weak and vulnerable.
弱いものには同情します
05:48
It gives us very strong feelings about those who cause harm.
加害者には 強い感情を抱きます
05:51
This moral foundation underlies about 70 percent
TEDで耳にする モラル発言の
05:54
of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.
7割はこれに根差しています
05:57
The second foundation is fairness/reciprocity.
2. 公正さ/互恵関係
05:59
There's actually ambiguous evidence
他の動物に 互恵関係が
06:02
as to whether you find reciprocity in other animals,
認められるかは曖昧ですが
06:04
but the evidence for people could not be clearer.
人間に限って言えば 絶対です
06:06
This Norman Rockwell painting is called "The Golden Rule,"
この絵は ノーマン・ロックウェルの「黄金律」です
06:08
and we heard about this from Karen Armstrong, of course,
絵の中には カレン・アームストロングの
06:10
as the foundation of so many religions.
宗教の根底を表す言葉があります
06:12
That second foundation underlies the other 30 percent
TEDのモラル発言の
06:15
of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.
残り3割はこれです
06:17
The third foundation is in-group/loyalty.
3. グループ性/忠誠
06:19
You do find groups in the animal kingdom --
動物界にも群れは存在しますが
06:21
you do find cooperative groups --
しかし これらは全て―
06:23
but these groups are always either very small or they're all siblings.
小規模集団か血縁集団です
06:25
It's only among humans that you find very large groups of people
巨大な集団を結成し
06:28
who are able to cooperate, join together into groups,
一丸となるのは人間だけです
06:31
but in this case, groups that are united to fight other groups.
戦争には 部族生活と同族意識の
06:34
This probably comes from our long history of tribal living, of tribal psychology.
長い歴史が背景にあるのでしょう
06:38
And this tribal psychology is so deeply pleasurable
同族意識は心地よく―
06:42
that even when we don't have tribes,
私達は ことあるごとに
06:44
we go ahead and make them, because it's fun.
嬉々として部族を結成します
06:46
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:49
Sports is to war as pornography is to sex.
スポーツと戦争は ポルノと性交の関係と同じです
06:52
We get to exercise some ancient, ancient drives.
太古からの欲望を満たしてくれます
06:55
The fourth foundation is authority/respect.
4. 権威/尊敬
06:58
Here you see submissive gestures from two members of very closely related species.
霊長類が服従を示していますが
07:01
But authority in humans is not so closely based on power and brutality,
人間にとっての権威は
07:04
as it is in other primates.
力や残忍性にでなく
07:08
It's based on more voluntary deference,
自発的な敬意に基づきます
07:10
and even elements of love, at times.
時には愛の要素も入ります
07:12
The fifth foundation is purity/sanctity.
5. 純粋さ/高潔さ
07:14
This painting is called "The Allegory Of Chastity,"
この絵は「The Allegory Of Chastity」です
07:16
but purity's not just about suppressing female sexuality.
ここでの純粋さは 女性の純潔だけでなく
07:19
It's about any kind of ideology, any kind of idea
自分の体になす行為の制御ー
07:22
that tells you that you can attain virtue
摂取するものの制御は
07:25
by controlling what you do with your body,
美徳だとする―
07:27
by controlling what you put into your body.
価値体系や思想のことです
07:28
And while the political right may moralize sex much more,
右派が性のモラルにこだわるよう
07:30
the political left is really doing a lot of it with food.
左派は食のモラルにこだわります
07:34
Food is becoming extremely moralized nowadays,
最近目立つ 食のモラル化は
07:36
and a lot of it is ideas about purity,
この純粋さが
07:38
about what you're willing to touch, or put into your body.
関係しています
07:40
I believe these are the five best candidates
以上5つが モラルの初稿に
07:43
for what's written on the first draft of the moral mind.
書かれていると思います
07:46
I think this is what we come with, at least
少なくとも
07:48
a preparedness to learn all of these things.
