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TED2007

David Bolinsky: Visualizing the wonder of a living cell

デヴィッド・ボリンスキー 細胞に命を吹き込む

March 3, 2007

医療アニメーターのデヴィッド・ボリンスキーが、細胞の中にみなぎる命について、3分間のアニメーションで紹介します。

David Bolinsky - Medical animator
David Bolinsky and his team illustrate scientific and medical concepts with high-drama animation. You've never seen the life of a cell quite like this. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I'm a medical illustrator,
私は医療イラストレーターです
00:25
and I come from a slightly different point of view.
少し 人とは違った見方を持っているようで
00:28
I've been watching, since I grew up,
昔から見てきたものは
00:31
the expressions of truth and beauty in the arts
芸術における真と美の表現 そして
00:34
and truth and beauty in the sciences.
科学における真と美の表現です
00:38
And while these are both wonderful things in their own right --
どちらもそれ自体で素晴らしいものですが
00:40
they both have very wonderful things going for them --
その中にさらに素晴らしいものを持ち合わせています
00:43
truth and beauty as ideals that can be looked at by the sciences
科学や数学から見た理想としての真と美は 理想的な双子のようなもので
00:46
and by math are almost like the ideal conjoined twins
科学者にとってはきっと理想の
00:52
that a scientist would want to date.
デートの相手です
00:57
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:00
These are expressions of truth as awe-full things,
真と美は畏敬を感じるものとして表現され
01:02
by meaning they are things you can worship.
それゆえに崇拝されるのです
01:07
They are ideals that are powerful. They are irreducible.
強力で それ以下にはなり得ず
01:10
They are unique. They are useful --
ユニークで 役に立つものなのです
01:15
sometimes, often a long time after the fact.
時にそう感じたり あるいはこれから感じることになるでしょう
01:17
And you can actually roll some of the pictures now,
さてそれではスライドを見ていきましょう
01:20
because I don't want to look at me on the screen.
スクリーンに自分の顔が映るのは見たくないですからね
01:22
Truth and beauty are things
真と美は
01:26
that are often opaque to people who are not in the sciences.
科学に携わりのない方々にとってはとても曖昧なものです
01:28
They are things that describe beauty in a way
なぜなら それらは
01:33
that is often only accessible if you understand the language
その表現方法を学んだ人々が使う言葉や方法を
01:39
and the syntax of the person
理解したときに
01:44
who studies the subject in which truth and beauty is expressed.
初めてわかるようなものであるからです
01:46
If you look at the math, E=mc squared,
E=mc² という数式を見たとき
01:49
if you look at the cosmological constant,
宇宙定数を見たとき
01:52
where there's an anthropic ideal, where you see that life had to evolve
人類の理想や 生命の進化の必然性を
01:55
from the numbers that describe the universe --
宇宙を表す数字というものに見たとき
02:00
these are things that are really difficult to understand.
それらはとても理解が難しいものです
02:03
And what I've tried to do
私が医療イラストレーターとして
02:06
since I had my training as a medical illustrator --
修行を始めたときから挑戦し続けてきたこと
02:07
since I was taught animation by my father,
彫刻家であり 私の視覚面の師でもある父に
02:09
who was a sculptor and my visual mentor --
アニメーションについて教わって以来心がけていることは
02:12
I wanted to figure out a way to help people
どうすれば人々が
02:16
understand truth and beauty in the biological sciences
生命科学における真と美を理解できるか
02:20
by using animation, by using pictures, by telling stories
アニメーションや写真を使い 物語を話すことによって
02:24
so that the things that are not necessarily evident to people
人々にとって必ずしも明らかではないものを
02:28
can be brought forth, and can be taught, and can be understood.
明らかにし 教えられ 理解されうるものにするかということです
02:32
Students today are often immersed in an environment
今日の学生は
02:36
where what they learn is subjects that have truth and beauty
真と美が内在していることを学んでいるにもかかわらず
02:42
embedded in them, but the way they're taught is compartmentalized
教えられ方が細分化されているために
02:47
and it's drawn down to the point where the truth and beauty
真と美の存在が見えにくくなってしまっている環境に
02:52
are not always evident.
置かれています
02:57
It's almost like that old recipe for chicken soup
ちょうどチキンスープの古いレシピのように
02:58
where you boil the chicken until the flavor is just gone.
チキンの風味が失われてしまうまでチキンをゆでるようなものです
03:01
We don't want to do that to our students.
学生にはそんなことをしたくありません
03:06
So we have an opportunity to really open up education.
新しい教育への扉を開く機会があるのです
03:08
And I had a telephone call from Robert Lue at Harvard,
そして私は ハーバード大学の
03:12
in the Molecular and Cellular Biology Department,
分子細胞生物学部のローバート・ルー教授から
03:15
a couple of years ago. He asked me if my team and I
数年前に電話をいただき 私のチームが
03:17
would be interested and willing to really change
ハーバード大の医療科学教育を変えることに
03:21
how medical and scientific education is done at Harvard.
興味があるかどうか尋ねられました
03:25
So we embarked on a project that would explore the cell --
そして 細胞を探索できるようなプロジェクトを始めました
03:28
that would explore the truth and beauty inherent
