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TED2004

Malcolm Gladwell: Choice, happiness and spaghetti sauce

マルコム・グラッドウェル、パスタソースと幸せについて

February 26, 2004

ティッピング・ポイント(邦題:「急に売れ始めるにはワケがある」)の著者マルコム・グラッドウェルが食品業界における“完璧な”パスタソースの追求の真相について、そして選択と幸せ感の本質について語ります。

Malcolm Gladwell - Writer
Detective of fads and emerging subcultures, chronicler of jobs-you-never-knew-existed, Malcolm Gladwell's work is toppling the popular understanding of bias, crime, food, marketing, race, consumers and intelligence. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
私の新しい本について話すつもりだったんですが...
00:25
I think I was supposed
to talk about my new book,
「第1感」という、直感的な判断や第1印象についての本です
00:27
which is called "Blink,"
00:29
and it's about snap judgments
and first impressions.
1月に出版されますので、皆さん3冊まとめ買いして下さい
00:32
And it comes out in January,
and I hope you all buy it in triplicate.
00:36
(Laughter)
ただ…
00:37
But I was thinking about this,
自分の本が出るのはうれしいし
00:39
and I realized that although
my new book makes me happy,
母親も喜ぶと思いますけど
00:43
and I think would make my mother happy,
00:46
it's not really about happiness.
みんなの幸せのー
話ではありません。ですから、今日は代わりに
00:48
So I decided instead,
I would talk about someone
過去20年間で、他の誰よりも
00:52
who I think has done as much
to make Americans happy
アメリカ人の幸福に貢献した人のお話をします
00:56
as perhaps anyone over the last 20 years,
私にとってヒーローである人
00:59
a man who is a great
personal hero of mine:
その男性の名前はハワード モスコウィツ
01:02
someone by the name of Howard Moskowitz,
パスタソースの改革をした事で有名です
01:05
who is most famous
for reinventing spaghetti sauce.
ハワードは背が低く、ぽっちゃりしていて
01:09
Howard's about this high, and he's round,
60代で、大きな眼鏡をして、白髪頭もはげて来ていますが
01:14
and he's in his 60s,
and he has big huge glasses
とても元気でバイタリティーに溢れています
01:19
and thinning gray hair,
01:21
and he has a kind of wonderful
exuberance and vitality,
オウムを飼っていて オペラが好きで
01:25
and he has a parrot,
and he loves the opera,
01:28
and he's a great aficionado
of medieval history.
中世歴史のマニアでもあります
そんな彼の仕事は心理物理学者
01:32
And by profession, he's a psychophysicist.
01:35
Now, I should tell you that I have no idea
what psychophysics is,
心理物理学が何なのか全然知らないのですが
過去に一度、2年程つき合った彼女も
01:39
although at some point in my life,
01:41
I dated a girl for two years
01:43
who was getting
her doctorate in psychophysics.
心理物理学の博士号の勉強していました
01:45
Which should tell you something
about that relationship.
このことは2人の関係について何かを物語っているかもしれません (笑)
01:49
(Laughter)
01:51
As far as I know, psychophysics
is about measuring things.
心理物理学とは物事を量ること、と理解しています
量ることにハワードは強い関心があります
01:54
And Howard is very interested
in measuring things.
ハーバード大学の博士号を取った後
01:57
And he graduated
with his doctorate from Harvard,
ニューヨークのホワイトプレインズで小さなコンサル会社を始めました
01:59
and he set up a little consulting shop
in White Plains, New York.
70年代のことになりますが 最初のクライアントの一つは
02:03
And one of his first clients was Pepsi.
02:05
This is many years ago,
back in the early 70s.
ペプシでした
ペプシがハワードの所にやって来て
02:09
And Pepsi came to Howard and they said,
「新しい人工香味料を使って
02:11
"You know, there's this new
thing called aspartame,
ダイエットペプシを作りたいのだが
02:14
and we would like to make Diet Pepsi.
02:16
We'd like you to figure out
どれだけ人工香味料を入れれば
02:18
how much aspartame we should put
in each can of Diet Pepsi
完璧なダイエットペプシになるか調べたい」と
02:21
in order to have the perfect drink."
02:24
Now that sounds like an incredibly
straightforward question to answer,
一見単純な質問のように聞こえます
ハワードもそう思っていました
02:28
and that's what Howard thought.
02:30
Because Pepsi told him,
「8~12%の間で考えている」とペプシは言いました
02:31
"We're working with a band
between eight and 12 percent.
