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Robert Waldinger: What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness

ロバート・ウォールディンガー: 人生を幸せにするのは何? 最も長期に渡る幸福の研究から

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一生を通し、私達を幸福で健康にするものは何でしょう?名声や富 ―そう考える人はたくさんいます。しかし、心理学者ロバート・ウォールディンガーに拠ると、それは間違っているのです。75年に渡る成人発達に関する研究のディレクターであるウォールディンガーは、真の幸福と満足感に関する無類のデータを基に、この研究結果が私達に教える3つの重要な教訓と、昔からの知恵、幸せな長寿の秘訣を、このトークで語ります。

- Psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and Zen priest
Robert Waldinger is the Director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies in history. Full bio

一生を通して私たちを
健康で幸福にしてくれるのは
00:12
What keeps us healthy and happy
何でしょう?
00:15
as we go through life?
最高の未来の自分に
00:18
If you were going to invest now
投資するなら
00:21
in your future best self,
自分の時間とエネルギーを
何に使いますか?
00:23
where would you put your time
and your energy?
新世紀世代を最近調査し
00:27
There was a recent survey of millennials
最も大切な人生の目的は
何かと訊ねました
00:29
asking them what their
most important life goals were,
80%以上の答えは
00:34
and over 80 percent said
主な人生の目的は
富を蓄える事で
00:36
that a major life goal for them
was to get rich.
その同じ若者の50%の
00:40
And another 50 percent
of those same young adults
もう1つの大きな目的は
00:45
said that another major life goal
有名になる事でした
00:47
was to become famous.
(笑)
00:50
(Laughter)
働き 更なる努力をし
もっと成果を出すようにと
00:52
And we're constantly told
to lean in to work, to push harder
常に求められている世の中です
00:58
and achieve more.
良い人生を送る為には
そうする必要があると
01:00
We're given the impression that these
are the things that we need to go after
誰もが思わされています
01:04
in order to have a good life.
自分の全人生を—
01:06
Pictures of entire lives,
自分の選択がどう人生を
描いて行くかを予測するなんて
01:08
of the choices that people make
and how those choices work out for them,
殆ど不可能です
01:13
those pictures
are almost impossible to get.
人の人生に関しての凡そは
01:18
Most of what we know about human life
その人の過去を
思い出してもらう事で分かりますが
01:21
we know from asking people
to remember the past,
ご存知のように それは
あまり頼りにはなりません
01:24
and as we know, hindsight
is anything but 20/20.
過去に起きた内の
膨大な量は忘れ去られ
01:29
We forget vast amounts
of what happens to us in life,
時には完全に創作された
記憶さえあります
01:33
and sometimes memory
is downright creative.
では ある人の全人生が
展開されるのを 観察しながら
01:36
But what if we could watch entire lives
記録できないものでしょうか
01:41
as they unfold through time?
人々を10代の頃から老年まで追い
01:44
What if we could study people
from the time that they were teenagers
幸福と健康の持続に
01:48
all the way into old age
本当に何が必要なのか
探索しようと始めたのが
01:50
to see what really keeps people
happy and healthy?
我々の研究です
01:55
We did that.
ハーバード成人発達研究は
01:57
The Harvard Study of Adult Development
史上最も長期に渡って
成人を追跡した研究です
01:59
may be the longest study
of adult life that's ever been done.
75年間724人の男性を追跡し
02:05
For 75 years, we've tracked
the lives of 724 men,
休むことなく 仕事や家庭生活
健康などを記録しました
02:13
year after year, asking about their work,
their home lives, their health,
勿論 その期間中 我々は
彼らの人生がどう展開するかは
02:17
and of course asking all along the way
without knowing how their life stories
知る由もありませんでした
02:22
were going to turn out.
この様な研究は非常に稀です
02:25
Studies like this are exceedingly rare.
こんな計画は10年もしない内に
頓挫してしまいます
02:28
Almost all projects of this kind
fall apart within a decade
あまりに多くの人が途中で
プロジェクトを降りてしまう
02:33
because too many people
drop out of the study,
研究の資金が不足して来る
02:36
or funding for the research dries up,
研究者達が他の事で忙しくなったり
02:39
or the researchers get distracted,
亡くなってしまう などが原因で
進行が止まってしまうからです
02:41
or they die, and nobody moves the ball
further down the field.
我々の場合は運が良かった事もあり
02:46
But through a combination of luck
数世代の研究者達の
根気強さのお陰で
02:48
and the persistence
