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TEDIndia 2009

Anupam Mishra: The ancient ingenuity of water harvesting

阿努帕姆•密斯拉:收获自然之水的古老智慧

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阿努帕姆•密斯拉以其超凡的智慧和幽默的谈吐,介绍了几个世纪以前印度金色沙漠里人们为了获得自然之水建造出的令人吃惊的技艺。这些建筑至今仍被延用,并且往往优越于现代大型的储水项目方案。

- Environmental activist
To promote smart water management, Anupam Mishra works to preserve rural India’s traditional rainwater harvesting techniques. Full bio

For emotions, we should not move quickly to the desert.
从感情上,我们最好不要很快地转移到沙漠上。
00:15
So, first, a small housekeeping announcement:
所以首先我发布一个小小的管家告示:
00:21
please switch off your
请关掉您
00:27
proper English check programs
大脑里安装的传统意义上的
00:29
installed in your brain.
英文检测程序。
00:32
(Applause)
(掌声)
00:35
So, welcome to the Golden Desert, Indian desert.
那么下面,欢迎你们来到金色的印度沙漠。
00:39
It receives the least rainfall in the country,
这里只能获得这个国度里最低的降雨量。
00:44
lowest rainfall.
最低的降雨量。
00:47
If you are well-versed with inches, nine inches,
如果你习惯于使用英尺单位,9英尺,
00:49
centimeters, 16 [centimeters].
厘米,16英尺。
00:53
The groundwater is 300 feet deep, 100 meters.
地下水有300英尺深,相当于100米深。
00:55
And in most parts it is saline, not fit for drinking.
并且绝大多数是盐湖,不适合饮用。
01:00
So, you can't install hand pumps or dig wells,
所以,尽管这里大多数的村子里没有电力供应,
01:05
though there is no electricity in most of the villages.
你同样不能安装手压泵或是打井以解决他们的饮水问题。
01:08
But suppose you use the green technology, solar pumps --
然而设想你使用绿色环保技术,太阳能抽水泵—
01:11
they are of no use in this area.
在这块土地上他们一样没有任何作用。
01:16
So, welcome to the Golden Desert.
欢迎大家来到金色的沙漠。
01:19
Clouds seldom visit this area.
云朵很少光临这里。
01:22
But we find 40 different names of clouds in this dialect used here.
但是我们却在这里找到四十种不同的方言来命名它。
01:25
There are a number of techniques to harvest rain.
这里有许多用来接收雨水的技术。
01:34
This is a new work, it's a new program.
这是一项新兴事业,一个新的程序。
01:37
But for the desert society
然而对于沙漠社会
01:40
this is no program; this is their life.
这里没有程序可言;这是他们的生活方式。
01:42
And they harvest rain in many ways.
并且他们通过很多途径获得雨水。
01:46
So, this is the first device they use
看这里,这是他们使用过的第一个
01:50
in harvesting rain.
用于接收雨水的装置。
01:53
It's called kunds; somewhere it is called [unclear].
被称作“kunds”;有些地方称它为[印度语]
01:55
And you can notice they have created
你们可以注意到他们已经创造出
01:58
a kind of false catchment.
一种不实际的集水池。
02:02
The desert is there, sand dunes, some small field.
沙漠在那里,沙丘,一些小块儿的区域。
02:05
And this is all big raised platform.
这是一个高高凸起的平台,
02:08
You can notice the small holes
你们可以看到一些小孔,
02:12
the water will fall on this catchment,
使得雨水从这里流向这个集水池,
02:15
and there is a slope.
这里还有一个斜坡。
02:17
Sometimes our engineers and architects
虽然有时我们的工程师和建筑设计师
02:19
do not care about slopes in bathrooms,
并不那么关心我们浴室里的斜坡,
02:23
but here they will care properly.
但在这里,他们将适当地关注这些斜坡。
02:26
And the water will go where it should go.
以及雨水应该流向什么地方。
02:28
And then it is 40 feet deep.
于是它有40英尺深。
02:31
The waterproofing is done perfectly,
他的防水层处理得无懈可击。
02:35
better than our city contractors,
建造水平好过我们城市里的建筑承包商,
02:39
because not a single drop should go waste in this.
因为在这里哪怕是一滴水都不应该被浪费。
02:42
They collect 100 thousand liters in one season.
他们在一个季节里收集近十万升的雨水。
02:47
And this is pure drinking water.
这是仅供饮用的水。
02:52
Below the surface there is hard saline water.
