04:33
TED2014

Ziyah Gafić: Everyday objects, tragic histories

ジーア・ガフィック: 身の回りの品に隠れた悲劇の歴史

Filmed:

ジーア・ガフィックは、時計や靴、メガネなどの日用品を写真に撮ります。これらの写真は一見何ということもないものです。しかし、実は被写体の品々はボスニア戦争の集団墓地から発掘されたものなのです。サラエボ生まれで TEDフェローでもあるガフィックは、亡くなった人々を特定しうる形見の品物の生きたアーカイブを作るべく、これらの墓から掘り出された全てのものを写真に撮り続けてきました。

- Photographer + storyteller
To help him come to terms with the tragedy of his own homeland, Bosnian photographer Ziyah Gafić turns his camera on the aftermath of conflict, showing his images in galleries, in books and on Instagram. Full bio

These are simple objects:
これらは 何てことのないモノです
00:12
clocks, keys, combs, glasses.
時計 鍵 クシ 眼鏡
00:14
They are the things the victims of genocide in Bosnia
それらはボスニアの大虐殺の犠牲者たちのもので
00:18
carried with them on their final journey.
最期まで身に付けられていたものです
00:20
We are all familiar with these mundane,
これらのありふれた 日々の暮らしのモノは
00:23
everyday objects.
私たち皆にとってお馴染です
00:26
The fact that some of the victims carried
犠牲者の所持品の中には
00:27
personal items such as
toothpaste and a toothbrush
個人的なモノ-
歯磨き粉や歯ブラシといったものがあり
00:29
is a clear sign they had no idea
迫り来る影について
全く心積りもなかったことが
00:32
what was about to happen to them.
明らかに示されています
00:35
Usually, they were told that they were going to be
大抵は 彼らは戦争の捕虜と
00:37
exchanged for prisoners of war.
交換されるだろうと告げられました
00:39
These items have been recovered
これらの品は私の祖国中の
00:42
from numerous mass graves across my homeland,
おびただしい数の墓から回収され
00:44
and as we speak, forensics are exhuming bodies
このように 戦争から20年後
00:47
from newly discovered mass graves,
科学捜査により
新たに発見された大きな墓から
00:49
20 years after the war.
遺体が発掘されています
00:51
And it is quite possibly the largest ever discovered.
そして おそらくこれまでで最も大きいものです
00:53
During the four years of conflict
90年代初め 4年の戦闘の間に
00:57
that devastated the Bosnian nation in the early '90s,
荒廃したボスニア連合では
00:59
approximately 30,000 citizens, mainly civilians,
約3万人の市民 
主に民間人が行方不明となり
01:02
went missing, presumed killed,
彼らは殺されたと推定されています
01:05
and another 100,000 were killed
さらに10万人が
01:07
during combat operations.
戦闘中に殺されたのです
01:09
Most of them were killed
彼らの殆どは
01:11
either in the early days of the war
戦争の初期か
01:13
or towards the end of the hostilities,
スレブレニツァなどの
01:14
when U.N. safe zones like Srebrenica
国連の安全地帯が
セルビア軍の手中に落ちた
01:16
fell into the hands of the Serb army.
交戦の末期にかけて殺されたのです
01:19
The international criminal tribunal
国際刑事裁判所は
01:22
delivered a number of sentences
人権に反する犯罪や集団虐殺に対し
01:24
for crimes against humanity and genocide.
数多くの刑を宣告しました
01:26
Genocide is a systematic and deliberate
集団虐殺は組織的で綿密な
01:29
destruction of a racial, political, religious
人種 政治 宗教 あるいは民族集団の
01:32
or ethnic group.
大量殺人です
01:36
As much as genocide is about killing.
集団殺戮が殺人であるのと同様に
01:37
It is also about destroying their property,
それは財産を 文化的な遺産を
01:40
their cultural heritage,
そして究極的には
01:43
and ultimately the very notion that they ever existed.
それらが存在していたという観念そのものを
破壊することなのです
01:45
Genocide is not only about the killing;
集団虐殺は殺すことだけではなく
01:48
it is about the denied identity.
個の尊厳の否定でもあるのです
01:51
There are always traces —
完璧な犯罪などというものはなく
01:54
no such thing as a perfect crime.
いつも痕跡があります
01:55
There are always remnants of the perished ones
非業の死の遺物-
脆く はかない遺体よりも
01:57
that are more durable than their fragile bodies
私たちの手前勝手で
やがて薄れゆく記憶よりも
02:00
and our selective and fading memory of them.
「確かな遺物」があるのです
02:02
These items are recovered
これらの品々は
02:06
from numerous mass graves,
あまたの集団墓地から発掘され
02:09
and the main goal of this collection of the items
品々の回収の主な目的は
02:10
is a unique process
ホロコースト以来 ヨーロッパ大陸初の
02:13
of identifying those who disappeared in the killings,
殺戮の最中に
02:15
the first act of genocide on European soil
姿を消した人の身元を特定する
02:18
since the Holocaust.
独自の手順なのです
02:21
Not a single body should remain undiscovered
全ての遺体は発見され
02:22
or unidentified.
身元が特定されるべきなのです
02:25
Once recovered,
一旦回収されると
02:27
these items that the victims carried with them
犠牲者が処刑の際に身に付けていた
02:28
on their way to execution
これらの品々は
02:31
are carefully cleaned, analyzed,
丁寧に洗浄し 鑑定され
02:33
catalogued and stored.
目録管理されます
02:35
Thousands of artifacts are
packed in white plastic bags
数千もの芸術品がCSI(科学捜査)で
観たことがあるような
02:37
just like the ones you see on CSI.
白いポリ袋に詰められています
02:40
These objects are used as a forensic tool
これらの品々は法廷で
02:43
in visual identification of the victims,
犠牲者の視覚識別に使用されますが
02:45
but they are also used as
very valuable forensic evidence
戦闘中の戦争の犯罪審理においても
02:48
in the ongoing war crimes trials.
非常に貴重な
法的証拠として使用されます
02:51
Survivors are occasionally called
生存者は時折 これらの品を立ち合いで
02:54
to try to identify these items physically,
特定するために呼ばれますが
02:56
but physical browsing is extremely difficult,
物理的な視認は非常に難しく
02:59
an ineffective and painful process.
非効率で辛いプロセスです
03:02
Once the forensics and doctors and lawyers
科学捜査と医者と弁護士が
03:05
are done with these objects,
一通り検品を終えると
03:09
they become orphans of the narrative.
それらの品々は物語のみなしごとなるのです
03:10
Many of them get destroyed, believe it or not,
信じられないことに 多くは壊されるか
03:13
or they get simply shelved,
無造作に棚にしまわれ
03:16
out of sight and out of mind.
あっという間に忘れ去られます
03:17
I decided a few years ago
数年前
生存者が楽に閲覧できるように
03:20
to photograph every single exhumed item
発掘された全ての品の
03:22
in order to create a visual archive
ビジュアルアーカイブを
03:25
that survivors could easily browse.
私は作ることにしました
03:27
As a storyteller, I like to give back to the community.
物語の語り部として
社会に恩返ししたいのです
03:30
I like to move beyond raising awareness.
注意喚起以上のことをしたいのです
03:34
And in this case, someone may
誰かしら これらの品に見覚えがある
03:37
recognize these items
という場合もあり得ますし
03:39
or at least their photographs will remain
少なくとも写真は
03:41
as a permanent, unbiased and accurate reminder
起きたことの 歴とした忘れ形見として
03:43
of what happened.
未来永劫 偏見もなく残るわけです
03:47
Photography is about empathy,
写真は共感についての何かであり
03:49
and the familiarity of these
items guarantee empathy.
これらの品に親しみがあれば
共感を呼び起こします
03:51
In this case, I am merely a tool,
ここでは 写真家の私はいわば
03:54
a forensic, if you like,
科学捜査のツールに過ぎませんが
03:57
and the result is a photography that is as close
成果物の写真は 公文書と
03:59
as possible of being a document.
同じように語ってくれるものなのです
04:01
Once all the missing persons are identified,
行方不明者全ての身元が判明すると
04:04
only decaying bodies in their graves
墓の中は腐り行く遺体だけとなり
04:07
and these everyday items will remain.
これらの日用品は残存していくでしょう
04:09
In all their simplicity,
地味ながらも
04:11
these items are the last testament
これらの品は個々の犠牲者の
04:13
to the identity of the victims,
最後の証しなのです
04:15
the last permanent reminder
最後の永遠の忘れ形見
04:17
that these people ever existed.
これらの人々がかつて存在していた証し-
04:19
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
04:21
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:23
Translated by Masami Hisai
Reviewed by Wen Chen