この5つを備えて誕生するはずです
07:49
But as my son, Max, grows up in a liberal college town,
リベラルな大学都市に暮らす息子の初稿は
07:52
how is this first draft going to get revised?
どう改訂されていくでしょう?
07:56
And how will it end up being different
100キロ先のバージニア州リンチバーグで育つのと
07:58
from a kid born 60 miles south of us in Lynchburg, Virginia?
どんな差が出るのでしょう?
08:00
To think about culture variation, let's try a different metaphor.
こう考えてみてください
08:03
If there really are five systems at work in the mind --
精神上に 直感や感情の源が
08:05
five sources of intuitions and emotions --
5系統あるなら
08:08
then we can think of the moral mind
モラルは5チャンネルの
08:10
as being like one of those audio equalizers that has five channels,
イコライザーと言えます
08:12
where you can set it to a different setting on every channel.
各チャンネルは個々に設定できます
08:14
And my colleagues, Brian Nosek and Jesse Graham, and I,
私は同僚のブライアン・ノセクと ジェシー・グラハムと共に
08:16
made a questionnaire, which we put up on the Web at www.YourMorals.org.
アンケートを作りここに公開しました www.YourMorals.org.
08:19
And so far, 30,000 people have taken this questionnaire, and you can too.
既に3万人が回答しています
08:24
Here are the results.
こちらが結果です
08:29
Here are the results from about 23,000 American citizens.
アメリカ国民 23,000人のデータです
08:30
On the left, I've plotted the scores for liberals;
左から リベラル派
08:33
on the right, those for conservatives; in the middle, the moderates.
穏便派 保守派です
08:35
The blue line shows you people's responses
青から見ていきます
08:37
on the average of all the harm questions.
青は危害系の平均スコアです
08:39
So, as you see, people care about harm and care issues.
皆関心がありますね
08:41
They give high endorsement of these sorts of statements
三派とも強い支持を示しています
08:44
all across the board, but as you also see,
比較すると
08:46
liberals care about it a little more than conservatives -- the line slopes down.
リベラル派の関心の方が上です
08:48
Same story for fairness.
緑の公正さも同様です
08:51
But look at the other three lines.
残りの3つにご注目ください
08:53
For liberals, the scores are very low.
リベラル派のスコアは低いです
08:55
Liberals are basically saying, "No, this is not morality.
リベラル派は “グループ性 権威 純粋さは
08:57
In-group, authority, purity -- this stuff has nothing to do with morality. I reject it."
モラルではない!”と言っています
08:59
But as people get more conservative, the values rise.
保守的になるほどスコアは上がります
09:02
We can say that liberals have a kind of a two-channel,
リベラルな人は2チャンネル
09:04
or two-foundation morality.
2つのモラリティの根源を持ち
09:07
Conservatives have more of a five-foundation,
保守的な人は 5つのモラリティの根源
09:08
or five-channel morality.
5チャンネルを持つわけです
09:10
We find this in every country we look at.
国が違っても同じです
09:12
Here's the data for 1,100 Canadians.
カナダ人 1,100人のデータです
09:13
I'll just flip through a few other slides.
いくつかスライドをご覧に入れます イギリス…
09:15
The U.K., Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe, Eastern Europe,
オーストラリアとニュージーランド 西ヨーロッパ 東ヨーロッパです
09:17
Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia.
ラテンアメリカ 中東 東アジア 南アジアです
09:20
Notice also that on all of these graphs,
お気づきでしょうか
09:24
the slope is steeper on in-group, authority, purity.
どの国でも 同じ3線が急勾配です
09:26
Which shows that within any country,
逆に言えば危害 公正さに
09:29
the disagreement isn't over harm and fairness.
意見の相違はありません
09:31
Everybody -- I mean, we debate over what's fair --
この2つが重要という点においては
09:34
but everybody agrees that harm and fairness matter.