地表以下是咸咸的硬水。
02:56
But now you can have this for year round.
而如今在大约一年的时间里,你可以持续拥有这些饮用水。
03:00
It's two houses.
这里有两个房子。
03:04
We often use a term called bylaws.
我们经常用到一个专业术语叫做次要法规。
03:06
Because we are used to get written things.
因为我们曾经获得过书面文件,
03:09
But here it is unwritten by law.
但并未立法。
03:13
And people made their house,
人们建造自己的房子
03:16
and the water storage tanks.
和储水槽。
03:19
These raised up platforms just like this stage.
这些凸起的平台就像这个舞台。
03:23
In fact they go 15 feet deep,
事实上他们有15英尺深,
03:29
and collect rain water from roof,
收集来自屋顶的雨水,
03:31
there is a small pipe, and from their courtyard.
这里有一个小小的管道,来自他们的院子里。
03:34
It can also harvest something like 25,000 in a good monsoon.
如果赶上一个多雨的雨季它可以收集大约25000.
03:37
Another big one,
另一个大一些的,
03:43
this is of course out of the hardcore desert area.
当然它没有坐落在沙漠的中心。
03:45
This is near Jaipur. This is called the Jaigarh Fort.
这里临近斋浦尔。这里被叫做斋格尔古堡。
03:51
And it can collect six million gallons of rainwater in one season.
它可以在一个季度里收集六百万加仑的雨水。
03:55
The age is 400 years.
已经有400年的历史。
04:01
So, since 400 years it has been giving you
所以在这400年里每个季度它都为你供应
04:04
almost six million gallons of water per season.
近六百万加仑的水量。
04:08
You can calculate the price of that water.
你可以估算出那些水的价格。
04:13
It draws water from 15 kilometers of canals.
它通过15公里长的管道系统收集雨水。
04:16
You can see a modern road, hardly 50 years old.
你可能会看到一条现代的公路,有时几乎不到50年,
04:21
It can break sometimes.
就会出现断裂破损。
04:26
But this 400 year old canal, which draws water,
但是这已经使用了400年的用来集水的陈旧管道,
04:29
it is maintained for so many generations.
却被好几代人一直维护着。
04:32
Of course if you want to go inside, the two doors are locked.
当然如果你想进去,有两个门是锁着的。
04:35
But they can be opened for TED people.
但是它们会为TED人敞开的。
04:39
(Laughter)
(笑声)
04:42
And we request them.
我们请求他们的允许。
04:43
You can see person coming up with
你看到的这个人提着
04:45
two canisters of water.
两桶水。
04:48
And the water level -- these are not empty canisters --
可以看到桶内水平面--这些可不是空桶--
04:50
water level is right up to this.
水面一直到这里。
04:53
It can envy many municipalities,
它可以遭到许多其他自治区的垂涎,
04:56
the color, the taste, the purity of this water.
它的颜色,它的味道,以及它的纯洁。
04:59
And this is what they call Zero B type of water,
这就是被他们称作Zero B的纯净水,
05:04
because it comes from the clouds,
因为这些水来自于云层,
05:08
pure distilled water.
是纯正的蒸馏水。
05:10
We stop for a quick commercial break,
让我们为一个短暂的商业断开稍停片刻,
05:13
and then we come back to the traditional systems.
然后我们要回到传统的输水系统。
05:16
The government thought that this is a very
政府认为这里是一个非常
05:19
backward area and we should bring
落后的区域,应该不惜斥资
05:22
a multi-million dollar project
数百万建立
05:24
to bring water from the Himalayas.
喜马拉雅山水源引入的项目。
05:27
That's why I said that this is a commercial break.
那就是为什么我刚刚说这是一个“商业断开”。
05:30
(Laughter)
(笑声)
05:33
But we will come back, once again,
但是我们将要再次回到
05:34
to the traditional thing.
这个传统的引水系统。
05:36
So, water from 300, 400 kilometers away,
于是,从三四百公里外引水于此,
05:38
soon it become like this.
不久就变成了这样。
05:42
In many portions, water hyacinth
在许多部分,水风信子
05:44
covered these big canals like anything.
拼命地蔓延着这些巨大的引水河道。
05:46
Of course there are some areas where water is reaching,
当然,这里有一些地区确实接收到了通过引水管道来自喜马拉雅山的水,
05:51
I'm not saying that it is not reaching at all.
我并没有说它完全无效。
