05:38
TED2010

Nalini Nadkarni: Life science in prison

ナリーニ・ナドカーニ:「刑務所内の生命科学」

Filmed:

ナリーニ・ナドカーニは樹木や刑務所に対する異なる視点を提供してくれます。どちらも考えている以上に躍動的だと言います。ワシントン州との協働により、科学講義、環境保全プログラムを囚人と結びつけ、素晴らしい結果をもたらしています。

- Tree researcher
Called "the queen of canopy research," Nalini Nadkarni explores the rich, vital world found in the tops of trees. She communicates what she finds to non-scientists -- with the help of poets, preachers and prisoners. Full bio

Trees epitomize stasis.
木は静止状態の典型です
00:16
Trees are rooted in the ground in one place
根を張ると何世代もの間
00:19
for many human generations,
同じ地にあります
00:21
but if we shift our perspective
しかし視点を
00:24
from the trunk to the twigs,
幹から小枝に移すと
00:26
trees become very dynamic entities,
木は活発な動体となります
00:28
moving and growing.
動き成長するのです
00:30
And I decided to explore this movement
私はこの動きを探究するため
00:32
by turning trees into artists.
木を芸術家にしました
00:34
I simply tied the end of a paintbrush onto a twig.
単純に 小枝に筆の先端を結びました
00:36
I waited for the wind to come up and held up a canvas,
風を待ち、カンバスを保持しました
00:39
and that produced art.
すると芸術を生み出すのです
00:42
The piece of art you see on your left
左の絵は
00:44
is painted by a western red cedar
ベイスギが
00:46
and that on your right by a Douglas fir,
右はダグラスファーが描きました
00:48
and what I learned was that different species
木にはそれぞれ特徴があり
00:50
have different signatures, like a Picasso versus a Monet.
それはまるでピカソとモネのようです
00:52
But I was also interested in the movement of trees
しかし私は木の動きをどう捉え
00:55
and how this art might let me capture that and quantify it,
数量化するかに興味を持ちました
00:57
so to measure the distance that a single vine maple tree --
それでこの絵を描いたツタカエデの
01:01
which produced this painting -- moved in a single year,
年間運動距離を測るために
01:04
I simply measured and summed
個々のラインを
01:07
each of those lines.
測定合計しました
01:09
I multiplied them by the number of twigs per branch
それに枝1本当りの小枝数と
01:11
and the number of branches per tree
木1本当りの枝数を掛けて
01:14
and then divided that by the number of minutes per year.
1年を分換算したもので割りました
01:16
And so I was able to calculate
それで木1本の
01:19
how far a single tree moved in a single year.
年間運動距離を計算できました
01:21
You might have a guess.
どれだけかわかりますか
01:24
The answer is actually 186,540 miles,
186,540マイル
01:26
or seven times around the globe.
地球7周分です
01:29
And so simply by shifting our perspective from a single trunk
単に視点をひとつの幹から
01:32
to the many dynamic twigs,
たくさんの動的な小枝に移すことで
01:35
we are able to see that trees are not simply static entities,
木は単なる静物ではなく
01:37
but rather extremely dynamic.
極めて躍動的だとわかるのです
01:40
And I began to think about ways that
私はこの木から学んだことの
01:43
we might consider this lesson of trees,
生かし方を考え
01:45
to consider other entities that are also static and stuck,
静的で行き場がないが変化と躍動を
01:47
but which cry for change and dynamicism,
求める他の存在物を考え始めました
01:50
and one of those entities is our prisons.
その1つが刑務所です
01:53
Prisons, of course, are where people who break our laws
刑務所は法を犯した人が
01:56
are stuck, confined behind bars.
監禁拘束されている所です
01:58
And our prison system itself is stuck.
刑務所制度自体も行き詰っています
02:01
The United States has over 2.3 million
全米で230万人以上の
02:04
incarcerated men and women.
男女が投獄されており
02:06
That number is rising.
その数は増加しています
02:08
Of the 100 incarcerated people that are released,
釈放された人の6割が
02:10
60 will return to prison.
刑務所に戻ってきます
02:13
Funds for education, for training
教育、職業訓練、社会復帰の
02:15
and for rehabilitation are declining,
資金は減少しています
02:17
so this despairing cycle of incarceration continues.
この投獄の悪循環は終わりません
02:19
I decided to ask whether the lesson
芸術家としての木から
02:23
I had learned from trees as artists
学んだことが静的施設に
02:25
could be applied to a static institution
適用できるかを調べました
02:27
such as our prisons,
刑務所のような施設です
02:29
and I think the answer is yes.
答えはイエスです
02:31
In the year 2007,
2007年に
02:33
I started a partnership
ワシントン州更生局との
02:35
with the Washington State Department of Corrections.
提携を発足しました
02:37
Working with four prisons, we began bringing science and scientists,
4刑務所と協働で、科学と科学者
02:40
sustainability and conservation projects
持続可能性と保全プロジェクトを
02:43
to four state prisons.
4つの州刑務所に持ち込みました
02:46
We give science lectures,
我々は科学の講義をします
02:48
and the men here are choosing to come to our science lectures
囚人は科学講義に来ます
02:50
instead of watching television or weightlifting.
TVや重量挙げの代わりです
02:52
That, I think, is movement.
それは動きだと思います
02:56
We partnered with the Nature Conservancy
スタフォードクリーク矯正センターの
02:58