皆の意見が一致しています
09:36
Moral arguments within cultures
モラル論争の主なテーマは
09:39
are especially about issues of in-group, authority, purity.
グループ性 権威 純粋さの3点です
09:41
This effect is so robust that we find it no matter how we ask the question.
どう質問しても 相違は顕著に表れます
09:44
In one recent study,
これはどうでしょう
09:47
we asked people to suppose you're about to get a dog.
犬を飼うとしましょう
09:49
You picked a particular breed,
好きな犬種を選びました
09:51
you learned some new information about the breed.
その犬種の特性を調べたら
09:52
Suppose you learn that this particular breed is independent-minded,
独立心旺盛で 飼い主を
09:54
and relates to its owner as a friend and an equal?
対等視することが分かりました
09:57
Well, if you are a liberal, you say, "Hey, that's great!"
リベラル派なら “まあ 素敵!” 犬相手でも
09:59
Because liberals like to say, "Fetch, please."
公平に “取って来て下さい!”
10:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:03
But if you're conservative, that's not so attractive.
保守派なら こんな犬はごめんです
10:08
If you're conservative, and you learn that a dog's extremely loyal
保守派は 飼い主や家には忠実で
10:11
to its home and family, and doesn't warm up quickly to strangers,
他人を警戒する犬がいい
10:14
for conservatives, well, loyalty is good -- dogs ought to be loyal.
“犬たるもの忠実であれ" です
10:16
But to a liberal, it sounds like this dog
ところがリベラル派にはそんな犬…
10:19
is running for the Republican nomination.
共和党に立候補しそうで恐ろしい
10:21
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:23
So, you might say, OK,
こうお思いでしょう? “なるほど...
10:24
there are these differences between liberals and conservatives,
リベラル派と保守派が違うのは分かった”
10:26
but what makes those three other foundations moral?
“しかし 他の3つは違うだろ?”
10:28
Aren't those just the foundations of xenophobia
“ただの 部外者嫌いに
10:30
and authoritarianism and Puritanism?
権威主義に 禁欲主義だろ?”
10:32
What makes them moral?
“どこがモラル?”
10:34
The answer, I think, is contained in this incredible triptych from Hieronymus Bosch,
答えとして ヒエロニムス・ボスの3枚のパネル
10:35
"The Garden of Earthly Delights."
「快楽の園」をお見せします
10:38
In the first panel, we see the moment of creation.
1枚目は 天地創造です
10:40
All is ordered, all is beautiful, all the people and animals
調和のとれた美しい世界 人も動物も―
10:43
are doing what they're supposed to be doing, where they're supposed to be.
在るべき場所で やるべき事をしています
10:47
But then, given the way of the world, things change.
ところが世の習わしで 事態は変化します
10:50
We get every person doing whatever he wants,
誰もが自分勝手になります
10:53
with every aperture of every other person and every other animal.
動物も人も一緒くたに 快楽追求です
10:55
Some of you might recognize this as the '60s.
60年代のようとも言えます
10:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:00
But the '60s inevitably gives way to the '70s,
しかし否応なく70年代が訪れます
11:01
where the cuttings of the apertures hurt a little bit more.
快楽追求の付けが回ってきます
11:05
Of course, Bosch called this hell.
ボスは「地獄」と題しました
11:09
So this triptych, these three panels
この3枚が表すのは
11:11
portray the timeless truth that order tends to decay.
秩序崩壊という永遠の真理です
11:14
The truth of social entropy.
社会衰退の真理です
11:19
But lest you think this is just some part of the Christian imagination
しかしこれが 快楽と折り合いの悪い―
11:21
where Christians have this weird problem with pleasure,
キリスト教の寓話だと思われないよう
11:24
here's the same story, the same progression,
もう一つのお話を紹介しましょう
11:26
told in a paper that was published in Nature a few years ago,
数年前のネイチャー誌に載っていました
11:29
in which Ernst Fehr and Simon Gachter had people play a commons dilemma.