「8%以下だと、甘さが足りないし
02:34
Anything below eight percent
sweetness is not sweet enough;
12%以上だと、甘過ぎる
02:36
anything above 12 percent
sweetness is too sweet.
02:40
We want to know: what's the sweet
spot between 8 and 12?"
8~12%の間で一番美味しくなるのはどこかを知りたい」
02:43
Now, if I gave you this problem to do,
you would all say, it's very simple.
そんなの簡単だと思われるでしょう?
大量にペプシを用意して、甘さを変えて行きます
02:47
What we do is you make up
a big experimental batch of Pepsi,
8.1%、8.2%、8.3%から始めて
02:51
at every degree of sweetness --
eight percent, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3,
12%まで用意して、大勢の人に試飲してもらう
02:56
all the way up to 12 --
02:57
and we try this out
with thousands of people,
結果をグラフにして
02:59
and we plot the results on a curve,
03:02
and we take the most popular
concentration, right?
一番人気のある濃度を見つける。とても簡単です
03:05
Really simple.
03:06
Howard does the experiment,
and he gets the data back,
ハワードがその実験をして、結果をグラフにしました
03:08
and he plots it on a curve,
しかし想像したような釣鐘曲線になりません
03:10
and all of a sudden he realizes
it's not a nice bell curve.
03:13
In fact, the data doesn't make any sense.
グラフは無意味
滅茶苦茶、てんでバラバラなのです
03:15
It's a mess. It's all over the place.
食品の試験を仕事にしている人たちは
03:17
Now, most people in that business,
in the world of testing food and such,
03:22
are not dismayed
when the data comes back a mess.
データが滅茶苦茶でもうろたえないでしょう
03:24
They think, "Well, you know,
コーラの好みは単純じゃないってことだ、とか
03:26
figuring out what people think
about cola's not that easy."
03:29
"You know, maybe we made an error
somewhere along the way."
どっかでミスったのかも、と思い
もっともらしい答えを出そうじゃないか、と言って
03:32
"You know, let's just
make an educated guess,"
03:34
and they simply point
and they go for 10 percent,
真ん中の10%を選ぶでしょう
03:36
right in the middle.
でも、ハワードは納得しません
03:38
Howard is not so easily placated.
ハワードの知的な基準が高く
03:40
Howard is a man of a certain degree
of intellectual standards.
03:43
And this was not good enough for him,
こんな結果では満足出来ませんでした
なぜこうなったのか、と長年悩まされ
03:45
and this question bedeviled him for years.
何が悪いのかと何度も考えました
03:47
And he would think it through
and say, "What was wrong?
ダイエットペプシの実験結果が支離滅裂なんだろう?
03:50
Why could we not make sense
of this experiment with Diet Pepsi?"
ある日、ホワイトプレインズの食堂にいて
03:54
And one day, he was sitting
in a diner in White Plains,
ネスカフェの仕事について考えていた時
03:57
about to go trying to dream up
some work for Nescafé.
まるで電撃が走る様に答えを思いついたのです
04:00
And suddenly, like a bolt of lightning,
the answer came to him.
ダイエットペプシのデータを分析した時
04:04
And that is, that when they analyzed
the Diet Pepsi data,
04:07
they were asking the wrong question.
間違ったものを探していた、ということです
04:09
They were looking for the perfect Pepsi,
完璧なペプシを探していたのですが
04:11
and they should have been
looking for the perfect Pepsis.
本当は完璧なペプシ”達”を探すべきだったのです
04:15
Trust me.
04:16
This was an enormous revelation.
これはすごい発見なのです
食品科学業界における大発見の一つです
04:18
This was one of the most brilliant
breakthroughs in all of food science.
皆に教えてやろうと
04:22
Howard immediately went on the road,
全国のカンファレンスに出かけ
04:23
and he would go to conferences
around the country,
そして講演で語りました
04:26
and he would stand up and say,
「完璧なペプシを探していたのが間違いだった
04:27
"You had been looking
for the perfect Pepsi.
04:29
You're wrong.
04:31
You should be looking
for the perfect Pepsis."
探すべきは完璧なペプシ達だ」
04:34
And people would look at him
blankly and say,
聴衆はきょとんとし
「何言ってるんだ?クレージーだ」
04:36
"What are you talking about? Craziness."
相手にされません
04:38
And they would say, "Move! Next!"
その後クライアントもいなくなったのですが、ハワード執着は終わりません
04:40
Tried to get business,
nobody would hire him --
04:42
he was obsessed, though,
いつまでもずっとその話ばかりをしました
04:44
and he talked about it
and talked about it.