for inmates at Stafford Creek Correctional Center
囚人のために自然管理委員会と組み
03:00
to grow endangered prairie plants
絶滅危惧植物を栽培しました
03:03
for restoration of relic prairie areas in Washington state.
州に残された大草原を復元するためです
03:05
That, I think, is movement.
これも動きだと思います
03:08
We worked with the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife
ワシントン州野生生物局と協働し
03:10
to grow endangered frogs -- the Oregon spotted frog --
絶滅危惧種のカエルを飼育し
03:13
for later release into protected wetlands.
後に保護湿地に放流しました
03:15
That, I think, is movement.
これも動きです
03:18
And just recently, we've begun to work with
最近協働しているのは
03:21
those men who are segregated
最高レベル警備施設に
03:23
in what we call Supermax facilities.
隔離されている囚人です
03:25
They've incurred violent infractions
亀裂骨折を負っています
03:27
by becoming violent with guards
看守や他の囚人と
03:29
and with other prisoners.
暴力沙汰になったのです
03:31
They're kept in bare cells like this
何もない個室に隔離です
03:33
for 23 hours a day.
1日23時間です
03:35
When they have meetings with their review boards or mental health professionals,
審査委員や精神科医との面接の際
03:37
they're placed in immobile booths like this.
身動きできないブースに入ります
03:40
For one hour a day
1日1時間閑散とした
03:43
they're brought to these bleak and bland exercise yards.
味気ない運動場に連れて来られます
03:45
Although we can't bring trees and prairie plants
木や植物、カエルを
03:48
and frogs into these environments,
身近な環境に持ち込めませんが
03:50
we are bringing images of nature
自然のイメージを
03:52
into these exercise yards,
運動場に取り込み
03:54
putting them on the walls, so at least they get contact
壁も植物で覆うので
03:56
with visual images of nature.
自然のイメージと接触できるのです
03:58
This is Mr. Lopez, who has been in solitary confinement for 18 months,
18ヵ月間独房にいるロペス氏です
04:01
and he's providing input on the types of images
彼はあるイメージを提供してくれます
04:04
that he believes would make him and his fellow inmates
自分自身や仲間を
04:07
more serene, more calm,
平穏安静にし
04:09
less apt to violence.
非暴力的にする理想型です
04:12
And so what we see, I think,
ご覧の通り
04:15
is that small, collective movements of change
変化を求める小さな動きが集まれば
04:17
can perhaps move
動かすことができるのです
04:20
an entity such as our own prison system
刑務所制度のようなものを
04:22
in a direction of hope.
希望に導くのです
04:25
We know that trees are static entities
幹だけを見ると
04:27
when we look at their trunks.
木は静物です
04:30
But if trees can create art,
でも木が芸術を創造できるなら
04:32
if they can encircle the globe seven times in one year,
1年に地球を7周できるなら
04:34
if prisoners can grow plants and raise frogs,
囚人が植物やカエルを飼育するなら
04:37
then perhaps there are other static entities
我々の内面にある
04:40
that we hold inside ourselves,
他の静物、例えば
04:43
like grief, like addictions,
悲痛、中毒
04:46
like racism,
人種差別なども
04:48
that can also change.
同様に変えられるのです
04:50
Thank you very much.
ご清聴ありがとうございました
04:52
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:54
Translated by Hideki Kamiya
Reviewed by Yukiko Oikawa

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About the Speaker:

Nalini Nadkarni - Tree researcher
Called "the queen of canopy research," Nalini Nadkarni explores the rich, vital world found in the tops of trees. She communicates what she finds to non-scientists -- with the help of poets, preachers and prisoners.

Why you should listen

Nalini Nadkarni has spent two decades climbing the trees of Costa Rica, Papua New Guinea, the Amazon and the Pacific Northwest, exploring the world of animals and plants that live in the canopy and never come down; and how this upper layer of the forest interacts with the world on the ground. A pioneering researcher in this area, Nadkarni created the Big Canopy Database to help researchers store and understand the rich trove of data she and others are uncovering.

Nadkarni teaches at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, but her work outside the academy is equally fascinating -- using nontraditional vectors to teach the general public about trees and the ecosystem. For instance, she recently collaborated with the dance troupe Capacitor to explore the process of growth through the medium of the human body. In another project, she worked with prison inmates to grow moss for the horticulture trade, to relieve the collecting pressure on wild mosses. The project inspired in her students a new reverence for nature -- and some larger ecochanges at the prison.

She's the author of Between Earth and Sky: Our Intimate Connections to Trees.

More profile about the speaker
Nalini Nadkarni | Speaker | TED.com