アーンスト・フェールとサイモン・ガッチャーの 「共有地ジレンマ」ゲームです
11:32
A game in which you give people money,
プレイヤーにお金を渡し
11:36
and then, on each round of the game,
ラウンド毎に
11:38
they can put money into a common pot,
共有の壺に入金してもらいます
11:40
and then the experimenter doubles what's in there,
実験者は 壺内の金額を2倍にし
11:42
and then it's all divided among the players.
最後にプレイヤーで等分するというゲームです
11:44
So it's a really nice analog for all sorts of environmental issues,
環境問題の取り組みに似ていますね
11:46
where we're asking people to make a sacrifice
皆の犠牲が必要だが
11:49
and they themselves don't really benefit from their own sacrifice.
そこに見返りは特に無し
11:51
But you really want everybody else to sacrifice,
他人には犠牲を奨励するが
11:53
but everybody has a temptation to a free ride.
自分はただ乗りしたい
11:55
And what happens is that, at first, people start off reasonably cooperative --
ゲーム開始直後は 皆わりと協力的です
11:57
and this is all played anonymously.
ちなみに匿名での参加です
12:01
On the first round, people give about half of the money that they can.
皆 限度額の半分くらい入金します
12:03
But they quickly see, "You know what, other people aren't doing so much though.
しかし思います “やっているのは自分だけ...
12:06
I don't want to be a sucker. I'm not going to cooperate."
馬鹿みる前にやめよう”
12:09
And so cooperation quickly decays from reasonably good, down to close to zero.
それで協調性は一気に下降
12:11
But then -- and here's the trick --
そこへ このトリックが
12:15
Fehr and Gachter said, on the seventh round, they told people,
7ラウンド目に登場します
12:17
"You know what? New rule.
“新しいルールです
12:19
If you want to give some of your own money
持ち金で 非協力的なプレイヤーに
12:21
to punish people who aren't contributing, you can do that."
罰則を与えることも可能です”
12:23
And as soon as people heard about the punishment issue going on,
罰則の要素が加わった途端に
12:27
cooperation shoots up.
協調性は上昇し
12:30
It shoots up and it keeps going up.
壺は潤いました
12:32
There's a lot of research showing that to solve cooperative problems, it really helps.
研究が示すよう 集団を動かすのに
12:34
It's not enough to just appeal to people's good motives.
立派な動機だけでは不十分です
12:37
It really helps to have some sort of punishment.
何らかの罰の要素―
12:39
Even if it's just shame or embarrassment or gossip,
例えば 恥ずかしさ
12:41
you need some sort of punishment to bring people,
決まり悪さ 陰口があると
12:43
when they're in large groups, to cooperate.
協調性が高まります
12:46
There's even some recent research suggesting that religion --
最近の研究では
12:48
priming God, making people think about God --
神について考えるだけで
12:51
often, in some situations, leads to more cooperative, more pro-social behavior.
向社会的な行動を促すことが 分かりました
12:53
Some people think that religion is an adaptation
宗教は 信頼関係を築き
12:59
evolved both by cultural and biological evolution
集団の結束力を強めようとする―
13:01
to make groups to cohere,
また 他集団に勝ろうとする―
13:03
in part for the purpose of trusting each other,
様々な試行錯誤の中で
13:05
and then being more effective at competing with other groups.
発展したと考える人もいます
13:07
I think that's probably right,
私もそう考えます
13:09
although this is a controversial issue.
論争中の問題ですけどね
13:10
But I'm particularly interested in religion,
私は宗教の起源や
13:12
and the origin of religion, and in what it does to us and for us.
影響や効果に 多大な関心があります
13:14
Because I think that the greatest wonder in the world is not the Grand Canyon.
グランド・キャニオンが世界の不思議だとは思いません
13:17
The Grand Canyon is really simple.
