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TEDGlobal 2011

Jarreth Merz: Filming democracy in Ghana

ジャレット・メルツ「ガーナの民主化運動のドキュメンタリー撮影」

Filmed
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スイス生まれでガーナ育ちの映画プロデューサー、ジャレット・メルツは2008年のガーナ国政選挙のドキュメンタリ撮影のためガーナへ赴きました。そこでの経験からは彼は民主主義と、更には彼自身について新たな見識を得たのです。

- Filmmaker
Jarreth Merz' new film, "An African Election," follows the 2008 presidential elections in Ghana from start to finish. Full bio

I was born in Switzerland
私の生まれはスイスですが
00:15
and raised in Ghana, West Africa.
西アフリカのガーナで育ちました
00:19
Ghana felt safe to me as a child.
幼少時はガーナは安全と思っていました
00:22
I was free, I was happy.
私は自由で 幸せでした
00:24
The early 70s
70年代初頭は
00:28
marked a time of musical and artistic excellence in Ghana.
ガーナの芸術と音楽が栄えた時代です
00:30
But then by the end of the decade,
しかし70年代が終わる頃には
00:33
the country had fallen back into political instability
ガーナは再び政情不安へと
00:35
and mismanagement.
逆戻りしてしまいました
00:38
In 1979,
1979年には
00:42
I witnessed my first military coup.
初めて軍事クーデターを目撃しました
00:44
We the children had gathered at a friend's house.
私たち子供は友人の家に集まりました
00:48
It was a dimly lit shack.
薄暗い掘っ立て小屋でした
00:51
There was a beaten up black and white television
年期の入った白黒テレビがあり
00:53
flickering in the background,
ちらつく画面の中で
00:55
and a former head of state and general
前国家元首の将軍は
00:58
was being blindfolded
目隠しをされ
01:00
and tied to the pole.
ポールに縛り付けられました
01:02
The firing squad aimed, fired --
銃殺隊が照準を合せ 引き金を引き
01:04
the general was dead.
将軍は死にました
01:07
Now this was being broadcast live.
これはライブ放送で中継されていました
01:09
And shortly after, we left the country,
その直後 私たちはガーナを去り
01:12
and we returned to Switzerland.
スイスへと戻りました
01:15
Now Europe came as a shock to me,
さてヨーロッパには少し驚きました
01:17
and I think I started feeling the need
「ここに馴染むには皮膚の色を変えなくては」
01:20
to shed my skin in order to fit in.
と考え始めました
01:23
I wanted to blend in like a chameleon.
カメレオンみたいに同化したかったんです
01:26
I think it was a tactic of survival.
生き残りを賭けた作戦だったんですかね
01:28
And it worked, or so I believed.
ただこれは機能しました そう思っています
01:31
So here I was in 2008
さて 2008年の私は
01:34
wondering where I was in my life.
自分を見失いさまよっていました
01:39
And I felt I was being typecast as an actor.
型にはまった役者になりつつあると感じていました
01:42
I was always playing the exotic African.
私がいつも演じていたのはエキゾチックで
01:45
I was playing the violent African,
暴力的なアフリカ人
01:48
the African terrorist.
そうテロリストですね
01:50
And I was thinking,
そこで思ったのです
01:52
how many terrorists could I possibly play
「こんなにテロリストばかり演じていたら
01:54
before turning into one myself?
本物のテロリストになってしまうのではないか」
01:56
And I had become ashamed of the other,
アフリカ人としての私を
01:59
the African in me.
恥じるようになりました
02:02
And fortunately I decided in 2008
幸いにも2008年に
02:05
to return to Ghana,
ガーナに戻る決意をしました
02:08
after 28 years of absence.
28年ぶりにですよ
02:10
I wanted to document on film
2008年の大統領選挙を
02:13
the 2008 presidential elections.
ドキュメンタリ映画にしようと思ったのです
02:15
And there, I started by searching
そしてそこで 幼少時の足跡探しから
02:18
for the footprints in my childhood.
取りかかりました
02:21
And before I even knew it,
するといつの間にか
02:23
I was suddenly on a stage
政治集会のまっただ中
02:25
surrounded by thousands of cheering people
路上で何千もの観衆に
02:27
during a political rally.
取り囲まれていました
02:29
And I realized that, when I'd left the country,
そこで気づいたのは 私が国を去ったときは
02:31
free and fair elections in a democratic environment
自由で公平な民主的な選挙なんて
02:34
were a dream.
絵に描いたもちでした
02:37
And now that I'd returned, that dream had become reality,
戻ってみると これが実現していたのです
02:39
though a fragile reality.
脆いものでしたけどね
02:42
And I was thinking,
そこで考えました
02:44
was Ghana searching for its identity
私が自分探しをしていたように
02:46
like I was looking for my identity?
ガーナもアイデンティティを探しているのか?
02:48
Was what was happening in Ghana a metaphor
ガーナで起こっていたことは
02:50
for what was happening in me?
私に起こったことの隠喩なのか?
02:52
And it was as if through the standards of my Western life,
西洋という器の中で私は今まで
02:56
I hadn't lived up to my full potential.
自分を出しきれていなかったのではないか
03:02
I mean, nor had Ghana,
ガーナも私も 大変な努力を
03:05
even though we had been trying very hard.
していたにもかかわらずです
03:07
Now in 1957,
さて1957年当時