人間が生まれつき持っている真と美を探索できるようなものです
03:33
in molecular and cellular biology
分子細胞生物学において
03:36
so that students could understand a larger picture
学生がより全体を俯瞰できるようにし
03:38
that they could hang all of these facts on.
ずっとそのイメージを持っていられるようにしたのです
03:41
They could have a mental image of the cell
細胞のイメージとして
03:44
as a large, bustling, hugely complicated city
大きく活気のある複雑な都市に ミクロの機械が溢れている様子を
03:47
that's occupied by micro-machines.
思い描けるようにしたのです
03:55
And these micro-machines really are at the heart of life.
このミクロの機械こそが生命の心臓部なのです
03:57
These micro-machines,
このミクロの機械は
04:00
which are the envy of nanotechnologists the world over,
世界中のナノテクノロジー研究者の夢ですが
04:01
are self-directed, powerful, precise, accurate devices
自ら動き 強力で 正確で 精密な装置で
04:05
that are made out of strings of amino acids.
ひも状になったアミノ酸でできています
04:12
And these micro-machines power how a cell moves.
このミクロの機械が細胞を動かし
04:15
They power how a cell replicates. They power our hearts.
細胞を増やし 我々の心臓を動かし
04:19
They power our minds.
我々の心を動かしているわけです
04:24
And so what we wanted to do was to figure out
そして我々が取り組んだのは
04:26
how we could make this story into an animation
これをどのようなアニメーションにし
04:30
that would be the centerpiece of BioVisions at Harvard,
ハーバード大学の「バイオビジョン」という
04:33
which is a website that Harvard has
ウェブサイトの中心プログラムとして
04:37
for its molecular and cellular biology students
分子細胞生物学部の学生用に
04:41
that will -- in addition to all the textual information,
教科書に掲載されている
04:43
in addition to all the didactic stuff --
文字としての情報に加えて
04:48
put everything together visually, so that these students
視覚的な要素を取り入れることによって
04:50
would have an internalized view of what a cell really is
学生が本当の細胞の姿を自分のものにし
04:53
in all of its truth and beauty, and be able to study
その真と美に触れ そうすることによって
04:57
with this view in mind, so that their imaginations would be sparked,
彼らの想像力を輝かせ
05:01
so that their passions would be sparked
彼らの情熱を輝かせ
05:05
and so that they would be able to go on
進み続けることができるように
05:08
and use these visions in their head to make new discoveries
そのイメージを新たな発見のために使えるように
05:10
and to be able to find out, really, how life works.
命がどのように動いているのかを分かるようにしました
05:14
So we set out by looking at how these molecules are put together.
分子がどのように結合しているのかを観察するところから始め
05:17
We worked with a theme, which is, you've got macrophages
マクロファージという 毛細血管を流れる細胞を
05:24
that are streaming down a capillary,
テーマに決めました
05:30
and they're touching the surface of the capillary wall,
毛細血管壁の表面に触れることで
05:32
and they're picking up information from cells
そこにある細胞から情報を得て
05:35
that are on the capillary wall, and they are given this information
外部のどこかに炎症があるという
05:37
that there's an inflammation somewhere outside,
情報を手に入れるのです
05:41
where they can't see and sense.
見ることも感じることもできない場所の情報です
05:44
But they get the information that causes them to stop,
そして自分たちの機能を止めたり
05:46
causes them to internalize that they need to make
多様なパーツを作って形を変えたりする必要が
05:49
all of the various parts that will cause them to change their shape,
あるかもしれないという情報を得たうえで
05:53
and try to get out of this capillary and find out what's going on.
毛細血管から離れ 何が起こっているのかを突き止めるのです
05:58
So these molecular motors -- we had to work
なので ハーバード大学の科学者たちと
06:03
with the Harvard scientists and databank models
正確な原子配置の分子のデータをもとに
06:05
of the atomically accurate molecules
分子のモーターが どのように動き
06:11
and figure out how they moved, and figure out what they did.
何をしているのかを明らかにしようとしました
06:14
And figure out how to do this in a way
そして 何が起こっているのか分かる点では
06:18
that was truthful in that it imparted what was going on,
事実に即しているものの
06:20
but not so truthful that the compact crowding in a cell
一つの細胞に集中しすぎているがために
06:26
would prevent the vista from happening.
全体像が見えなくなっていることに気づきました
06:31
And so what I'm going to show you is a three-minute
これからお見せするのは我々が制作したビデオの
06:34
Reader's Digest version of the first aspect of this film
3分間のダイジェスト版です
06:38
that we produced. It's an ongoing project
まだ進行中のプロジェクトで
06:41
that's going to go another four or five years.
あと4~5年は続くと思います
06:44
And I want you to look at this
このビデオの中で細胞が
06:47
and see the paths that the cell manufactures --
キネシンと呼ばれる小さな歩く機械を生み出す行程を
06:49
these little walking machines, they're called kinesins --
ご覧になってください
06:53
that take these huge loads
重い荷物を運ぶ
06:57
that would challenge an ant in relative size.
アリのようなものです
06:59
Run the movie, please.
始めてください
07:02
But these machines that power the inside of the cells
この機械が細胞を動かしているのですが
07:06
are really quite amazing, and they really are the basis of all life
これが全ての命の基盤と言えます