グランド・キャニオンは 至って単純です
13:21
It's just a lot of rock, and then a lot of water and wind, and a lot of time,
大量の岩と水と風 それに時間さえあれば
13:23
and you get the Grand Canyon.
グランド・キャニオンの出来上がりです
13:26
It's not that complicated.
簡単です
13:28
This is what's really complicated,
何が 不思議かと言えば
13:29
that there were people living in places like the Grand Canyon,
グランド・キャニオンや
13:31
cooperating with each other, or on the savannahs of Africa,
アフリカのサバンナや
13:33
or on the frozen shores of Alaska, and then some of these villages
アラスカの氷着岸に共同体があったことや
13:35
grew into the mighty cities of Babylon, and Rome, and Tenochtitlan.
バビロンやローマのような都市が登場したことです
13:38
How did this happen?
一体どうやって?
13:42
This is an absolute miracle, much harder to explain than the Grand Canyon.
まるで奇跡です!
13:43
The answer, I think, is that they used every tool in the toolbox.
おそらく あらゆる側面において
13:46
It took all of our moral psychology
モラル心理学をフル活用し
13:49
to create these cooperative groups.
共同体を作ったのでしょう
13:51
Yes, you do need to be concerned about harm,
危害や公正への懸念に加え
13:53
you do need a psychology of justice.
モラル心理学は
13:55
But it really helps to organize a group if you can have sub-groups,
集団をサブグループで統制し
13:56
and if those sub-groups have some internal structure,
価値体系を確立し
13:59
and if you have some ideology that tells people
肉欲を制御しつつ
14:02
to suppress their carnality, to pursue higher, nobler ends.
生産性を上げるのに 役立ったはずです
14:04
And now we get to the crux of the disagreement
そういう経緯をたどり 今―
14:08
between liberals and conservatives.
二派の衝突に至っています
14:10
Because liberals reject three of these foundations.
リベラル派が拒否するからです
14:12
They say "No, let's celebrate diversity, not common in-group membership."
“多様性を称え 部外者にも門を開こう!”
14:14
They say, "Let's question authority."
“権威を疑おう!”
14:17
And they say, "Keep your laws off my body."
”個人に命の選択権を!”
14:19
Liberals have very noble motives for doing this.
これには気高い動機があります
14:21
Traditional authority, traditional morality can be quite repressive,
伝統的な権威やモラリティは 時に抑圧的で
14:24
and restrictive to those at the bottom, to women, to people that don't fit in.
下層グループ 女性 はみだし者には窮屈です
14:27
So liberals speak for the weak and oppressed.
リベラル派はそれを代弁します
14:30
They want change and justice, even at the risk of chaos.
無秩序になろうとも 変革や正義を求めます
14:32
This guy's shirt says, "Stop bitching, start a revolution."
Tシャツにあります “グチる前に 革命だ”
14:34
If you're high in openness to experience, revolution is good,
開放性が高いと 革命は歓迎です
14:37
it's change, it's fun.
物事が変わって愉快ですから
14:39
Conservatives, on the other hand, speak for institutions and traditions.
反して 保守派は制度や伝統の代弁者です
14:41
They want order, even at some cost to those at the bottom.
下層グループが犠牲になろうとも 秩序を求めます
14:44
The great conservative insight is that order is really hard to achieve.
秩序が得難いと知っているのです
14:48
It's really precious, and it's really easy to lose.
貴重であり かつ失いやすいものです
14:50
So as Edmund Burke said, "The restraints on men,
エドマンド・バーク曰く “制約は
14:53
as well as their liberties, are to be reckoned among their rights."
自由と同様 権利として認められるべきだ”
14:55
This was after the chaos of the French Revolution.
フランス革命後 無秩序だったのです
14:58
So once you see this -- once you see
お分かりでしょうか
15:00
that liberals and conservatives both have something to contribute,
両派が変化と安定の
15:02
that they form a balance on change versus stability --
均衡を保っているのです
15:05
then I think the way is open to step outside the moral matrix.