03:09
Ghana was the first sub-Saharan country
ガーナはサハラ以南で
03:11
to gain its independence.
初めて独立を果たした国です
03:13
In the late 50s,
50年代後半
03:15
Ghana and Singapore had the same GDP.
ガーナとシンガポールのGDPは同等でした
03:17
I mean, today, Singapore is a First World country
今日ではシンガポールは先進工業国ですが
03:20
and Ghana is not.
ガーナは違います
03:23
But maybe it was time to prove to myself,
過去を理解し 異なる視点から
03:26
yes, it's important to understand the past,
見直すこともたしかに重要ですが
03:29
it is important to look at it in a different light,
それよりも我々は自身の文化の長所を見つめ
03:31
but maybe we should look at the strengths in our own culture
それを基盤に今を生きるべきであると
03:35
and build on those foundations in the present.
証明する時期がきているのだと思います
03:39
So here I was, December 7th, 2008.
時は2008年12月7日
03:43
The polling stations opened to the voters at 7:00 AM,
投票所は朝の7時に開きました しかし有権者たちは
03:48
but voters, eager to take their own political fate into their hands,
その手で政治的意思決定をする瞬間を待てずに
03:53
were starting to line up at 4:00 AM in the morning.
朝の4時から列をなしていました
03:57
And they had traveled from near, they had traveled from far,
近所からも遠方からも人が集まりました
04:00
because they wanted to make their voices heard.
彼らの声を届けたかったからです
04:03
And I asked one of the voters, I said, "Whom are you going to vote for?"
一人の投票者に聞きました「誰に投票するの?」
04:05
And he said, "I'm sorry, I can't tell you."
「教えられないよ」と彼は答えました
04:08
He said that his vote was in his heart.
「投票は心の中にある」と付け加えました
04:11
And I understood, this was their election,
そこで気づきました これが彼らの選挙なんだ
04:14
and they weren't going to let anyone
他の何者にもこれを
04:17
take it away from them.
ゆだねるつもりはないんだ
04:19
Now the first round of the voting didn't bring forth a clear winner --
さて第一回投票では絶対多数を
04:21
so nobody had achieved the absolute majority --
獲得した者がおらず勝負はきまりませんでした
04:24
so voting went into a second round three weeks later.
そこで3週間後に第二回投票が行われました
04:28
The candidates were back on the road; they were campaigning.
候補者は路上にもどりキャンペーンをしました
04:31
The rhetoric of the candidates, of course, changed.
彼らのスピーチはもちろん変化しました
04:34
The heat was on.
熱も入っていました
04:36
And then the cliche came to haunt us.
するとまたあの頃のガーナが戻ってきてしまいました
04:38
There were claims of intimidation
投票所では「脅された」
04:43
at the polling stations,
「投票箱が盗まれた」などの
04:45
of ballot boxes being stolen.
苦情が寄せられました
04:47
Inflated results started coming in
これに乗じて暴動は拡大し
04:51
and the mob was starting to get out of control.
暴徒たちは手に負えなくなり始めました
04:54
We witnessed the eruption of violence in the streets.
路上で目の当たりにしたのは怒れ狂う暴力です
04:57
People were being beaten brutally.
ひどい仕打ちを受ける人もしました
05:01
The army started firing their guns. People were scrambling.
軍が発砲し 人々は逃げ回るという
05:04
It was complete chaos.
全くの無秩序でした
05:07
And my heart sank,
またこんな事態になったのかと
05:09
because I thought, here we are again.
私のこころは沈みました
05:11
Here is another proof
再びアフリカの
05:13
that the African is not capable of governing himself.
自己統治能力の欠如が証明されたからです
05:15
And not only that, I am documenting it --
しかも私自身の文化的欠点を
05:18
documenting my own cultural shortcomings.
自らの手でカメラに収めていたのです
05:21
So when the echo of the gunshots
こだまする銃声の音を
05:25
had lingered,
すぐに包み込んだのは
05:28
it was soon drowned by the chanting of the mob,
暴徒たちの歌声でした
05:30
and I didn't believe what I was hearing.
私は耳を疑いました
05:32
They were chanting, "We want peace.
彼らは歌っていたのです
05:34
We want peace."
「欲しいのは平和だ」
05:36
And I realized it had to come from the people.
気づきました「彼らこそが主体なんだ」
05:39
After all, they decide,
最後に決めるのは彼らです
05:42
and they did.
その通りになりました
05:44
So the sounds that were before distorted and loud,
さっきまでのやかましい喧騒が
05:46
were suddenly a melody.
突然メロディになったんです
05:50
The sounds of the voices were harmonious.
彼らの声はハーモニーを生み出しました
05:53
So it could happen.
こうして平和的手段で民主国家を
05:56
A democracy could be upheld peacefully.
建国出来る可能性が見えてきました
05:59
It could be, by the will of the masses
強い意志と心を持って
06:02
who were now urgently pressing
平和を求める
06:05
with all their heart and all their will
この大勢の人々がいれば
06:07
for peace.
これは実現できるんです
06:09
Now here's an interesting comparison.
さておもしろい対比を紹介します
06:11
We in the West,
わたしたち欧米諸国は
06:14
we preach the values,
価値観や輝かしい民主制の
06:16