04:46
Howard loves the Yiddish expression
彼の好きな諺は
「菜っ葉に住む虫には菜っ葉が全世界」
04:47
"To a worm in horseradish,
the world is horseradish."
これがハワードの菜っ葉なのです(笑)取り憑かれていました
04:51
This was his horseradish.
04:52
(Laughter)
04:54
He was obsessed with it!
そして遂に突破口を見つけました。ヴラシックピクルス社です
04:56
And finally, he had a breakthrough.
04:59
Vlasic Pickles came to him,
「モスコウィッツさん、えーっと、モスコウィッツ博士...
05:01
and they said, "Doctor Moskowitz,
we want to make the perfect pickle."
完璧なピクルスを作りたいのですが」と聞かれ
05:06
And he said,
「完璧なピクルスなどありません。あるのは完璧なピクルス達です」と答えます
05:07
"There is no perfect pickle;
there are only perfect pickles."
そして調査して伝えました。「通常のピクルスを改良するだけではなく
05:10
And he came back to them and he said,
05:12
"You don't just need
to improve your regular;
辛口のピクルスも作る必要があります」
05:14
you need to create zesty."
05:16
And that's where we got zesty pickles.
それがピリっとしたピクルスの始まります
05:19
Then the next person came to him:
Campbell's Soup.
次のクライアントはキャンベルスープでした
今回はさらに重要でした
05:21
And this was even more important.
というのも、これでハワードが有名になったからです
05:23
In fact, Campbell's Soup
is where Howard made his reputation.
05:26
Campbell's made Prego,
80年代、キャンベルの商品プレーゴはライバル社のラグーに負けていました
05:28
and Prego, in the early 80s,
was struggling next to Ragù,
05:32
which was the dominant
spaghetti sauce of the 70s and 80s.
70〜80年代は圧倒的にラグーが売れていました
ご興味があるかどうか分かりませんが
05:36
In the industry -- I don't
know whether you care about this,
時間はあるかな
05:38
or how much time I have to go into this.
まあ、単刀直入に言うと
05:40
But it was, technically speaking
-- this is an aside --
プレーゴはラグーより質の高いトマトソースなのです
05:43
Prego is a better tomato sauce than Ragù.
トマトペーストの質、スパイスの調合
05:45
The quality of the tomato paste
is much better;
05:47
the spice mix is far superior;
パスタとの絡み具合等、どれをとっても優れています
05:49
it adheres to the pasta
in a much more pleasing way.
05:52
In fact, they would do
the famous bowl test
70年代にあったラグーとプレーゴの有名な実験で
05:54
back in the 70s with Ragù and Prego.
05:57
You'd have a plate of spaghetti,
and you would pour it on, right?
お皿にもられたパスタに各ソースをかけます
ラグーは底に落ちますが、プレーゴはパスタの上にちゃんと乗ります
06:00
And the Ragù would all go to the bottom,
and the Prego would sit on top.
これは付着性といいます
06:05
That's called "adherence."
06:07
And, anyway, despite the fact
that they were far superior in adherence,
とにかく、付着性に優れており
トマトペーストの品質もいいのに、プレーゴは苦戦していました
06:11
and the quality of their tomato paste,
06:14
Prego was struggling.
06:15
So they came to Howard,
and they said, fix us.
そこでハワードに助けを求めた訳です
06:19
And Howard looked
at their product line, and he said,
商品を見てハワードは言いました
「これじゃあダメです」
06:21
what you have is a dead tomato society.
そして、「私ならこうする」と言い
06:25
So he said, this is what I want to do.
キャンベルのキッチンで
06:27
And he got together
with the Campbell's soup kitchen,
45種類ものパスタソースを作りました
06:30
and he made 45 varieties
of spaghetti sauce.
06:33
And he varied them according
to every conceivable way
トマトソースの種類で思いつく全てです
06:36
that you can vary tomato sauce:
甘さ、ガーリックの強さ、酸味、トマト味
06:38
by sweetness, by level of garlic,
06:40
by tomatoey-ness,
by tartness, by sourness,
パスタソース業界の私のお気に入りの言葉 — 固まり入り(笑)
06:43
by visible solids --
06:44
my favorite term
in the spaghetti sauce business.
06:48
(Laughter)
06:49
Every conceivable way
you can vary spaghetti sauce,
思いつく限りのバリエーションを全て作りました
06:52
he varied spaghetti sauce.