だから モラルマトリックスから出ましょう
15:08
This is the great insight that all the Asian religions have attained.
これはアジアの宗教の説くところです
15:11
Think about yin and yang.
“陰陽”を考えてみてください
15:16
Yin and yang aren't enemies. Yin and yang don't hate each other.
陰と陽は敵同士ではありません
15:18
Yin and yang are both necessary, like night and day,
世の成り立ちに 両方必要です
15:20
for the functioning of the world.
夜と昼のように
15:22
You find the same thing in Hinduism.
ヒンドゥー教においても同様です
15:24
There are many high gods in Hinduism.
世界維持の神 ビシュヌと
15:26
Two of them are Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer.
崩壊の神 シヴァがいます
15:28
This image actually is both of those gods sharing the same body.
これは両神が1体をシェアしています
15:31
You have the markings of Vishnu on the left,
言ってみれば ビシュヌは
15:34
so we could think of Vishnu as the conservative god.
保守派の神
15:36
You have the markings of Shiva on the right,
シヴァは
15:39
Shiva's the liberal god. And they work together.
リベラル派の神で 二神は協力します
15:41
You find the same thing in Buddhism.
仏教でも同じです
15:43
These two stanzas contain, I think, the deepest insights
モラル心理学の叡智が
15:45
that have ever been attained into moral psychology.
この2行に凝縮されています
15:47
From the Zen master Seng-ts'an:
禅師の僧璨の言葉です
15:50
"If you want the truth to stand clear before you, never be for or against.
“真実を掴みたければ 賛成も反対もするな
15:52
The struggle between for and against is the mind's worst disease."
賛否の論争は 精神を蝕む”
15:56
Now unfortunately, it's a disease
まさにその通りです
16:00
that has been caught by many of the world's leaders.
多くの指導者を蝕みました
16:02
But before you feel superior to George Bush,
しかし ジョージ・ブッシュに優越感を覚える前に
16:04
before you throw a stone, ask yourself, do you accept this?
自分に問いかけてみましょう
16:07
Do you accept stepping out of the battle of good and evil?
善悪の戦いから 踏み出せますか?
16:11
Can you be not for or against anything?
賛成も反対もしないと誓えますか?
16:14
So, what's the point? What should you do?
では何をしたらいいのでしょう
16:18
Well, if you take the greatest insights
アジアの哲学や宗教の
16:21
from ancient Asian philosophies and religions,
いにしえの教えと
16:23
and you combine them with the latest research on moral psychology,
モラル心理学の叡智を
16:25
I think you come to these conclusions:
合わせるとこうなるでしょう
16:27
that our righteous minds were designed by evolution
“自分が正しい” と思う人間のさがは
16:29
to unite us into teams, to divide us against other teams
他集団に優る必要性から
16:33
and then to blind us to the truth.
発達したものである
16:36
So what should you do? Am I telling you to not strive?
ではどうしろと? がんばるなということ?
16:39
Am I telling you to embrace Seng-ts'an and stop,
僧璨を受け入れ―
16:43
stop with this struggle of for and against?
論争をやめろということ?
16:46
No, absolutely not. I'm not saying that.
違います そうではありません
16:49
This is an amazing group of people who are doing so much,
ご来場の皆さんは 偉業を成す素晴らしい集団です
16:51
using so much of their talent, their brilliance, their energy, their money,
才能 才気 そして活力 財力を使い
16:54
to make the world a better place, to fight --
世界をより良くし
16:58
to fight wrongs, to solve problems.
悪と戦い 問題解決に挑みます
17:00
But as we learned from Samantha Power, in her story
サマンサ・パワーのセルジオ・ヴィエイラ・デ・メロの話にあるよう
17:04
about Sergio Vieira de Mello, you can't just go charging in,
こういうことは言えないのです―
17:08
saying, "You're wrong, and I'm right."