05:53
But the tail end, the Jaisalmer area,
但是在它的末端,斋沙默尔地区,
05:56
you will notice in Bikaner things like this:
你将会注意到在比卡内尔发生的事情就像这样:
06:00
where the water hyacinth couldn't grow,
哪里水风信子不能生长,
06:03
the sand is flowing in these canals.
哪里就会有沙子流入管道。
06:05
The bonus is that you can find wildlife around it.
值得庆幸的是,你可以在其周围找到围绕着它的野生物种。
06:10
(Laughter)
(笑声)
06:14
We had full-page advertisements,
我们有大量整幅的广告,
06:17
some 30 years, 25 years ago when this canal came.
几十年前,当这些管道建成时,
06:20
They said that throw away your traditional systems,
让人们抛弃以往传统的储水系统,
06:24
these new cement tanks will supply you piped water.
宣称这些新建的水泥槽子可以为人们提供管道水,
06:28
It's a dream. And it became a dream also.
那是每一个人的梦想。然而它真的变成了一个梦。
06:32
Because soon the water was not able to reach these areas.
因为随后的日子里引水不能到达这些地方,
06:36
And people started renovating their own structures.
人们开始重新修建他们自己传统的储水设备。
06:43
These are all traditional water structures,
这些全部是传统的蓄水设备,
06:48
which we won't be able to explain in such a short time.
因为时间的原因我不能在此做更进一步的解释。
06:51
But you can see that no woman is standing on those.
但是你可以看到那个女人正站在上面。
06:55
(Laughter)
(笑声)
06:59
And they are plaiting hair.
她们正在编辫子。
07:00
(Applause)
(掌声)
07:02
Jaisalmer. This is heart of desert.
斋沙默尔,这里是沙漠的中心,
07:06
This town was established 800 years ago.
这个城镇被建立于800年前。
07:09
I'm not sure by that time
我不是很确定在那个时候
07:13
Bombay was there, or Delhi was there,
孟买是不是在那里,德里是不是在那里,
07:16
or Chennai was there, or Bangalore was there.
金奈是不是在那里,班加罗尔又是不是在那里。
07:18
So, this was the terminal point for silk route.
所以这里是丝绸之路的终点。
07:21
Well connected, 800 years ago, through Europe.
有优越的社会关系,800年以前,通往欧洲。
07:24
None of us were able to go to Europe,
我们没有人可以到达欧洲,
07:29
but Jaisalmer was well connected to it.
但是斋沙默尔却一直与那里保持着很好的联系,
07:33
And this is the 16 centimeter area.
这就是只有16厘米降雨量的地方。
07:36
Such a limited rainfall,
降雨量如此有限的地区
07:40
and highest colorful life flourished in these areas.
却繁荣着最多姿多彩的生活。
07:43
You won't find water in this slide.
虽然你在这个幻灯片里看不到水,
07:49
But it is invisible.
但它是暗藏的。
07:52
Somewhere a stream or a rivulet
某处的小河或小溪
07:54
is running through here.
会流经于此。
07:58
Or, if you want to paint, you can paint it blue throughout
或许,如果你想作画,你可以把这里画成蓝色,
08:01
because every roof which you see in this picture
因为在这张图片里你看到的每一个屋顶
08:05
collects rainwater drops
都是用来收集雨水的,
08:09
and deposit in the rooms.
并把这些雨水引入屋里储存起来。
08:11
But apart from this system,
但是除了这个系统,
08:16
they designed 52 beautiful water bodies around this town.
他们还围绕着这个城镇设计了52个美丽的储水池。
08:19
And what we call private public partnership
这就是我们所说的公私合作公司,
08:25
you can add estate also.
你也可以加入你的土地。
08:29
So, estate, public and private entrepreneurs
所以,土地、公有的和个人的公司
08:32
work together to build this beautiful water body.
一起为建设这样美丽的贮水池而合力工作。
08:36
And it's a kind of water body for all seasons.
它是一种适合任何季节的贮水池。
08:40
You will admire it. Just behold the beauty throughout the year.
你将会赞美它,哪怕只是终年地注视着它的美丽。
08:45
Whether water level goes up or down,
无论水位升起或回落,
08:49
the beauty is there throughout.
它的美丽是自始至终存在的。
08:51
Another water body, dried up, of course,
另一个贮水池,干涸了,当然
08:53
during the summer period,
是在夏季里。
08:56
but you can see how the traditional society
但你可以看到古代社会是如何
08:58
combines engineering with aesthetics, with the heart.