そしてそれを引っさげ、全国を駆け回ります
06:54
And then he took this whole raft
of 45 spaghetti sauces,
06:58
and he went on the road.
ニューヨーク、シカゴ、ジャクソンビル
06:59
He went to New York, to Chicago,
ロサンゼルスなど。そしてホールに人を山ほど集めて
07:01
he went to Jacksonville, to Los Angeles.
07:03
And he brought in people
by the truckload into big halls.
07:07
And he sat them down for two hours,
2時間の試食で
07:08
and over the course of that two hours,
he gave them ten bowls.
10種類のパスタソースを食べてもらいました
07:12
Ten small bowls of pasta,
種類の違うソースをかけたパスタを小皿に10個です
07:13
with a different spaghetti
sauce on each one.
試食後、各パスタに0から100までの点数をつけてもらいます
07:16
And after they ate each bowl,
they had to rate, from 0 to 100,
パスタソースはどんなに美味しかったか
07:20
how good they thought
the spaghetti sauce was.
これを何ヶ月も繰り返した後
07:23
At the end of that process,
after doing it for months and months,
膨大なデータを持ち帰りました
07:27
he had a mountain of data
アメリカ人がどんなパスタソースが好きか、というデータ
07:28
about how the American people
feel about spaghetti sauce.
そして分析しました
07:32
And then he analyzed the data.
07:33
Did he look for the most popular
variety of spaghetti sauce?
一番人気のあるパスタソースを探したのでしょうか? 違います!
07:37
No! Howard doesn't believe
that there is such a thing.
ハワードは一番人気、というものを信じません
その代わりに、データを見て
07:40
Instead, he looked
at the data, and he said,
いくつかのグループに分けてみよう、と提案しました
07:42
let's see if we can group all these
different data points into clusters.
何か特徴的なグループが見つかるかやってみよう、と
07:48
Let's see if they congregate
around certain ideas.
パスタソースのデータをよく見て解析してみると
07:51
And sure enough, if you sit down,
07:53
and you analyze all this data
on spaghetti sauce,
07:57
you realize that all Americans
fall into one of three groups.
アメリカ人は大きく分けて3つのグループに分かれます
シンプルなパスタソースが好きなグループ
08:00
There are people
who like their spaghetti sauce plain;
スパイシーなパスタソースが好きなグループ
08:03
there are people
who like their spaghetti sauce spicy;
トマトが固まりで入ったパスタソースが好きなグループです
08:06
and there are people
who like it extra chunky.
08:09
And of those three facts,
the third one was the most significant,
この3つの中でも特に重要なのが3番目です
この実験が行われた1980年初期には
08:13
because at the time, in the early 1980s,
スーパーに行っても
08:16
if you went to a supermarket,
固まり入りのパスタソースは売られていなかったからです
08:17
you would not find
extra-chunky spaghetti sauce.
08:21
And Prego turned to Howard, and they said,
プレーゴは尋ねました
「アメリカ人の3分の1は固まり入りのパスタソースを望んでいるのに
08:23
"You're telling me
that one third of Americans
08:26
crave extra-chunky spaghetti sauce
どこも作ってないと言うのか?」ハワードは「そうだ」と
08:29
and yet no one is servicing their needs?"
08:32
And he said "Yes!"
08:33
(Laughter)
(笑)プレーゴがその後
08:34
And Prego then went back,
パスタソースをすっかり作り変え
08:35
and completely reformulated
their spaghetti sauce,
固まり入りのソースを売り出した途端に
08:38
and came out with a line of extra chunky
that immediately and completely
この国のパスタソース業界のトップになりました
08:41
took over the spaghetti sauce
business in this country.
その後の10年間で6億ドルを生み出したのは
08:44
And over the next 10 years,
they made 600 million dollars
固まり入りのパスタソースだったのです
08:49
off their line of extra-chunky sauces.
ハワードの業績を見た業界の人々は
08:52
Everyone else in the industry looked
at Howard had done, and they said,
「オーマイゴッド!俺たちは間違っていた!」と言った訳です
08:56
"Oh my god! We've been
thinking all wrong!"
08:58
And that's when you started to get
seven different kinds of vinegar,
そういう成り行きから、7種類のビネガーや
14種類のマスタード、71種類のオリーブオイルなどが出来たのです
09:01
and 14 different kinds of mustard,
and 71 different kinds of olive oil.
その後、ラグーもハワードに仕事を依頼しました
09:07
And then eventually
even Ragù hired Howard,
ハワードは同様の実験をラグー社でも行いました
09:10
and Howard did the exact same thing
for Ragù that he did for Prego.