“あなたは間違っていて 私が正しい”
17:13
Because, as we just heard, everybody thinks they are right.
皆自分が正しいと思っていますから
17:15
A lot of the problems we have to solve
私達の抱える問題の多くは
17:19
are problems that require us to change other people.
人を変えなければ解決しません
17:21
And if you want to change other people, a much better way to do it
人を変えるのであれば まずは
17:24
is to first understand who we are -- understand our moral psychology,
己を知り 己のモラル心理を知ることです
17:27
understand that we all think we're right -- and then step out,
自分が正しいと思う 人間のさがを理解し
17:31
even if it's just for a moment, step out -- check in with Seng-ts'an.
たとえ一瞬だけでも 僧璨を思い出し
17:34
Step out of the moral matrix,
モラルマトリックスの外へ出てください
17:38
just try to see it as a struggle playing out,
渦中の人物が皆
17:40
in which everybody does think they're right,
自分が正しいと主張するのが見えます
17:42
and everybody, at least, has some reasons -- even if you disagree with them --
あなたが賛成するかは別として
17:44
everybody has some reasons for what they're doing.
皆それなりの理由をもっています
17:46
Step out.
踏み出しましょう
17:48
And if you do that, that's the essential move to cultivate moral humility,
それがモラルに対し謙虚になる最善の方法です
17:49
to get yourself out of this self-righteousness,
それが独り善がりに
17:53
which is the normal human condition.
陥らない鍵です
17:54
Think about the Dalai Lama.
ダライ・ラマを考えてみてください
17:56
Think about the enormous moral authority of the Dalai Lama --
絶大な道徳的権威です
17:58
and it comes from his moral humility.
それは彼の謙虚さから来るものです
18:01
So I think the point -- the point of my talk,
お伝えしたいのはこれです
18:05
and I think the point of TED --
私の思う TEDの存在価値は
18:07
is that this is a group that is passionately engaged
世界をより良い場所にするため
18:10
in the pursuit of changing the world for the better.
情熱を傾ける この集団にあります
18:13
People here are passionately engaged
皆さんとても熱心に
18:15
in trying to make the world a better place.
活動しておられる
18:18
But there is also a passionate commitment to the truth.
真理の追求にも熱心です
18:20
And so I think that the answer is to use that passionate commitment
だから その情熱で真理を求め
18:23
to the truth to try to turn it into a better future for us all.
それを持って世界をより良くしてください
18:27
Thank you.
ご清聴ありがとうございました
18:31
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:32
Translated by Caoli Price
Reviewed by Aiko McLean

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About the speaker:

Jonathan Haidt - Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded.

Why you should listen

Haidt is a social psychologist whose research on morality across cultures led up to his much-quoted 2008 TEDTalk on the psychological roots of the American culture war. He asks, "Can't we all disagree more constructively?" In September 2009, Jonathan Haidt spoke to the TED Blog about the moral psychology behind the healthcare debate in the United States. He's also active in the study of positive psychology and human flourishing.

At TED2012 he explored the intersection of his work on morality with his work on happiness to talk about “hive psychology” – the ability that humans have to lose themselves in groups pursuing larger projects, almost like bees in a hive. This hivish ability Is crucial, he argues, for understanding the origins of morality, politics, and religion. These are ideas that Haidt develops at greater length in his new book, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion. Learn more about his drive for a more productive and civil politics on his website CivilPolitics.org. And take an eye-opening quiz about your own morals at YourMorals.org

During the bruising 2012 political season, Haidt was invited to speak at TEDxMidAtlantic on the topic of civility. He developed the metaphor of The Asteroids Club to embody how we can reach. common groun. Learn how to start your own Asteroids Club at www.AsteroidsClub.org.

Watch Haidt talk about the Asteroids Club on MSNBC's The Cycle >>

More profile about the speaker
Jonathan Haidt | Speaker | TED.com