19:17
TED2008

Doris Kearns Goodwin: Lessons from past presidents

ドリス・カーンズ・グッドウィン: 歴代大統領から学ぶこと

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歴史家のドリス・カーンズ・グッドウィンが、エイブラハム・リンカーンやリンドン・ジョンソンを例に挙げ、アメリカ大統領から学べることを語ります。そして、彼女自身の亡き父や二人が愛した野球にまつわる心温まる思い出を語ります。

- Historian
Doris Kearns Goodwin writes insightful books on the US Presidency (JFK, LBJ, FDR and Lincoln, so far), telling each president's personal story against the backdrop of history. Full bio

So, indeed, I have spent my life
私は 今は亡き大統領の
00:15
looking into the lives of presidents who are no longer alive.
人生の研究をしてきました
00:17
Waking up with Abraham Lincoln in the morning,
リンカーンと共に目を覚まし
00:21
thinking of Franklin Roosevelt when I went to bed at night.
ルーズベルトを思いながら寝ています
00:23
But when I try and think about what I've learned
でも 私が学んだ人生の意味を思うと
00:26
about the meaning in life, my mind keeps wandering back
ハーバードの大学院で受けた―
00:28
to a seminar that I took when I was a graduate student at Harvard
心理学者 エリク エリクソンの
00:31
with the great psychologist Erik Erikson.
講義を思い出します
00:34
He taught us that the richest and fullest lives
エリクソンは 充実した人生には
00:37
attempt to achieve an inner balance between three realms:
三つの領域の内面バランスが必要だと言いました
00:40
work, love and play.
「仕事」「愛」「遊び」です
00:44
And that to pursue one realm to the disregard of the other,
一つの領域しか追求しないと
00:47
is to open oneself to ultimate sadness in older age.
老いたときに喪失感が生まれるのに対し
00:49
Whereas to pursue all three with equal dedication,
三つの領域に没頭すると
00:53
is to make possible a life filled not only with achievement,
達成感だけではなく 心の平静と共に
00:55
but with serenity.
人生を全うできるのです
00:58
So since I tell stories, let me look back
物語るにあたり 私が研究した―
01:00
on the lives of two of the presidents I've studied to illustrate this point --
大統領二人の人生を振り返ってみます
01:02
Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson.
エイブラハム リンカーン と リンドン ジョンソンです
01:06
As for that first sphere of work,
一つめの「仕事」に関してですが
01:09
I think what Abraham Lincoln's life suggests
すさまじい野望を持つのは良いと
01:11
is that fierce ambition is a good thing.
リンカーンの人生が物語っていると思います
01:14
He had a huge ambition.
彼には大きな野望がありました
01:17
But it wasn't simply for office or power or celebrity or fame --
でも それは任務 権力 名声 評判のためではなく
01:19
what it was for was to accomplish something worthy enough in life
世界を少しでも改善させるために
01:23
so that he could make the world a little better place for his having lived in it.
人生で価値ある何かを達成したかったのです
01:27
Even as a child, it seemed, Lincoln dreamed heroic dreams.
子どもの頃でさえ リンカーンには雄々しい夢がありました
01:32
He somehow had to escape that hard-scrabble farm
彼は生家である農家を後にする―
01:36
from which he was born.
必要がありました
01:39
No schooling was possible for him,
短期間の授業を除き
01:40
except a few weeks here, a few weeks there.
学校教育は受けられませんでした
01:42
But he read books in every spare moment he could find.
彼は暇さえあれば読書をしました
01:44
It was said when he got a copy of the King James Bible
聖書やイソップ童話が手に入ったとき
01:47
or "Aesop's Fables," he was so excited he couldn't sleep.
興奮して 睡眠も食事も取れなかったと
01:49
He couldn't eat.
言われています
01:52
The great poet Emily Dickinson once said,
詩人のエミリー ディキンソンが
01:53
"There is no frigate like a book to take us lands away."
“本のように 彼方へ旅させてくれる船は無い” と言ったように
01:55
How true for Lincoln.
リンカーンは本にのめり込み
01:59
Though he never would travel to Europe,
ヨーロッパ旅行をせずとも
02:00
he went with Shakespeare's kings to merry England,
シェイクスピアの王と共に陽気なイギリスへ行き
02:02
he went with Lord Byron's poetry to Spain and Portugal.
バイロンの詩と共にスペインやポルトガルに行きました
02:04
Literature allowed him to transcend his surroundings.
文学で彼の環境は向上したのです
02:07
But there were so many losses in his early life
でも 若い時に多くの死と向き合い
02:11
that he was haunted by death.
死に悩まされました
02:13
His mother died when he was only nine years old;
母は彼が9歳の時に他界
02:15
his only sister, Sarah, in childbirth a few years later;
数年後 姉も出産中に亡くなり
02:17
and his first love, Ann Rutledge, at the age of 22.