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About the Speaker:

Ziyah Gafić - Photographer + storyteller
To help him come to terms with the tragedy of his own homeland, Bosnian photographer Ziyah Gafić turns his camera on the aftermath of conflict, showing his images in galleries, in books and on Instagram.

Why you should listen

Ziyah Gafić uses his camera to capture the aftermath of war. He has traveled to Pakistan, Iraq and Chechnya to capture beautiful portraits of people carrying on with their lives in the face of destruction; he has photographed the everyday lives of children in Rwanda, a generation born from the widespread use of rape as a weapon during the Rwandan genocide. A moving question runs through his work: After war, how do people manage to keep the fabric of society together?

Gafić's interest in this subject comes from his own biography. Born in Sarajevo, he was a teenager during the Bosnian War of the 1990s. Through photography, he parses what happened in his homeland. For his book Quest for Identity, Gafić photographed the watches, keys, shoes, combs and glasses exhumed from mass graves 20 years after the Bosnian War. These objects are cleaned, catalogued and used to help identify the bodies found with them, but afterwards, they become what Gafić calls “orphans of the narrative,” either destroyed or stored away out of sight and out of mind. His quest is to keep them in view as a last testament to the fact that these people existed, preserving them as an easily accessible visual archive that tells the story of what happened—integrating an objective forensic perspective with human compassion.

More profile about the speaker
Ziyah Gafić | Speaker | TED.com