今日の大きなスーパーに
09:13
And today, if you go
to a really good supermarket,
ラグーのパスタソースが何種類あるか...
09:16
do you know how many Ragùs there are?
想像がつきますか?36種類です!
09:18
36!
09:20
In six varieties:
6つのシリーズがあって、チーズ味、ライト、ロバスト
09:22
Cheese, Light,
09:25
Robusto, Rich & Hearty,
リッチ&ハーティー、トラディショナル、固まり入りガーデン風(笑)
09:28
Old World Traditional --
09:31
Extra-Chunky Garden.
09:33
(Laughter)
ハワードの業績です。彼からアメリカ人みんなへの贈り物です
09:35
That's Howard's doing.
09:37
That is Howard's gift
to the American people.
どうしてこれが重要なのでしょう?
09:39
Now why is that important?
09:41
(Laughter)
実は非常に重要なのです。説明しますね
09:43
It is, in fact, enormously important.
09:45
I'll explain to you why.
09:46
What Howard did is he fundamentally
changed the way the food industry thinks
ハワードは食品業界の考え方を根本的に変えたのです
どうすれば人は喜ぶのかについて
09:51
about making you happy.
かつての食品業界の第一の前提は
09:53
Assumption number one
in the food industry used to be
人々が何を食べたいか知りたれば
09:56
that the way to find out
what people want to eat,
09:59
what will make people happy,
is to ask them.
彼らに聞け、というものでした
10:02
And for years and years and years,
ずーっと何年もラグーとプレーゴは
10:03
Ragù and Prego would have focus groups,
色々な人を招いて、フォーカスグループを催して尋ねました
10:06
and they would sit you down,
and they would say,
「どんなパスタソースが好きですか?好きなパスタソースを教えて下さい」
10:08
"What do you want in a spaghetti sauce?
10:10
Tell us what you want
in a spaghetti sauce."
長年、20〜30年もの間
10:12
And for all those years -- 20, 30 years --
数々のフォーカスグループの中で
10:15
through all those focus group sessions,
誰一人として“固まりの入ったソース”とは言いませんでした
10:17
no one ever said they wanted extra-chunky.
10:21
Even though at least a third of them,
deep in their hearts, actually did.
3分の1の人は、心の奥底では望んでいたはずなのに
(笑)
10:24
(Laughter)
10:27
People don't know what they want!
何が欲しいか分かってないのです!
10:29
As Howard loves to say,
「舌が欲しいものを頭は知らない」とハワードはよく言います
10:30
"The mind knows not
what the tongue wants."
不思議ですよね
10:33
It's a mystery!
10:34
(Laughter)
望みや好みを理解する上で重要な第一歩は
10:35
And a critically important step
10:38
in understanding
our own desires and tastes
心の奥底で望むものを私たちは必ずしも説明できないのだと認識することです
10:41
is to realize that we cannot always
explain what we want, deep down.
例えば、この部屋の皆さんにどういうコーヒーが好きか聞いたとします
10:45
If I asked all of you, for example,
in this room, what you want in a coffee,
きっとみんな「濃くて 豊かで 深いローストのコーヒー」と言います
10:49
you know what you'd say?
10:51
Every one of you would say,
"I want a dark, rich, hearty roast."
聞かれた場合に皆が必ず口を揃えて答えます
10:56
It's what people always say
when you ask them.
濃くて、豊かで、深いロースト!
10:58
"What do you like?"
"Dark, rich, hearty roast!"
濃くて、豊かで、深いローストのコーヒーが本当に好きな人は何%でしょう?
11:00
What percentage of you actually
like a dark, rich, hearty roast?
11:04
According to Howard, somewhere
between 25 and 27 percent of you.
ハワードによると、25~27%ということです
殆どの人は、ミルクの入った味の薄いコーヒーが好きなのです
11:08
Most of you like milky, weak coffee.
11:10
(Laughter)
11:11
But you will never, ever say
to someone who asks you what you want
でも、聞かれた時に絶対に言いませんよね?
「ミルクの入った味の薄いコーヒーが好き」(笑)
11:14
that "I want a milky, weak coffee."
これが、ハワードの一番の業績です
11:16
So that's number one thing
that Howard did.
11:21
Number two thing that Howard did
is he made us realize --
ハワードの2番目の業績ですが
これもとても重要なんです
11:24
it's another very critical point --
「水平的なセグメンテーション」の重要さに気づかせてくれたこと
11:26
he made us realize the importance
11:28
of what he likes to call
"horizontal segmentation."