初恋の相手は22歳で他界しています
02:21
Moreover, when his mother lay dying,
さらに彼の母は死に際に
02:24
she did not hold out for him the hope
あの世で再会する―
02:26
that they would meet in an afterworld.
望みには触れず
02:28
She simply said to him,
ただ言いました
02:30
"Abraham, I'm going away from you now, and I shall never return."
“別れの時が来た もう戻りはしないよ”
02:31
As a result he became obsessed with the thought
その結果 亡くなると人生は
02:35
that when we die our life is swept away -- dust to dust.
微塵に消えるという考えに取りつかれました
02:37
But only as he grew older did he develop
でも彼は歳を重ねるにつれて
02:40
a certain consolation from an ancient Greek notion --
古代ギリシャの概念や
02:43
but followed by other cultures as well --
他の文化から ある慰みを得ました
02:45
that if you could accomplish something worthy in your life,
人生で価値ある何かを達成すれば
02:48
you could live on in the memory of others.
他者の記憶に生き続けるという考えです
02:50
Your honor and your reputation would outlive your earthly existence.
名誉や評判で 後世に名を残すのです
02:53
And that worthy ambition became his lodestar.
その立派な野望が彼の目標になりました
02:58
It carried him through the one significant depression that he suffered
30代初めに患った鬱を克服できたのも
03:00
when he was in his early 30s.
目標があったからです
03:04
Three things had combined to lay him low.
彼を圧倒した三つの出来事がありました
03:06
He had broken his engagement with Mary Todd,
メリートッドとの婚約破棄は
03:08
not certain he was ready to marry her,
結婚する心構えがなかったからですが
03:10
but knowing how devastating it was to her that he did that.
彼女には打撃だとわかっていました
03:12
His one intimate friend, Joshua Speed, was leaving Illinois
無二の親友 スピードが父の死去で
03:15
to go back to Kentucky because Speed's father had died.
イリノイからケンタッキーへ帰って行きました
03:18
And his political career in the state legislature
リンカーンの州議会での
03:21
was on a downward slide.
政治的キャリアは低下していました
03:23
He was so depressed that friends worried he was suicidal.
落ち込んだ彼が自殺を図る心配をした友人は
03:25
They took all knives and razors and scissors from his room.
彼の部屋から刃物を取り除きました
03:28
And his great friend Speed went to his side and said,
親友のスピードが戻り 言いました
03:31
"Lincoln, you must rally or you will die."
“元気を出さなきゃ死んじゃうよ”
03:34
He said that, "I would just as soon die right now,
リンカーンは “今すぐにでも死ぬとも
03:36
but I've not yet done anything to make any human being
でも 私を覚えていてもらうには
03:39
remember that I have lived."
まだ何もやり遂げていない”
03:42
So fueled by that ambition, he returned to the state legislature.
その野望に刺激され 彼は議会へと戻り
03:44
He eventually won a seat in Congress.
遂に議会の座を勝ち取りました
03:48
He then ran twice for the Senate, lost twice.
そして上院議員に2回立候補し 2回落選
03:51
"Everyone is broken by life," Ernest Hemingway once said,
へミングウェイは “誰でもくじけることはあるが
03:54
"but some people are stronger in the broken places."
弱ったときに強くなる人もいる” と言っています
03:56
So then he surprised the nation with an upset victory
その後 自分より経験や教養があり
03:59
for the presidency over three far more experienced,
世に知られた3人のライバルを
04:02
far more educated, far more celebrated rivals.
大統領選で打ち破り 世間を驚かせました
04:05
And then when he won the general election,
彼は総選挙で当選した際
04:09
he stunned the nation even more
そのライバルを閣僚として迎え
04:11
by appointing each of these three rivals into his Cabinet.
更に世間を驚かせました
04:13
It was an unprecedented act at the time because everybody thought,
前代未聞の行為に 誰もが思いました
04:16
"He'll look like a figurehead compared to these people."
“彼はあの3人に比べて表看板のようだ”
04:19
They said, "Why are you doing this, Lincoln?"
“なぜ こんなことをする?” と尋ねられると
04:22
He said, "Look, these are the strongest
リンカーンは答えました “我が国で
04:24
and most able men in the country.
一番強くて出来の良い男たちだ
04:26
The country is in peril. I need them by my side."
この国は危険にさらされている 彼らの力が必要だ”
04:28
But perhaps my old friend Lyndon Johnson
リンドン ジョンソンだったら
04:31
might have put it in less noble fashion:
そんな表現はしなかったでしょう
04:33
"Better to have your enemies inside the tent pissing out,
“外にいる自分の敵にテントの中へ小便をされるより
04:35
than outside the tent pissing in."
中から外へされるほうがましだ”
04:38
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:40
But it soon became clear that Abraham Lincoln
しかし リンカーンがこの面倒な陣容の
04:42
would emerge as the undisputed captain of this unruly team.