07:09
because all of these machines interact with each other.
全ての機械がお互いに関わりを持っています
07:13
They pass information to each other.
お互いに情報を共有し
07:18
They cause different things to happen inside the cell.
細胞の中で色々なことを引き起こしています
07:20
And the cell will actually manufacture the parts that it needs
細胞はすぐに
07:23
on the fly, from information
遺伝子を読み込んだ分子の中心から
07:26
that's brought from the nucleus by molecules that read the genes.
情報を引き出し必要なパーツを作るのです
07:28
No life, from the smallest life to everybody here,
小さな生物の命からここにいらっしゃる皆さんの命まで
07:33
would be possible without these little micro-machines.
いかなる命もこの小さなミクロの機械無しでは生きられません
07:38
In fact, it would really, in the absence of these machines,
実際 もしこの機械が無かったら
07:41
have made the attendance here, Chris, really quite sparse.
今日この会場はがら空きだったことでしょう
07:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:47
(Music)
(音楽)
07:51
This is the FedEx delivery guy of the cell.
これは細胞のフェデックスの配達員です
08:03
This little guy is called the kinesin,
この小さな物体がキネシンと呼ばれています
08:07
and he pulls a sack that's full of brand new manufactured proteins
新しくできたたんぱく質でいっぱいの袋を持っていて
08:09
to wherever it's needed in the cell --
それを必要としているものに与えます
08:13
whether it's to a membrane, whether it's to an organelle,
それが細胞膜であろうと 細胞小器官であろうと
08:15
whether it's to build something or repair something.
新しく作ったり直したりするために供給します
08:18
And each of us has about 100,000 of these things
我々の誰もが これを約10万個持っており
08:20
running around, right now,
今現在も 私たちの
08:24
inside each one of your 100 trillion cells.
100兆個の細胞の中で動き回っているのです
08:26
So no matter how lazy you feel,
なので いくらあなたが怠け者でも
08:29
you're not really intrinsically doing nothing.
本質的には働き者ということです
08:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:34
So what I want you to do when you go home
今日家に帰ってから
08:38
is think about this, and think about how powerful our cells are.
我々の細胞がいかに強力であるか考え
08:40
And think about some of the things
我々の細胞の構造について学んだことを
08:44
that we're learning about cellular mechanics.
考えてみてください
08:45
Once we figure out all that's going on --
何が起こっているのか全て分かれば
08:49
and believe me, we know almost a percent of what's going on --
今分かっているのは1%ほどにすぎませんが
08:52
once we figure out what's going on,
何が起こっているのか分かれば
08:56
we're really going to be able to have a lot of control
我々の健康についても思い通りに管理することが
08:57
over what we do with our health,
できるようになるでしょう
09:00
with what we do with future generations,
子孫や寿命といったようなことも
09:02
and how long we're going to live.
分かるようになるかもしれません
09:05
And hopefully we'll be able to use this
そして願わくば そこから
09:07
to discover more truth, and more beauty.
さらなる真や美を発見できるでしょう
09:09
(Music)
(音楽)
09:12
But it's really quite amazing that these cells, these micro-machines,
この細胞 このミクロの機械は素晴らしいことに
09:26
are aware enough of what the cell needs that they do their bidding.
細胞が何を必要としているかを認識し供給します
09:31
They work together. They make the cell do what it needs to do.
細胞に必要なことをやらせることもできます
09:36
And their working together helps our bodies --
私たちの体 つまり彼らが決して見ることのない
09:40
huge entities that they will never see -- function properly.
巨大な存在は 彼らのおかげできちんと機能しているのです
09:46
Enjoy the rest of the show. Thank you.
ありがとうございました 楽しんでください
09:51
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:52
Translator:Rumi Mizuno
Reviewer:Carlo Palaylay

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David Bolinsky - Medical animator
David Bolinsky and his team illustrate scientific and medical concepts with high-drama animation. You've never seen the life of a cell quite like this.

Why you should listen

Medical illustrator and animator David Bolinsky has devoted his career to displaying scientific and medical concepts in a clear, fresh light.

Since the earliest days of computer animation, he knew this art could be a powerful tool for explaining scientific concepts in ways that traditional medical illustration simply couldn't. Now, with XVIVO, the company he co-founded, he works with schools and with medical and scientific firms, turning complex processes into understandable, compelling films.

"The Inner Life of a Cell," highlighted at TED2007, represents the leading edge of medical animation, in both its technical achievement and its focus on compelling, memorable action. Created as part of the BioVision initiative to help explain cellular processes to students at Harvard's Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, the clip has captured the imagination of the press -- and reportedly, of Hollywood.

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