用心地将工程学与美学结合在一起。
09:03
These statues, marvelous statues,
这些雕像,这些令人惊异的雕像,
09:08
gives you an idea of water table.
为你提供着地下水位的信息。
09:11
When this rain comes and the water starts filling this tank,
当雨季来临,雨水开始填满这个槽子,
09:14
it will submerge these beautiful statues
它将掩盖住这些美丽的雕像,
09:19
in what we call in English today "mass communication."
如同我们今天常说的“大众传媒工具”。
09:22
This was for mass communication.
这就是为了达到大众传媒的目的。
09:25
Everybody in the town will know that this elephant has drowned,
当人们看到大象被淹没时,每个人都可以根据大象被淹没的位置
09:28
so water will be there for seven months or nine months,
判断出储水量可以供应7个月,9个月
09:32
or 12 months.
或者12个月。
09:35
And then they will come and worship this pond,
然后他们会来到这个池子前做礼拜,
09:37
pay respect, their gratitude.
瞻仰并感恩。
09:40
Another small water body, called the [unclear].
另一个小贮水池叫做[印度语],
09:43
It is difficult to translate in English,
很难将它翻译成英文,
09:46
especially in my English.
特别是以我的英语水平。
09:48
But the nearest would be "glory," a reputation.
但是最贴切的词语应该是“荣誉”,一个名誉。
09:50
The reputation in desert of this small water body is
这个小小的贮水池在沙漠中的名气源于
09:53
that it never dries up.
它从未干涸过。
09:57
In severe drought periods
即使在严重干旱的时期,
10:00
nobody has seen this water body
也没有人见到过它
10:03
getting dried up.
曾经干涸。
10:05
And perhaps they knew the future also.
或许他们早知道将来也会是这样。
10:07
It was designed some 150 years ago.
这个贮水池已有150多年的历史。
10:14
But perhaps they knew that on sixth, November, 2009,
又或许他们早已预知在2009年11月6日
10:17
there will be a TED green and blue session,
这里会有一个蓝绿色的TED演讲,
10:21
so they painted it like this.
所以他们把它画成了这个样子。
10:25
(Laughter)
(笑声)
10:27
(Applause)
(掌声)
10:28
Dry water body. Children are standing on
这是一口干涸的贮水池。孩子们正站在
10:33
a very difficult device to explain.
一个很难解释的设备上。
10:36
This is called kund. We have, in English, surface water and ground water.
这个叫做kund。在英语里我们有地表水和地下水。
10:39
But this is not ground water.
但是它不是地下水。
10:44
You can draw ground water from any well.
你可以通过任何一口井来汲取地下水,
10:46
But this is no ordinary well.
但是这里没有普通的井。
10:48
It squeeze the moisture
它榨取的是沙子里
10:51
hidden in the sand.
暗藏的水分。
10:55
And they have dubbed this water as the third one called [unclear].
他们把这种水称作[印度语]。
10:57
And there is a gypsum belt running below it.
在它的下面有一条带状的石膏物质汲取着水分,
11:01
And it was deposited by the great mother Earth,
它是大自然的产物,
11:06
some three million years ago.
大约在三百万年前就开始形成了,
11:10
And where we have this gypsum strip
哪里有这种石膏样的物质,
11:13
they can harvest this water.
他们就可以从哪里获得水分。
11:16
This is the same dry water body.
这也是一个干涸的贮水池,
11:18
Now, you don't find any kund;
现在,你找不到那些kund;
11:20
they are all submerged.
他们全部被水淹没了。
11:23
But when the water goes down they will be able
但是当水位下降时,
11:25
to draw water from those structures throughout the year.
他们又开始通过那些复杂的结构全年不间断地汲取水分。
11:28
This year they have received only six centimeters.
今年他们只收到了六厘米,
11:31
Six centimeter of rainfall,
六厘米的降雨量,
11:35
and they can telephone you
他们会给你打电话
11:38
that if you find any water problem in your city,
如果你在你的城市,
11:40
Delhi, Bombay, Bangalore, Mysore,
德里,孟买,班加罗尔,或者迈索尔遇到了用水的困难,
11:43
please come to our area of six centimeters, we can give you water.
邀请你到我们这个六厘米降雨量的地区,告诉你我们将为你提供水资源。
11:45
(Laughter)
(笑声)
11:49
How they maintain them?
人们是怎么维护他们的?
11:50