明白な司令塔であると 間もなくしてわかります
04:45
For each of them soon came to understand
外見上の経歴の薄さよりも ずっと大切な
04:49
that he possessed an unparalleled array of
無比の感情的な力と
04:52
emotional strengths and political skills
政治的知恵を 持ち合わせた―
04:54
that proved far more important than the thinness of his external résumé.
リンカーンに ライバルは気づきます
04:56
For one thing, he possessed an uncanny ability
まず 彼には人と共感したり
05:00
to empathize with and to think about other peoples' point of view.
他者の観点を思いやる超人的な力がありました
05:02
He repaired injured feelings that might have escalated
もつれが生じると
05:06
into permanent hostility.
不和を修復しました
05:08
He shared credit with ease,
喜んで功績を分かち合い
05:10
assumed responsibility for the failure of his subordinates,
部下の失敗には責任を肩代わりし
05:12
constantly acknowledged his errors and learned from his mistakes.
常に間違いを認め 間違いから学びました
05:15
These are the qualities we should be looking for in our candidates in 2008.
2008年の候補者に求めるべき素質があります
05:19
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:22
He refused to be provoked by petty grievances.
些細なことで怒ることはせず
05:25
He never submitted to jealousy or brooded over perceived slights.
決して嫉妬や軽蔑にも振り回されなかったのです
05:29
And he expressed his unshakeable convictions
そして彼は不動の信念を
05:33
in everyday language, in metaphors, in stories.
日頃から談話や演説で表現しました
05:35
And with a beauty of language -- almost as if
彼が使う言葉の美しさは
05:39
the Shakespeare and the poetry he had so loved as a child
大好きだったシェイクスピアや詩が
05:41
had worked their way into his very soul.
彼の心に入りこんだようでした
05:43
In 1863, when the Emancipation Proclamation was signed,
1863年に奴隷解放宣言が調印されたとき
05:47
he brought his old friend, Joshua Speed, back to the White House,
旧友のスピードをホワイトハウスに連れ戻し
05:50
and remembered that conversation of decades before, when he was so sad.
彼が惨めだった何十年も前の会話を思い出しました
05:52
And he, pointing to the Proclamation, said,
そして 宣言書を指して言いました
05:56
"I believe, in this measure, my fondest hopes will be realized."
“この法令によって私の一番の願いが実現するんだね”
05:58
But as he was about to put his signature on the Proclamation
しかし彼が宣言書に署名しようとした時
06:03
his own hand was numb and shaking
手が震えていました
06:06
because he had shaken a thousand hands that morning at a New Year's reception.
大勢の人と握手をしていたからです
06:08
So he put the pen down.
彼はペンを置き 言いました
06:11
He said, "If ever my soul were in an act, it is in this act.
“精魂を込めるとは このことだ
06:13
But if I sign with a shaking hand,
でも震える手で署名すれば
06:16
posterity will say, 'He hesitated.'"
躊躇したと言い継がれるだろう”
06:18
So he waited until he could take up the pen
彼はペンを持てるまで待ち
06:20
and sign with a bold and clear hand.
力強くはっきりとした手で署名したのです
06:22
But even in his wildest dreams,
しかし リンカーンには
06:25
Lincoln could never have imagined
自らの評判の成長ぶりは
06:27
how far his reputation would reach.
想像もつきませんでした
06:28
I was so thrilled to find an interview with the great Russian writer,
作家のトルストイを1900年代初頭に取材した記事を
06:30
Leo Tolstoy, in a New York newspaper in the early 1900s.
私はニューヨークの新聞で見つけて興奮しました
06:34
And in it, Tolstoy told of a trip that he'd recently made
その記事でトルストイは外に出たことのない―
06:38
to a very remote area of the Caucasus,
野蛮人だけが住むロシアの
06:41
where there were only wild barbarians,
人里離れた場所に行ったと
06:43
who had never left this part of Russia.
語っていました
06:45
Knowing that Tolstoy was in their midst,
トルストイを知っていた彼らは
06:47
they asked him to tell stories of the great men of history.
歴史上の偉大な人物の話をして欲しいと頼みました
06:49
So he said, "I told them about Napoleon
トルストイ曰く “ナポレオンや
06:52
and Alexander the Great and Frederick the Great
フリードリヒ大王や シーザーの
06:54
and Julius Caesar, and they loved it.
話をしたら 彼らは喜んだ
06:56
But before I finished, the chief of the barbarians stood up and said,
話し終える前に野蛮人のボスが立ち上がり言った
06:58
'But wait, you haven't told us about the greatest ruler of them all.
‘待ってくれ 一番偉大な支配者のことを聴いていない
07:01
We want to hear about that man who spoke with a voice of thunder,
雷の声で話し 日の出のように笑う男
07:04
who laughed like the sunrise,
若者が旅したならば
07:08
who came from that place called America, which is so far from here,
到着するころには年寄りになるほど
07:10
that if a young man should travel there,
遠く離れたアメリカという場所から
07:12
he would be an old man when he arrived.
