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TED2009

Sophal Ear: Escaping the Khmer Rouge

ソーパール・イアー: クメール・ルージュからの脱出

February 6, 2009

TEDフェローであるソーパール・イアーがクメール・ルージュ支配下にあったカンボジアから脱出した家族の感動的な体験を話します。イアーの母が子どもたちを救うために選んだ知恵と決意を物語ります。

Sophal Ear - Development economist
Sophal Ear leads research on post-conflict countries -- looking at the effectiveness of foreign aid and the challenge of development in places like his native land, Cambodia. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I normally teach courses on
私は戦後の国家再建の仕方を
00:12
how to rebuild states after war.
教える仕事をしていますが
00:15
But today I've got a personal story to share with you.
今日は自らの体験談をお話します
00:19
This is a picture of my family,
これは私の家族の写真です
00:21
my four siblings -- my mom and I -- taken in 1977.
1977年に撮った写真で 4人の兄妹 母 私が写っています
00:24
And we're actually Cambodians.
私たちはカンボジア人ですが
00:28
And this picture is taken in Vietnam.
この写真はベトナムで撮りました
00:30
So how did a Cambodian family end up in Vietnam in 1977?
1977年にどうやってカンボジア人の家族がベトナムへ渡ったのでしょう
00:32
Well to explain that, I've got a short video clip
1975年から1979年の間の
00:36
to explain the Khmer Rouge regime
クメールルージュ政権を
00:39
during 1975 and 1979.
説明する短いビデオを用意しました
00:41
Video: April 17th, 1975.
1975年4月17日
00:44
The communist Khmer Rouge
共産党クメールルージュは
00:48
enters Phnom Penh to liberate their people
ベトナム侵略で起きる闘争やアメリカ軍の空爆から
00:50
from the encroaching conflict in Vietnam,
人民を解放するために
00:53
and American bombing campaigns.
プノンペンを陥落しました
00:55
Led by peasant-born Pol Pot,
農家出身のポルポトに導かれ
00:59
the Khmer Rouge evacuates people to the countryside
クメールルージュは共産党ユートピアをつくるため
01:02
in order to create a rural communist utopia,
人々を農村へ移住させました
01:06
much like Mao Tse-tung's Cultural Revolution in China.
毛沢東の中国文化大革命と非常に似ています
01:09
The Khmer Rouge closes the doors to the outside world.
クメールルージュは外国と国交を絶ちましたが
01:15
But after four years the grim truth seeps out.
4年後 国は酷い状況へと陥りました
01:19
In a country of only seven million people,
人口わずか700万人の国において
01:23
one and a half million were murdered by their own leaders,
150万人が自らの指導者により虐殺され
01:25
their bodies piled in the mass graves of the killing fields.
キリングフィールドの集団墓地は死体の山となりました
01:29
Sophal Ear: So, notwithstanding the 1970s narration,
このビデオで語られているのは事実です
01:33
on April 17th 1975
1975年4月17日
01:36
we lived in Phnom Penh.
私たちはプノンペンで暮らしていました
01:38
And my parents were told by the Khmer Rouge
私の両親はクメールルージュに
01:40
to evacuate the city because of impending American bombing for three days.
米軍の3日間に渡る空爆が差し迫っているため避難するように言われました
01:43
And here is a picture of the Khmer Rouge.
これはクメールルージュの写真です
01:47
They were young soldiers, typically child soldiers.
兵士は若く だいたいは子どもでした
01:49
And this is very normal now, of modern day conflict,
これは現代の戦闘で よく見られる事です
01:52
because they're easy to bring into wars.
子どもを戦争に送るのが簡単なためです
01:55
The reason that they gave about American bombing wasn't all that far off.
米国による空爆の話は 全くの嘘ではありません
01:58
I mean, from 1965 to 1973 there were
1965年から1973年に
02:02
more munitions that fell on Cambodia
カンボジアに落とされた弾薬は
02:04
than in all of World War II Japan,
広島と長崎に投下された―
02:08
including the two nuclear bombs
原子爆弾を含め
02:10
of August 1945.
日本が第二次大戦中に落とされた弾薬以上の量でした
02:12
The Khmer Rouge didn't believe in money.
クメールルージュは お金の価値を信じていなかったので
02:15
So the equivalent of the Federal Reserve Bank
連邦準備銀行に相当する
02:18
in Cambodia was bombed.
銀行まで爆破し
02:20
But not just that, they actually banned money.
貨幣の使用を禁止しました
02:22
I think it's the only precedent in which
お金が廃止されたのは
02:25
money has ever been stopped from being used.
先例がないと思います
02:27
And we know money is the root of all evil,
お金は諸悪の根源ではありますが
02:29
but it didn't actually stop evil from happening in Cambodia, in fact.
お金の廃止により カンボジアの悪事が止まることはありませんでした
02:31
My family was moved from Phnom Penh to Pursat province.
私の家族はプノンペンからポーサット州へと移されました
02:35
This is a picture of what Pursat looks like.
これはポーサットの風景です
02:39
It's actually a very pretty area of Cambodia,
カンボジアの中でも とてもきれいな地方で
02:41
where rice growing takes place.
稲作が行われる地域です
02:44
And in fact they were forced to work the fields.
人々は畑仕事を強制され
02:46
So my father and mother ended up in
私の両親は 強制収容所に
02:48