There are three things: concept, planning,
这里有三要素原则:“观念,规划,实事求是”
11:52
making the actual thing, and also maintaining them.
并且要坚守原则。
11:55
It is a structure for maintain,
它是一个维护准则,
11:58
for centuries, by generations, without any department,
代代相传使用了几个世纪,没有任何政府部门负责管理,
12:00
without any funding,
没有获得过任何拨款,
12:05
So the secret is "[unclear]," respect.
所以它的秘诀就是“印度语”,尊重。
12:07
Your own thing, not personal property,
你们自己的东西,不是私人财产,
12:12
my property, every time.
我的财产,任何时候。
12:16
So, these stone pillars
所以,这些石柱
12:19
will remind you that you are entering into a water body area.
将提醒你已经进入了一个贮水池的内部。
12:21
Don't spit, don't do anything wrong,
不要吐痰,不要做任何不该做的事情,
12:25
so that the clean water can be collected.
以致这些干净的水能够被收集起来。
12:27
Another pillar, stone pillar on your right side.
另一个柱子,在你右侧的石柱。
12:30
If you climb these three, six steps
如果你向上攀登三、六个台阶,
12:33
you will find something very nice.
你将会发现一些很美妙的东西。
12:36
This was done in 11th century.
这里被建于11世纪。
12:39
And you have to go further down.
你必须继续向下走。
12:42
They say that a picture is worth a thousand words,
有人说用千言万语都不足以描绘一幅图画,
12:45
so we can say a thousand words right now,
所以此刻我们可以说上一千个词语,
12:48
an another thousand words.
又是一千个词语。
12:51
If the water table goes down,
如果水位下降,
12:53
you will find new stairs.
你将会发现新的台阶。
12:55
If it comes up, some of them will be submerged.
当水位上升时,其中的某些部分则将被淹没。
12:57
So, throughout the year
所以,在全年里
13:01
this beautiful system will give you some pleasure.
这个美丽的体系将周而复始的为你带来不尽的快乐。
13:03
Three sides, such steps, on the fourth side
贮水池的三面全部由这些台阶构成,在它的第四面
13:08
there is a four-story building
有一个四层楼的建筑,
13:10
where you can organize such TED conferences anytime.
你们可以随时在那里组织TED的会议。
13:12
(Applause)
(掌声)
13:17
Excuse me, who built these structures?
抱歉,请问是谁建造的这些建筑物?
13:23
They are in front of you.
他们就呈现在你们眼前。
13:27
The best civil engineers we had, the best planners,
我们最好的土木工程师,最棒的策划人,
13:29
the best architects.
最有天赋的建筑设计师。
13:33
We can say that because of them,
我们可以说正是因为他们,
13:35
because of their forefathers,
因为他们这些先人,
13:37
India could get the first engineering college
印度才可以在1847年
13:39
in 1847.
拥有了自己第一个工学院。
13:42
There were no English medium schools at that time,
在那个时候,这里没有英语授课学校,
13:45
even no Hindi schools, [unclear] schools.
甚至没有北印度语学校,[印度语]学校。
13:48
But such people, compelled to the East India Company,
但是很多人迫使东印度公司
13:51
which came here for business, a very dirty kind of business ...
为了做生意来到这里,一种非常肮脏的交易…
13:54
(Laughter)
(笑声)
13:58
but not to create the engineering colleges.
而并不是创建工学院,
14:00
But because of them, first engineering college was created
但正是因为他们,第一个工学院的创建不是在城里,
14:03
in a small village, not in the town.
而是在一个小乡村。
14:07
The last point, we all know in our primary schools that
最后一点,我们都知道在小学的课本上写着
14:10
that camel is a ship of desert.
骆驼是“沙漠之舟”。
14:15
So, you can find through your Jeep,
所以你可以通过你的吉普找到
14:18
a camel, and a cart.
一只骆驼,一个手推车。
14:21
This tire comes from the airplane.
这个轮胎原本是一个飞机部件。
14:24
So, look at the beauty from the desert society
所以,看这些沙漠社会里
14:28
who can harvest rainwater,
可以获得雨水的美妙东西,
14:31
and also create something
从一个喷气式飞机废弃轮胎
14:33
through a tire from a jet plane,
被骆驼手推车再次利用,
14:36
and used in a camel cart.
我们还可以看到这个沙漠社会的创造力。
14:40
Last picture, it's a tattoo,
最后一个图片,是一个刺青,