来た男の話が聴きたい
07:14
Tell us of that man. Tell us of Abraham Lincoln.'"
リンカーンの話をしてくれないか’”
07:16
He was stunned.
トルストイは驚くも
07:20
He told them everything he could about Lincoln.
知っている事は全て話しました
07:21
And then in the interview he said, "What made Lincoln so great?
トルストイは取材の中で
07:23
Not as great a general as Napoleon,
ナポレオンやフリードリヒ大王ほど
07:25
not as great a statesman as Frederick the Great."
リンカーンは卓越していなかった と言っています
07:27
But his greatness consisted, and historians would roundly agree,
しかし 歴史学者が口をそろえて言うように
07:30
in the integrity of his character
彼の偉大さとは 誠実さや
07:33
and the moral fiber of his being.
気骨稜稜とした本質にありました
07:35
So in the end that powerful ambition
ですから 侘しい子供時代を通して駆り立てた―
07:37
that had carried Lincoln through his bleak childhood had been realized.
強力な意思が 最終的に現れたのです
07:39
That ambition that had allowed him to laboriously educate himself by himself,
苦心して独学し 一連の政治上の失敗や
07:42
to go through that string of political failures
戦時中の暗い日々を
07:47
and the darkest days of the war.
耐え抜かせた野望です
07:49
His story would be told.
語り継がれる彼の話です
07:51
So as for that second sphere, not of work, but of love --
家族や友達や同僚を含む―
07:54
encompassing family, friends and colleagues --
二つめの「愛」に関しても
07:57
it, too, takes work and commitment.
仕事やコミットメントが必要です
08:00
The Lyndon Johnson that I saw in the last years of his life,
私がジョンソンの回顧録作成に関わり
08:03
when I helped him on his memoirs,
最期までに見た彼は
08:05
was a man who had spent so many years in the pursuit of
仕事の追求 権力 功名に何年も費やし
08:07
work, power and individual success,
大統領引退後には
08:10
that he had absolutely no psychic or emotional resources left
日々を切り抜いていく魂や意欲は
08:12
to get him through the days
まったく
08:16
once the presidency was gone.
残っていませんでした
08:17
My relationship with him began on a rather curious level.
彼とはユニークな出会い方をしました
08:20
I was selected as a White House Fellow when I was 24 years old.
24歳の時 私はホワイトハウスフェローに選ばれました
08:23
We had a big dance at the White House.
ホワイトハウスでパーティーがあり
08:26
President Johnson did dance with me that night.
私は彼と踊ったのです
08:28
Not that peculiar --
女は3人だけだったので
08:30
there were only three women out of the 16 White House Fellows.
不思議ではありませんが
08:31
But he did whisper in my ear that he wanted me
彼は官邸で彼の下で働いてほしいと
08:33
to work directly for him in the White House.
私の耳元で囁きました
08:36
But it was not to be that simple.
厄介なことに
08:38
For in the months leading up to my selection,
私は その何か月も前から
08:39
like many young people, I'd been active
他の若者のように
08:41
in the anti-Vietnam War movement,
反ベトナム戦争運動に積極的で
08:43
and had written an article against Lyndon Johnson,
私の書いたジョンソン批判の記事が
08:45
which unfortunately came out in The New Republic
不幸にもパーティーの
08:48
two days after the dance in the White House.
二日後に新聞に載ったのです
08:49
(Laugher)
(笑)
08:51
And the theme of the article was how to remove Lyndon Johnson from power.
ジョンソンを いかに政権から降ろすか という記事でした
08:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:56
So I was certain he would kick me out of the program.
彼に嫌われると思いましたが
08:57
But instead, surprisingly, he said,
驚くことに彼は言ったのです
09:00
"Oh, bring her down here for a year,
“彼女を一年ここに連れて来なさい
09:01
and if I can't win her over, no one can."
彼女を説得できるのは 私だけだ”
09:03
So I did end up working for him in the White House.
それで 官邸で仕えることになり
09:06
Eventually accompanied him to his ranch to help him on those memoirs,
採用された理由を理解しないまま
09:08
never fully understanding why he'd chosen me to spend so many hours with.
回顧録作成のため 彼の牧場について行きました
09:10
I like to believe it was because I was a good listener.
私が聞き上手だったからだと信じたいです
09:14
He was a great storyteller.
彼の話には
09:17
Fabulous, colorful, anecdotal stories.
人を引き込む力がありました
09:18
There was a problem with these stories, however,
でも 話の半分は
09:20
which I later discovered, which is that half of them weren't true.
尾ひれがついていたと 後でわかりました
09:22
But they were great, nonetheless.
それでも
09:25
(Laughter)
素晴らしかったのです
09:26
So I think that part of his attraction for me was that I loved listening to his tall tales.
ですから 彼の話に魅了された私に惹かれたのだと思いますが
09:27
But I also worried that part of it was that I was then a young woman.
私の若さも理由かと心配しました
09:32
And he had somewhat of a minor league womanizing reputation.