どうして大切なのでしょう?
11:32
Why is this critical?
11:33
Because this is the way the food industry
thought before Howard.
ハワード以前の食品業界はこんな考え方でした
80年代初期に皆が熱中していたもの、それはマスタードでした
11:37
What were they obsessed with
in the early 80s?
11:39
They were obsessed with mustard.
11:41
In particular, they were obsessed
with the story of Grey Poupon.
特にグレープーポンの話に夢中でした
昔はフレンチとグルデンしかありませんでした
11:44
Used to be, there were two mustards:
French's and Gulden's.
黄色いマスタードです
11:47
What were they? Yellow mustard.
11:49
What's in it?
黄色いマスタードシード、ターメリック、パプリカ。それがマスタードでした
11:50
Yellow mustard seeds,
turmeric, and paprika.
11:52
That was mustard.
11:53
Grey Poupon came along, with a Dijon.
そこへグレープーポンの“ディジョン”が現れました
11:56
Right?
茶色のマスタードシード、白ワイン、鼻にツンとくる辛み
11:57
Much more volatile brown mustard seed,
some white wine, a nose hit,
ずっと繊細な香り。そしてどうしたのでしょう?
12:02
much more delicate aromatics.
12:04
And what do they do?
エナメルのレーベル付きの小さなガラスの瓶に入れたのです
12:05
They put it in a little tiny glass jar,
with a wonderful enameled label on it,
フランス製に見えますが、実際はカリフォルニアで作っています
12:10
made it look French,
12:11
even though it's made
in Oxnard, California.
12:13
(Laughter)
8オンス瓶を、フレンチやグルデンみたいに1ドル50セントではなく
12:14
And instead of charging a dollar fifty
for the eight-ounce bottle,
4ドルという値段で売り出したのです
12:19
the way that French's and Gulden's did,
12:21
they decided to charge four dollars.
そしてあのコマーシャル ― ロールスロイスでグレープーポンを―
12:23
And they had those ads.
12:24
With the guy in the Rolls Royce,
eating the Grey Poupon.
食べていると、もう1台近づいて来て言うのです
12:27
Another pulls up, and says,
"Do you have any Grey Poupon?"
「グレープーポンを分けてもらえないか?」
この後グレープーポンの売り上げが急上昇します
12:29
And the whole thing, after they did that,
Grey Poupon takes off!
マスタード業界のトップ!
12:33
Takes over the mustard business!
他の人が学んだレッスンというのは
12:34
And everyone's take-home lesson from that
12:36
was that the way to make people happy
人々をハッピーにするやり方でした
みんなが憧れる高級品を提供するということです
12:41
is to give them something
that is more expensive,
12:44
something to aspire to.
今現在好きだと思っている物を、実は好きではないかもと思わせること
12:47
It's to make them turn their back
on what they think they like now,
12:51
and reach out for something
higher up the mustard hierarchy.
マスタード界のピラミッドの頂点に立つということ
12:54
(Laughter)
より良いマスタード!より高級なマスタード!
12:55
A better mustard!
A more expensive mustard!
洗練され、文化と意味を感じさせるマスタード
12:57
A mustard of more sophistication
and culture and meaning.
ハワードはこれに対して「間違っている!」と言ったのです
13:01
And Howard looked to that
and said, "That's wrong!"
マスタード界のピラミッドはないんだ、と
13:04
Mustard does not exist on a hierarchy.
トマトソースと同様に、マスタードも水平レベルにあるんだ、と
13:06
Mustard exists, just like tomato sauce,
on a horizontal plane.
13:11
There is no good mustard or bad mustard.
いいマスタードも悪いマスタードもない
13:14
There is no perfect mustard
or imperfect mustard.
完璧なマスタードも不完全なマスタードもない
異なる人の好みに合った異なるマスタードがあるだけだ
13:16
There are only different kinds of mustards
that suit different kinds of people.
彼は、好みの味についての考え方を民主化したのです
13:20
He fundamentally democratized
the way we think about taste.
ハワード モスコウィッツに感謝すべきです
13:25
And for that, as well, we owe
Howard Moskowitz a huge vote of thanks.
ハワードの3つ目の業績が一番大切かも知れません
13:30
Third thing that Howard did,
and perhaps the most important,
13:34
is Howard confronted the notion
of the Platonic dish.
プラトニックな料理の観念に立ち向かった事です (笑)
13:37
(Laughter)
どういう意味かと言いますと
13:38
What do I mean by that?