the golden light of democracy,
重要性を説き
06:18
that we are the shining example of how it's done.
自分達が光り輝く先駆者であると言っています
06:21
But when it comes down to it,
しかし ガーナは今回
06:24
Ghana found itself in the same place
2000年のブッシュ対ゴアの
06:27
in which the U.S. election stalled
アメリカ合衆国の大統領選挙と
06:31
in the 2000 presidential elections --
同じ状況に
06:33
Bush versus Gore.
置かれたにもかかわらず
06:35
But instead of the unwillingness of the candidates
システムや国民が決定権を有することに
06:38
to allow the system to proceed and the people to decide,
不満を持つ候補者はおらず
06:41
Ghana honored democracy
ガーナは民主政治と
06:44
and its people.
国民を尊重しました
06:47
It didn't leave it up to the Supreme Court to decide;
決定を最高裁判所に任せたりはせず
06:49
the people did.
国民自身が決定を下したのです
06:52
Now the second round of voting
さて第二回投票ですが またしても
06:55
did not bring forth a clear winner either.
勝者ははっきりしませんでした
06:58
I mean, it was so incredibly close.
本当に接戦だったのです
07:00
The electoral commissioner declared,
選挙委員会は両党の同意の下
07:02
with the consent of the parties,
前例のない
07:05
to run an unprecedented
第三回投票をすると
07:07
second re-run.
宣言をしました
07:09
So the people went back to the polls
人々は投票所に戻り 法律制度ではなく
07:11
to determine their own president,
自分たち自身の
07:15
not the legal system.
大統領を決定したのです
07:17
And guess what, it worked.
するとどうでしょう 上手く行ったのです
07:19
The defeated candidate
敗れた候補者は
07:23
gave up power
権力を放棄し
07:25
and made way for Ghana to move into a new democratic cycle.
ガーナは新たな民主主義時代の輪に入ったのでした
07:27
I mean, at the absolute time
絶対に民主制が必要な
07:30
for the absolute need of democracy,
まさにその時には
07:32
they did not abuse their power.
権力の乱用は見られませんでした
07:34
The belief in true democracy and in the people runs deep,
真の民主制と国民への深い信念がアフリカに
07:39
proving that the African is capable of governing himself.
自己統治能力をもたらしたのです
07:43
Now the uphill battle for Ghana and for Africa
ガーナそしてアフリカの激動の戦いは
07:48
is not over,
まだ終わってはいません
07:51
but I have proof that the other side of democracy exists,
異なる形の民主制が存在することは証明済みです
07:53
and that we must not take it for granted.
そしてこれを当然と思ってはだめです
07:57
Now I have learned
私は自分の居場所は
08:00
that my place is not just in the West or in Africa,
欧州とアフリカだけではないことを知りました
08:02
and I'm still searching
今でも自分の
08:06
for my identity,
アイデンティティを探しています
08:08
but I saw Ghana
しかしガーナはよりよい
08:10
create democracy better.
民主体制を作り出しました
08:13
Ghana taught me
ガーナが教えてくれたこと
08:15
to look at people differently
人々をそして自分を
08:17
and to look at myself differently.
異なる観点から見つめるということです
08:19
And yes,
そうですとも
08:22
we Africans can.
私たちアフリカ人ならできます
08:24
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
08:26
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:28
Translated by Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewed by HIROKO ITO

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About the speaker:

Jarreth Merz - Filmmaker
Jarreth Merz' new film, "An African Election," follows the 2008 presidential elections in Ghana from start to finish.

Why you should listen

Raised in Ghana, Switzerland and Germany, Jarreth Merz is a filmmaker and actor (you may remember him  in the role of Simon of Cyrene in The Passion of the Christ). As a director, his work is rooted in observing life as it presents itself in all its complexities -- as shown in his latest documentary, An African Election, which follows the 2008 presidential elections in Ghana, West Africa.

Merz's stepfather, a political player on Ghana, helped him get access behind the scenes; then Jarreth and his cameraman brother Kevin followed the presidential candidates in the unpredictable months leading up to the final night. In chronicling the rough-and-tumble process of a democratic election, the documentary becomes a meditation on the dream of democracy itself. The film screened in the World Documentary competition at Sundance earlier this year. Merz is now working on a “political safari” in Africa.

He says: "An African Election challenges the preconceived notion we have about politics in Ghana or Africa without hiding the brutal realities."

More profile about the speaker
Jarreth Merz | Speaker | TED.com