彼が女たらしだという噂もあったので
09:35
So I constantly chatted to him about boyfriends,
私は恋人がいない時でさえ
09:38
even when I didn't have any at all.
常に彼には恋人の話をしていました
09:40
Everything was working perfectly,
彼が我々の関係について
09:42
until one day he said he wanted to discuss our relationship.
話をしたいと言った日まで 全ては完璧でした
09:43
Sounded very ominous when he took me nearby to the lake,
都合良く リンドンBジョンソン湖と名づけられた
09:45
conveniently called Lake Lyndon Baines Johnson.
湖に連れていかれたときは 変な予感がしました
09:48
And there was wine and cheese and a red-checked tablecloth --
ワインやチーズなどが
09:51
all the romantic trappings.
ロマンチックに並んだ中で
09:53
And he started out,
彼は言いました
09:55
"Doris, more than any other woman I have ever known ... "
“ドリス 私が知るどんな女性よりも…”
09:56
And my heart sank.
私の心は沈みました
09:58
And then he said,
そのときです
10:00
"You remind me of my mother."
“君はオフクロを思い出すよ”
10:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:03
It was pretty embarrassing, given what was going on in my mind.
私が想像していた事を考えると恥ずかしい話ですが
10:04
But I must say, the older I've gotten,
晩年の名士と何時間も
10:10
the more I realize what an incredible privilege it was
過ごせたのは光栄だったと
10:12
to have spent so many hours with this aging lion of a man.
年齢を重ねるに連れて感じます
10:14
A victor in a thousand contests,
数々の争いの勝者であり
10:17
three great civil rights laws, Medicare, aid to education.
三大公民権 老人医療保障制度 教育援助を確立させた男です
10:19
And yet, roundly defeated in the end by the war in Vietnam.
しかしベトナム戦争で支持率は急落
10:24
And because he was so sad and so vulnerable,
彼はあまりの悲しさと弱さから
10:27
he opened up to me in ways he never would have
権力者として絶頂期にいたときには
10:29
had I known him at the height of his power --
決して見せなかった恐怖心や
10:31
sharing his fears, his sorrows and his worries.
悲しみや心配事を話し出しました
10:33
And I'd like to believe that the privilege fired within me
ジョンソンと過ごせたことにより 私が後に本にした―
10:36
the drive to understand the inner person behind the public figure,
社会的地位のある人間の心の内を
10:39
that I've tried to bring to each of my books since then.
理解しようと駆り立てられました
10:42
But it also brought home to me the lessons
しかし エリクソンが我々に伝授しようとした
10:46
which Erik Erikson had tried to instill in all of us
人生のバランスを見つける大切さの
10:48
about the importance of finding balance in life.
教えにも共感しました
10:51
For on the surface, Lyndon Johnson should have had
外見上ジョンソンは
10:54
everything in the world to feel good about in those last years,
大統領になったという意味では 亡くなるまで
10:56
in the sense that he had been elected to the presidency;
幸せに必要なものは持っていたはずです
11:00
he had all the money he needed to pursue
彼には どんな楽しみをも
11:02
any leisure activity he wanted;
手に入れられる経済力がありました
11:04
he owned a spacious ranch in the countryside, a penthouse in the city,
田舎には広大な牧場 街にはペントハウス
11:06
sailboats, speedboats.
ヨットやスピードボートも持っており
11:09
He had servants to answer any whim,
どんな気まぐれにも応えてくれる使用人と
11:11
and he had a family who loved him deeply.
心から愛してくれる家族がいました
11:13
And yet, years of concentration solely on work and individual success
それでも長年 仕事と個人的成功だけに専念したために
11:17
meant that in his retirement he could find no solace
引退したときには 家族にも 気晴らしにも
11:20
in family, in recreation, in sports or in hobbies.
スポーツにも 趣味にも 慰めを見いだせませんでした
11:24
It was almost as if the hole in his heart was so large
仕事なしには 家族の愛さえも
11:28
that even the love of a family, without work, could not fill it.
心に開いた大きな穴を塞げないように見えました
11:31
As his spirits sagged, his body deteriorated
彼の精神と共に 体も衰え
11:34
until, I believe, he slowly brought about his own death.
自らの死を招いたように感じます
11:37
In those last years, he said he was so sad
米国人が新大統領に期待し
11:41
watching the American people look toward a new president and forgetting him.
自分が忘れられるのは悲しいと 他界する前の数年間 言っていました
11:43
He spoke with immense sadness in his voice,
彼は非常に悲しい声で
11:47
saying maybe he should have spent more time with his children,
子どもや孫と多くの時間を
11:49
and their children in turn.
過ごすべきだったと言いました
11:51
But it was too late.
でも遅すぎました
11:53
Despite all that power, all that wealth,
あれだけの力や富にも関わらず
11:55
he was alone when he finally died --
彼がもっとも恐れていたように
11:57
his ultimate terror realized.