14:42
2,000-years-old tattoo.
2000年前的刺青。
14:45
They were using it on their body.
过去被用在人们的身体上。
14:47
Tattoo was, at one time,
刺青曾经一度是
14:50
a kind of a blacklisted
一种被列入黑名单的
14:52
or con thing, but now it is in thing.
或者是欺骗事物的象征。但如今它是流行文化。
14:54
(Laughter)
(笑声)
14:57
(Applause)
(掌声)
14:59
You can copy this tattoo. I have some posters of this.
你可以复制这个刺青图案。我有一些它的大幅海报。
15:01
(Laughter)
(笑声)
15:04
The center of life is water.
生活的中心是水。
15:07
These are the beautiful waves.
这些是美丽的波纹。
15:12
These are the beautiful stairs
这些是我们刚刚
15:14
which we just saw in one of the slides.
在一张幻灯片上见到过的美丽的台阶。
15:17
These are the trees.
这些是树。
15:20
And these are the flowers which
还有这些带给
15:23
add fragrance to our lives.
我们生活芬芳的花朵。
15:25
So, this is the message of desert.
所以这就是沙漠的主题思想。
15:29
Thank you very much.
非常感谢。
15:32
(Applause)
(掌声)
15:34
Chris Anderson: So, first of all, I wish I had your eloquence, truly, in any language.
克里斯•安德森: 首先,我真诚地希望拥有您超凡的口才,无论是用哪种语言。
16:00
(Applause)
(掌声)
16:04
These artifacts and designs are inspiring.
这些人工制造的物品和设计非常地鼓舞人心。
16:11
Do you believe that they can be used elsewhere,
您是否相信他们可以被世界其他地方
16:17
that the world can learn from this?
学习并得以利用?
16:20
Or is this just right for this place?
或者它只适合这个地方?
16:22
Anupam Mishra: No, the basic idea is to
阿努帕姆•密斯拉:不,根本的想法是
16:24
utilize water that falls on our area.
充分利用本地区的降雨资源。
16:27
So, the ponds, the open bodies, are everywhere,
所以,那些池塘,开放的水池在每一个地方,
16:30
right from Sri Lanka to Kashmir, and in other parts also.
从斯里兰卡到克什米尔地区都适合,甚至其他地区也同样适用。
16:34
And these [unclear], which stored water,
还有这些用来储存水的[印度语],
16:39
there are two type of things.
他们包括两大类,
16:42
One recharge, and one stores.
一类是可再充水的,另一类则是仅用来储存的。
16:44
So, it depends on the terrain.
所以选择哪一类取决于当地的地形及地质结构。
16:46
But kund, which uses the gypsum belt,
但对于通过石膏带汲水的“kund”,
16:49
for that you have to go back to your calendar,
你必须让时间倒转,
16:52
three million years ago.
回到三百万年前,
16:56
If it is there it can be done right now.
如果那个时候它存在,你现在就可以马上使用它了。
16:58
Otherwise, it can't be done.
否则,它肯定不能使用。
17:00
(Laughter)
(笑声)
17:02
(Applause)
(掌声)
17:03
CA: Thank you so much.
克里斯•安德森: 非常感谢。
17:05
(Applause)
(掌声)
17:07
Translated by Cui Shuang
Reviewed by Tony Yet

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About the speaker:

Anupam Mishra - Environmental activist
To promote smart water management, Anupam Mishra works to preserve rural India’s traditional rainwater harvesting techniques.

Why you should listen

Anupam Mishra travels across water-challenged India studying rainwater harvesting methods and learning from the people behind them. He presents his findings to NGOs, development agencies and environmental groups, pulling from centuries of indigenous wisdom that has found water for drinking and irrigation even in extremely arid landscapes through wells, filter ponds and other catchment systems.

A founding member of the Gandhi Peace Foundation, Mishra is working to bridge the gap between modern water management technology and india's heritage of water harvesting, so that every community is self-sustainable and efficiently safekeeping an increasingly scarce and precious resource.

More profile about the speaker
Anupam Mishra | Speaker | TED.com