a sort of concentration camp, labor camp.
行くことになってしまいました
02:51
And it was at that time that my mother got word
その頃 母は
02:54
from the commune chief
地域の長から
02:56
that the Vietnamese were actually asking
ベトナム人はベトナムへ戻るように
02:59
for their citizens to go back to Vietnam.
言われている事を聞きました
03:01
And she spoke some Vietnamese,
母は子どもの頃 ベトナム人の
03:04
as a child having grown up with Vietnamese friends.
友達がいたので ベトナム語が少し話せました
03:06
And she decided, despite the advice of her neighbors,
それで母は近所の人たちの反対があったにも関わらず
03:09
that she would take the chance
一か八か ベトナム人であると
03:13
and claim to be Vietnamese
主張することにしました
03:15
so that we could have a chance to survive,
生き延びるためにしたことです
03:17
because at this point they're forcing everybody to work.
当時は みんな強制労働をさせられ
03:19
And they're giving about --
現代のカロリー制限のような
03:21
in a modern-day, caloric-restriction diet, I guess --
食事を与えられていました
03:23
they're giving porridge, with a few grains of rice.
お米が数粒しか入っていないお粥です
03:26
And at about this time actually
ちょうど この頃
03:30
my father got very sick.
父が病気になりました
03:32
And he didn't speak Vietnamese.
父はベトナム語は話せませんでした
03:34
So he died actually, in January 1976.
父が1976年の1月に亡くなったことで
03:36
And it made it possible, in fact,
この計画を実行させることが
03:39
for us to take on this plan.
可能になったのです
03:42
So the Khmer Rouge took us
クメールルージュは私たちを
03:44
from a place called Pursat to Kaoh Tiev,
ポーサットから
03:46
which is across from the border from Vietnam.
ベトナム国境沿いのコーチエブという場所に移しました
03:48
And there they had a detention camp
そこには抑留所があり
03:51
where alleged Vietnamese would be tested, language tested.
ベトナム人だと思われる人の言語テストするのです
03:53
And my mother's Vietnamese was so bad
私の母のベトナム語はとても下手だったので
03:57
that to make our story more credible,
少しでも真実らしく見せるために
04:00
she'd given all the boys and girls new Vietnamese names.
私たち子どもたちはベトナム語の名前がつけられました
04:04
But she'd given the boys girls' names,
でも 母は息子には女の子の名前を
04:07
and the girls boys' names.
娘には男の子の名前をつけてしまったのです
04:09
And it wasn't until she met a Vietnamese lady
それは あるベトナム人女性と出会うまで
04:12
who told her this, and then tutored her for two days intensively,
わかりませんでしたが 彼女は2日間に渡り 母にベトナム語の特訓をして
04:14
that she was able to go into her exam
母はテストの準備をしました
04:18
and -- you know, this was a moment of truth.
それは まさに正念場でした
04:21
If she fails, we're all headed to the gallows;
もし失敗すれば 私たち家族は絞首刑となり
04:24
if she passes, we can leave to Vietnam.
パスできれば ベトナムへ行けるのです
04:27
And she actually, of course -- I'm here, she passes.
もちろん私がここにいるのも 母がパスしたからで
04:29
And we end up in Hong Ngu on the Vietnamese side.
私たちはベトナム側のホングーに落ち着き
04:33
And then onwards to Chau Doc.
チョードックへと行きました
04:36
And this is a picture of Hong Ngu, Vietnam today.
これは現在のホングーの写真です
04:38
A pretty idyllic place on the Mekong Delta.
メコンデルタにある田園風の場所ですが
04:40
But for us it meant freedom.
ここは私たちには自由を意味していました
04:42
And freedom from persecution from the Khmer Rouge.
クメールルージュの迫害からの自由です
04:44
Last year, the Khmer Rouge Tribunal,
去年 国連からの支援を受け
04:49
which the U.N. is helping Cambodia take on,
クメールルージュ裁判が始まりました
04:52
started, and I decided that as a matter of record
私は公判録を残すために
04:54
I should file a Civil Complaint
父の死に関して裁判に
04:56
with the Tribunal about my father's passing away.
民事申し立てを提出することにしました
04:59
And I got word last month
そして先月 その申し立てが
05:02
that the complaint was officially accepted by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal.
クメールルージュ裁判に正式に受領されたと聞きました
05:05
And it's for me a matter of justice for history, and accountability for the future,
この裁判は歴史上の正義であり 未来への責任を果たすことなのです
05:08
because Cambodia remains a pretty lawless place, at times.
なぜならカンボジアは時として無法地帯となるからです
05:13
Five years ago my mother and I went back to Chau Doc.
5年前 私は母と共に チョードックへ行きました
05:18
And she was able to return to a place
当時 カンボジアから脱出したばかりだったため
05:22
that for her meant freedom, but also fear,
母には 自由を意味しながらも
05:24
because we had just come out of Cambodia.
恐怖を感じていた場所へ戻ったのです
05:27
I'm happy, actually, today, to present her.
今日は母を紹介でき 嬉しく思います
05:30
She's here today with us in the audience.
母が来てくれました
05:34
Thank you mother.
お母さん ありがとう
05:36
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:38
Translator:Takako Sato
Reviewer:Chieko Tamakawa