孤独な死を遂げました
11:59
So as for that third sphere of play,
彼が決して学ぶことのなかった―
12:02
which he never had learned to enjoy,
三つ目の「遊び」には
12:04
I've learned over the years
時間とエネルギーが必要だと
12:06
that even this sphere requires a commitment of time and energy --
私は何年もかけて学びました
12:08
enough so that a hobby, a sport, a love of music,
スポーツ 音楽 芸術 文学 またはどんな趣味でも
12:11
or art, or literature, or any form of recreation,
喜び 安らぎ 充足感を
12:15
can provide true pleasure, relaxation and replenishment.
与えることがわかりました
12:18
So deep, for instance, was Abraham Lincoln's love of Shakespeare,
シェイクスピアを愛していたリンカーンは
12:22
that he made time to spend more than a hundred nights in the theater,
戦時中の暗い日々でさえ 何百回も
12:25
even during those dark days of the war.
劇場に足を運びました
12:29
He said, when the lights went down and a Shakespeare play came on,
灯りが消えシェイクスピアの演劇が始まると
12:31
for a few precious hours he could imagine himself
その貴重な数時間はハル王子の時代に
12:34
back in Prince Hal's time.
タイムトリップできると言いました
12:37
But an even more important form of relaxation for him,
しかし ジョンソンが楽しめなかった―
12:40
that Lyndon Johnson never could enjoy,
リンカーンのもっと重要な骨休めは
12:42
was a love of -- somehow -- humor,
ユーモアに対する愛と
12:44
and feeling out what hilarious parts of life can produce
悲しみへの測光として
12:48
as a sidelight to the sadness.
人生の面白みを探求することです
12:51
He once said that he laughed so he did not cry,
彼は泣かないように笑ったと言いました
12:53
that a good story, for him, was better than a drop of whiskey.
彼はウィスキー1滴より 良い話を好みました
12:57
His storytelling powers had first been recognized
彼の話力はイリノイを巡回したとき
13:01
when he was on the circuit in Illinois.
初めて注目されました
13:03
The lawyers and the judges would travel
弁護士と裁判官が郡庁舎を
13:04
from one county courthouse to the other,
順繰り回るのですが
13:06
and when anyone was knowing Lincoln was in town,
リンカーンの話を聴きたくて
13:08
they would come from miles around to listen to him tell stories.
大勢の人が やって来ました
13:11
He would stand with his back against a fire
彼は火を背に立って
13:13
and entertain the crowd for hours with his winding tales.
いろいろな話で聴衆を何時間も惹きつけました
13:15
And all these stories became part of his memory bank,
彼は数々の話を記憶しており
13:19
so he could call on them whenever he needed to.
必要な時はいつでも思い出すことができました
13:21
And they're not quite what you might expect from our marble monument.
坐像からは想像できない数々の逸話―
13:24
One of his favorite stories, for example,
例えば 彼のお気に入りは
13:26
had to do with the Revolutionary War hero, Ethan Allen.
独立戦争の英雄 イーサン アレンの話でした
13:28
And as Lincoln told the story,
彼の語り口で話してみます
13:31
Mr. Allen went to Britain after the war.
アレンが英国へ行ったとき
13:33
And the British people were still upset
英国人は独立戦争に負けたことで
13:35
about losing the Revolution,
まだ機嫌を害していて
13:37
so they decided to embarrass him a little bit
彼に恥ずかしい思いをさせようと
13:38
by putting a huge picture of General Washington
屋外便所の中にワシントン将軍の
13:40
in the only outhouse, where he'd have to encounter it.
巨大な写真を貼っておいたのです
13:43
They figured he'd be upset about the indignity
そんな侮辱をされれば
13:45
of George Washington being in an outhouse.
怒るだろうと思ったのに
13:47
But he came out of the outhouse not upset at all.
彼は全然怒りませんでした
13:49
And so they said, "Well, did you see George Washington in there?"
“便所の中のワシントンを見た?” と尋ねる彼らに
13:51
"Oh, yes," he said, "perfectly appropriate place for him."
“見たさ 彼には完璧な場所だ” とアレン
13:54
"What do you mean?" they said.
“どういう意味だい?”
13:57
"Well," he said, "there's nothing to make an Englishman shit
“将軍に見られたら 英国人は
13:59
faster than the sight of General George Washington."
ゆっくりクソもしてられないさ”
14:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:05
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:07
So you can imagine, if you are in the middle of a tense cabinet meeting --
張りつめた閣議の途中で
14:09
and he had hundreds of these stories --
このような話をされれば
14:13
you would have to relax.
肩の力も抜けるわけです
14:15
So between his nightly treks to the theater,
リンカーンは毎晩 劇場に行ったり
14:18
his story telling, and his extraordinary sense of humor
並はずれたユーモアを披露したり
14:20
and his love of quoting Shakespeare and poetry,
シェイクスピアや詩を引用しながら
14:24
he found that form of play which carried him through his days.