13:39
(Laughter)
長年、食品業界では
13:40
For the longest time in the food industry,
完璧な料理を作る方法は1つしかない、と思われていました
13:42
there was a sense that there was one way,
13:45
a perfect way, to make a dish.
13:49
You go to Chez Panisse,
シェ パニースに行って、レッドテールの刺身を出されたとしましょう
13:50
they give you the red-tail sashimi
with roasted pumpkin seeds
ローストされたパンプキンシードと、何かの煮詰めソース
13:56
in a something something reduction.
煮詰めソースに5種類もないですよね?
13:57
They don't give you five options
on the reduction.
固まり入りの煮詰めソースになさいますか、それとも…などとは聞かれません
14:00
They don't say, "Do you want
the extra-chunky reduction, or ...?"
14:04
No!
シェ パニースのシェフが作った煮詰めソースを出さますよね
14:05
You just get the reduction. Why?
14:06
Because the chef at Chez Panisse
そのシェフにはレッドテールの刺身に対する理想像があるからです
14:08
has a Platonic notion
about red-tail sashimi.
これはこうあるべきだ
14:10
"This is the way it ought to be."
14:13
And she serves it that way
time and time again,
そして彼女は毎回そのように作ります
もし反論しようものなら
14:17
and if you quarrel with her, she will say,
「あなたが間違っている。このレストランの最高の味なのよ」と言われるでしょう
14:19
"You know what? You're wrong!
14:21
This is the best way it ought to be
in this restaurant."
食品業界も同じ考え方でした
14:24
Now that same idea fueled
the commercial food industry as well.
トマトソースに1つの理想像を持っているのです
14:28
They had a Platonic notion
of what tomato sauce was.
それはどこから来たのでしょう?イタリアです
14:32
And where did that come from?
It came from Italy.
イタリアのトマトソースはどうでしょう?水っぽいですね
14:34
Italian tomato sauce is what?
14:36
It's blended; it's thin.
伝統的なトマトソースは水っぽかったのです
14:39
The culture of tomato sauce was thin.
14:41
When we talked about "authentic
tomato sauce" in the 1970s,
1970年代のホンモノのトマトソースは
14:44
we talked about Italian tomato sauce,
イタリア系のトマトソースでした。初期のラグーですね
14:46
we talked about the earliest Ragùs,
固まりは入っていません
14:48
which had no visible solids, right?
水っぽく、パスタにかけると
14:50
Which were thin, you just put a little bit
全部底に溜まってしまう様なソース
14:52
and it sunk down to the bottom
of the pasta.
どうしてそういうソースに執着していたんでしょう?
14:54
That's what it was.
14:55
And why were we attached to that?
人々をハッピーにするには本場のトマトソースが必要
14:57
Because we thought
that what it took to make people happy
そう思い込んでいたんです
15:00
was to provide them with the most
culturally authentic tomato sauce, A.
15:04
And B, we thought that if we gave them
the culturally authentic tomato sauce,
本場のトマトソースを提供すれば
皆喜ぶだろうと思っていたのです
15:10
then they would embrace it.
それが最大多数を喜ばせる方法だと
15:11
And that's what would please
the maximum number of people.
そう思った理由は何かと言うと
15:14
In other words,
料理界の人々は普遍性を求めていたのです
15:17
people in the cooking world
were looking for cooking universals.
みんなを喜ばす1つの方法を探していたのです
15:20
They were looking for one way
to treat all of us.
15:23
And it's good reason for them
to be obsessed
彼らが普遍性のアイデアに執着するのももっともで
15:25
with the idea of universals,
19世紀から20世紀の殆どの時代
15:27
because all of science,
15:28
through the 19th century
and much of the 20th,
科学は普遍性に執着していたからです
15:31
was obsessed with universals.
心理学者、医学者、経済学者は皆揃って
15:32
Psychologists, medical scientists,
economists
15:36
were all interested
in finding out the rules
私たちの行動を支配する法則に関心を持っていました
15:38
that govern the way all of us behave.
しかしそれも変わりました
15:41
But that changed, right?
15:43
What is the great revolution
in science of the last 10, 15 years?
ここ10、15年の科学の最大の変化は何でしょう?
普遍性を追求するのではなく、多様性を理解するということです
15:46
It is the movement
from the search for universals
15:50
to the understanding of variability.
医学分野では、癌の仕組みよりも
15:52
Now in medical science,
we don't want to know, necessarily,
他の人の癌と自分の癌がどう違うのかという方が重要です
15:56
just how cancer works,
15:58
we want to know how your cancer
is different from my cancer.