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Sophal Ear - Development economist
Sophal Ear leads research on post-conflict countries -- looking at the effectiveness of foreign aid and the challenge of development in places like his native land, Cambodia.

Why you should listen

Elected to the Crescenta Valley Town Council in November 2015 for a 3-year term, encompassing more than 20,000 residents in unincorporated La Crescenta and Montrose, California, Sophal Ear, Ph.D., is a tenured Associate Professor of Diplomacy & World Affairs at Occidental College in Los Angeles where he lectures on political economy, security, development and Asia.

Previously, he taught how to rebuild countries after wars at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School and international development at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University. He consulted for the World Bank, was Assistant Resident Representative for the United Nations in East Timor and Advisor to Cambodia's 1st private equity fund Leopard Capital. A TED Fellow, Fulbright Specialist, Term Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Young Global Leader of the World Economic Forum, he sits on the board of the Nathan Cummings Foundation, Refugees International, Partners for Development, the Southeast Asia Resource Action Center, the Southeast Asia Development Program, Diagnostic Microbiology Development Program, the Journal of International Relations and Development (Palgrave), the International Public Management Journal (Taylor & Francis), Journal of South-East Asian American Education & Advancement (Purdue), and Politics and the Life Sciences (Cambridge University Press).

He is the author of Aid Dependence in Cambodia: How Foreign Assistance Undermines Democracy (Columbia University Press, 2013) and co-author of The Hungry Dragon: How China’s Resources Quest is Reshaping the World (Routledge, 2013). He wrote and narrated the award-winning documentary film "The End/Beginning: Cambodia" (47 minutes, 2011) based on his 2009 TED Talk and has appeared in four other documentaries.

A graduate of Princeton and Berkeley, he moved to the United States from France as a Cambodian refugee at the age of 10.

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