日々を頑張り通す遊びを見いだしました
14:26
In my own life, I shall always be grateful
私の場合 野球の大ファンとなって
14:30
for having found a form of play in my irrational love of baseball.
遊びを見いだせたのは ありがたいことです
14:33
Which allows me, from the beginning of spring training
春のトレーニング開始時期から
14:36
to the end of the fall,
秋の終わりまで
14:39
to have something to occupy my mind and heart
仕事以外に熱中できることを
14:40
other than my work.
見つけられました
14:42
It all began when I was only six years old,
それは私が6歳の時に始まりました
14:44
and my father taught me that mysterious art of keeping score
野球中継を聴きながら スコアの付け方を
14:46
while listening to baseball games --
私の父が教えてくれました
14:48
so that when he went to work in New York during the day,
父が仕事をしている昼間に
14:50
I could record for him the history of that afternoon's
私がドジャーズ戦の経過を
14:53
Brooklyn Dodgers game.
記録できるようにです
14:55
Now, when you're only six years old,
6歳の子にとって
14:57
and your father comes home every single night
父親が毎晩帰宅し
14:58
and listens to you -- as I now realize that I, in excruciating detail,
耳を傾けてくれるのです 耐えがたい詳細と共に
14:59
recounted every single play of every inning
その日の試合の
15:03
of the game that had just taken place that afternoon.
イニング毎の試合運びを述べました
15:04
But he made me feel I was telling him a fabulous story.
でも父は 素晴らしい話をしているような気にさせてくれました
15:07
It makes you think there's something magic about history
父の注意を引き留めるのに
15:10
to keep your father's attention.
物語には魔法があると思わされます
15:12
In fact, I'm convinced I learned the narrative art
私は父と毎晩に渡る話で
15:14
from those nightly sessions with my father.
話法を学んだと確信しています
15:16
Because at first, I'd be so excited I would blurt out,
なぜなら 最初はあまりの興奮で
15:18
"The Dodgers won!" or, "The Dodgers lost!"
“ドジャースが勝った!” とか “負けた!” と
15:20
Which took much of the drama of this two-hour telling away.
うっかり2時間の話の要点を言ってしまうからです
15:22
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:25
So I finally learned you had to tell a story
結局 順を追って話をするよう
15:26
from beginning to middle to end.
学びました
15:28
I must say, so fervent was my love
私は当時 ドジャースの
15:30
of the old Brooklyn Dodgers in those days
熱狂的ファンだったので
15:32
that I had to confess in my first confession
初めての懺悔では
15:34
two sins that related to baseball.
野球関連の罪を二つ告白しました
15:36
The first occurred because the Dodgers' catcher, Roy Campanella,
一つめはドジャースの捕手 ロイ カンパネラが
15:38
came to my hometown of Rockville Centre, Long Island,
私の聖餐式の準備中に
15:41
just as I was in preparation for my first Holy Communion.
私の故郷に来たのです
15:43
And I was so excited --
球場以外の場所で
15:46
first person I'd ever see outside of Ebbets Field.
選手を見られる事に舞い上がりました
15:48
But it so happened he was speaking in a Protestant Church.
でも彼は新教教会で話すことになっていました
15:50
When you are brought up as a Catholic, you think
カトリック教徒にすれば
15:53
that if you ever set foot in a Protestant Church,
新教教会に入るなんて
15:54
you'll be struck dead at the threshold.
敷居をまたいだ時点で殺されます
15:56
So I went to my father in tears, "What are we going to do?"
私が涙目で訴えると
15:58
He said, "Don't worry. He's speaking in a parish hall.
父は “スポーツマン精神の話を
16:00
We're sitting in folding chairs. He's talking about sportsmanship.
聞くだけだから罪ではないよ” と
16:02
It's not a sin."
言いました
16:04
But as I left that night, I was certain that somehow
でも その講演の夜 なぜか私は
16:05
I'd traded the life of my everlasting soul
カンパネラとの晩と引き換えに
16:08
for this one night with Roy Campanella.
永遠の魂を失ったように感じました
16:10
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:12
And there were no indulgences around that I could buy.
私が買える免罪符はなかったので
16:13
So I had this sin on my soul when I went to my first confession.
初めての懺悔では この罪を
16:16
I told the priest right away.
神父様に告白しました
16:19
He said, "No problem. It wasn't a religious service."
“大丈夫 それは宗教と関係ありません”
16:20
But then, unfortunately, he said, "And what else, my child?"
でも “他には?” と不幸にも聞かれ
16:22
And then came my second sin.
二つめの罪を言ったのです
16:25
I tried to sandwich it in between talking too much in church,
私が呪いをかけている事を
16:27
wishing harm to others, being mean to my sisters.
他の事に割り込ませて言いました
16:29
And he said, "To whom did you wish harm?"
神父様は “誰にそんな呪いを?”
16:32
And I had to say that I wished that various New York Yankees players
私はヤンキース選手が骨折すればいいと
16:34
would break arms, legs and ankles --
思っていたと言いました
16:38
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:40
-- so that the Brooklyn Dodgers could win their first World Series.