私の癌はあなたの癌とは違っています
16:01
I guess my cancer different
from your cancer.
16:04
Genetics has opened the door
to the study of human variability.
遺伝学が人間の多様性の研究への扉を開いたのです
16:08
What Howard Moskowitz
was doing was saying,
ハワード モスコウィッツが行ったのもこれと同じ
16:10
"This same revolution needs to happen
in the world of tomato sauce."
トマトソース業界の改革でした
彼に心から感謝したいと思います
16:15
And for that, we owe him
a great vote of thanks.
多様性についてもう一つ例をあげましょう
16:19
I'll give you one last
illustration of variability,
16:22
and that is -- oh, I'm sorry.
16:24
Howard not only believed that,
but he took it a second step,
ハワードはこれで納得せず、そこから更に掘り下げたのです
食べ物の普遍的原則を求めるのは
16:27
which was to say that when we pursue
universal principles in food,
16:33
we aren't just making an error;
間違っているだけではなく、害にすらなるのです
16:34
we are actually doing ourselves
a massive disservice.
ハワードはコーヒーを例に挙げました
16:38
And the example he used was coffee.
彼はコーヒーについてはネスカフェとずいぶん仕事しましたから
16:40
And coffee is something he did
a lot of work with, with Nescafé.
16:45
If I were to ask all of you to try
and come up with a brand of coffee --
私がコーヒーのブランドを作るように依頼されたとしましょう
コーヒーの種類、入れ方など...全員の好みに合うコーヒーです
16:48
a type of coffee, a brew --
that made all of you happy,
そのコーヒーに評価を付けてもらうと
16:51
and then I asked you to rate that coffee,
平均点は100点満点で60点くらいになるでしょう
16:53
the average score in this room for coffee
would be about 60 on a scale of 0 to 100.
16:58
If, however, you allowed me
to break you into coffee clusters,
しかし、もしいくつかのグループに分けても良いのなら
3つか4つのコーヒーグループですね
17:01
maybe three or four coffee clusters,
そして、各グループの好みにあわせてコーヒーを作ったとします
17:03
and I could make coffee just
for each of those individual clusters,
評価は60点から75~78点に上がるでしょう
17:08
your scores would go from 60 to 75 or 78.
60点と78点のコーヒーの違いは
17:12
The difference between coffee
at 60 and coffee at 78
身震いする程まずいコーヒーと
17:17
is a difference between coffee
that makes you wince,
ため息が出る程ハッピーなコーヒー程大きいのです
17:20
and coffee that makes you
deliriously happy.
17:24
That is the final, and I think
most beautiful lesson,
これがハワード モスコウィッツの最も素晴らしい教訓です
17:27
of Howard Moskowitz:
人類の多様性を受け入れる事によって
17:28
that in embracing the diversity
of human beings,
本当の幸せを見つけられるのです
17:32
we will find a surer way
to true happiness.
17:35
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
17:36
(Applause)
Translator:Yuko Osugi
Reviewer:Masaaki Ueno

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Malcolm Gladwell - Writer
Detective of fads and emerging subcultures, chronicler of jobs-you-never-knew-existed, Malcolm Gladwell's work is toppling the popular understanding of bias, crime, food, marketing, race, consumers and intelligence.

Why you should listen

Malcolm Gladwell searches for the counterintuitive in what we all take to be the mundane: cookies, sneakers, pasta sauce. A New Yorker staff writer since 1996, he visits obscure laboratories and infomercial set kitchens as often as the hangouts of freelance cool-hunters -- a sort of pop-R&D gumshoe -- and for that has become a star lecturer and bestselling author.

Sparkling with curiosity, undaunted by difficult research (yet an eloquent, accessible writer), his work uncovers truths hidden in strange data. His always-delightful blog tackles topics from serial killers to steroids in sports, while provocative recent work in the New Yorker sheds new light on the Flynn effect -- the decades-spanning rise in I.Q. scores.

Gladwell has written four books. The Tipping Point, which began as a New Yorker piece, applies the principles of epidemiology to crime (and sneaker sales), while Blink examines the unconscious processes that allow the mind to "thin slice" reality -- and make decisions in the blink of an eye. His third book, Outliers, questions the inevitabilities of success and identifies the relation of success to nature versus nurture. The newest work, What the Dog Saw and Other Adventures, is an anthology of his New Yorker contributions. 

He says: "There is more going on beneath the surface than we think, and more going on in little, finite moments of time than we would guess."
 

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