ドジャースのワールドシリーズでの初勝利を願っていたのです
16:41
He said, "How often do you make these horrible wishes?"
呪いの頻度を聞かれ
16:44
And I had to say, every night when I said my prayers.
お祈りする毎晩と答えました
16:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:48
So he said, "Look, I'll tell you something.
“私だってドジャースが
16:49
I love the Brooklyn Dodgers, as you do,
大好きさ でも いつの日か
16:50
but I promise you some day they will win fairly and squarely.
彼らは正々堂々と勝ってくれるよ
16:52
You do not need to wish harm on others to make it happen."
そんなお願いは必要ないよ”
16:55
"Oh yes," I said.
私は “はい” と言いました
16:57
But luckily, my first confession -- to a baseball-loving priest!
初懺悔をしたのが野球好きな神父様で良かったです
16:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
17:01
Well, though my father died of a sudden heart attack
私が結婚して3人の息子が生まれる前の
17:02
when I was still in my 20s,
20代の時に
17:05
before I had gotten married and had my three sons,
父が突然 心臓発作で亡くなりましたが
17:06
I have passed his memory -- as well as his love of baseball -- on to my boys.
父の思い出と野球熱は息子に受け継ぎました
17:10
Though when the Dodgers abandoned us to come to L.A.,
ドジャースがロスに移ったときは
17:14
I lost faith in baseball until I moved to Boston
野球への関心が薄れましたが ボストンに引っ越して
17:16
and became an irrational Red Socks fan.
レッドソックスの大ファンになりました
17:20
And I must say, even now, when I sit with my sons
今でも シーズンチケットを買って
17:23
with our season tickets,
息子と共に座っているときに
17:25
I can sometimes close my eyes against the sun
時々 太陽に向かって目を閉じると
17:27
and imagine myself, a young girl once more, in the presence of my father,
少女に戻り 父の存在を感じながら 芝の野球場にいる
17:29
watching the players of my youth on the grassy fields below:
当時の選手を見ている気分になります
17:33
Jackie Robinson, Roy Campanella, Pee Wee Reese, and Duke Snider.
ジャッキー ロビンソン ロイ カンパネラ ピーウィー リース デューク スナイダー
17:36
I must say there is magic in these moments.
魔法を感じる瞬間です
17:40
When I open my eyes and I see my sons
目を開け かつて父がいた場所に
17:42
in the place where my father once sat,
息子たちを見ると
17:44
I feel an invisible loyalty and love
息子たちが会ったことのない父と
17:47
linking my sons to the grandfather whose face they never had a chance to see,
忠誠心や愛でつながっているのを感じます
17:49
but whose heart and soul they have come to know
私の話を通じて
17:53
through all the stories I have told.
父の心が分かるようになったのでしょう
17:55
Which is why, in the end, I shall always be grateful for this curious love of history,
だから 過去を振り返るのに一生をかけさせてくれた―
17:58
allowing me to spend a lifetime looking back into the past.
歴史に対する好奇心に私はいつも感謝するのです
18:01
Allowing me to learn from these large figures
このような偉人から人生の辛苦がもつ
18:05
about the struggle for meaning for life.
意味を学ばさせてもらい
18:08
Allowing me to believe that the private people
亡くなった愛する家族や
18:10
we have loved and lost in our families,
歴史上の尊敬する著名人を
18:12
and the public figures we have respected in our history,
信じさせてもらい
18:14
just as Abraham Lincoln wanted to believe,
リンカーンが望んだように
18:17
really can live on, so long as we pledge
彼らの人生を何度も語る約束をすると
18:19
to tell and to retell the stories of their lives.
彼らは確かに生き続けるのです
18:22
Thank you for letting me be that storyteller today.
今日はこの話をさせてもらえて光栄です
18:26
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:28
Thank you.
ありがとう
18:29
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Aiko McLean

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About the Speaker:

Doris Kearns Goodwin - Historian
Doris Kearns Goodwin writes insightful books on the US Presidency (JFK, LBJ, FDR and Lincoln, so far), telling each president's personal story against the backdrop of history.

Why you should listen

Doris Kearns Goodwin is one of the great popularizers of presidential history. Her books on Lyndon Johnson, the Kennedys, and the wartime Roosevelts all became best-sellers, thanks to her ability to tell a truly human story around these larger-than-life men and women.

Her latest book, Team of Rivals, follows Abraham Lincoln, a brilliant young country lawyer, as he rises to the US Presidency and draws his former political opponents into his circle of advisors. (The book is the basis for Steven Spielberg's next film.)

Goodwin nurses a parallel fascination for baseball, the subject of her beloved memoir Wait Till Next Year. In 2007, she was a finalist candidate for the presidency of Red Sox Nation.

More profile about the speaker
Doris Kearns Goodwin | Speaker | TED.com