of several generations of researchers,
この研究は生き残りました
02:52
this study has survived.
元の724人の内の約60人が
02:54
About 60 of our original 724 men
未だ健在で
02:59
are still alive,
今も研究に参加しています
03:00
still participating in the study,
その殆どが90歳代です
03:02
most of them in their 90s.
新しく研究に
03:05
And we are now beginning to study
2千人以上の彼らの子供達にも
参加してもらっています
03:07
the more than 2,000 children of these men.
私は4代目の研究責任者です
03:11
And I'm the fourth director of the study.
1938年以来 男性の2グループを
追跡しています
03:15
Since 1938, we've tracked the lives
of two groups of men.
1番目のグループは研究が始まった時
03:20
The first group started in the study
ハーバード大学の2年生で
03:22
when they were sophomores
at Harvard College.
第2次世界大戦中に大学を卒業し
03:25
They all finished college
during World War II,
殆どが戦争に行きました
03:27
and then most went off
to serve in the war.
2番目のグループには
03:31
And the second group that we've followed
ボストンの極貧環境で
育った少年達が
03:33
was a group of boys
from Boston's poorest neighborhoods,
この研究の為に選ばれました
03:37
boys who were chosen for the study
1930年代のボストンで
03:39
specifically because they were
from some of the most troubled
最も問題の多い貧困家庭出身の
03:43
and disadvantaged families
人達だからという理由からです
03:44
in the Boston of the 1930s.
水道設備もないような安アパートに
彼らの殆どが住んでいました
03:47
Most lived in tenements,
many without hot and cold running water.
研究が始まるとすぐ
03:54
When they entered the study,
10代の彼らをインタビューし
03:56
all of these teenagers were interviewed.
健康診断を受けさせました
03:59
They were given medical exams.
我々は彼らの家に行き
ご両親達もインタビューしました
04:01
We went to their homes
and we interviewed their parents.
その少年達が今大人になり
04:05
And then these teenagers
grew up into adults
様々な人生を歩んでいます
04:07
who entered all walks of life.
工場労働者や弁護士
レンガ職人や医師になったり
04:10
They became factory workers and lawyers
and bricklayers and doctors,
1人はアメリカの大統領になりました
04:16
one President of the United States.
中にはアル中になった人や
統合失調症になった人もいます
04:20
Some developed alcoholism.
A few developed schizophrenia.
この様に社会の底辺から這い上がり
04:25
Some climbed the social ladder
ずっと上まで登り詰めた人もいる一方
04:27
from the bottom
all the way to the very top,
それとは反対の方向に人生を
辿って行った人もいるのです
04:30
and some made that journey
in the opposite direction.
この研究の創始者達は
04:35
The founders of this study
思いもしなかった事でしょう
04:38
would never in their wildest dreams
75年後 今日ここに私が立って
04:40
have imagined that I would be
standing here today, 75 years later,
研究は未だに続いている事を
こうして話しているなんて
04:45
telling you that
the study still continues.
1年おきに我々の仕事熱心な
忍耐強い研究スタッフが
04:49
Every two years, our patient
and dedicated research staff
参加者に電話をし
彼らの生活に関しての
04:52
calls up our men
and asks them if we can send them
質問表を送っても良いかと訊ねると
04:56
yet one more set of questions
about their lives.
ボストンスラム街の
男性の多くはこう問い返します
05:00
Many of the inner city Boston men ask us,
「なぜ俺を研究し続けたいんだ?
俺の生活は面白くもないだろう」
05:03
"Why do you keep wanting to study me?
My life just isn't that interesting."
ハーバード群からは
決して出ない質問です
05:08
The Harvard men never ask that question.
(笑)
05:11
(Laughter)
彼らの生活をしっかり把握する為
05:20
To get the clearest picture
of these lives,
質問表を送るだけが
仕事ではありません
05:23
we don't just send them questionnaires.
参加者の居間でインタビューしたり
05:26
We interview them in their living rooms.
彼らの医者から
医療記録も手に入れます
05:29
We get their medical records
from their doctors.
血液検査をし脳画像を撮り
05:32
We draw their blood, we scan their brains,
子供達からも話を聞き
05:34
we talk to their children.
彼らが妻と最も気がかりな事に関して
話し合っている所を撮影します
05:36
We videotape them talking with their wives
about their deepest concerns.
約10年前 参加者の妻達にも
研究参加をとお願いすると
05:41
And when, about a decade ago,
we finally asked the wives
彼女等の多くは こう言いました
05:45
if they would join us
as members of the study,
「そう言ってくれるのを待ってたわ」と
05:47
many of the women said,
"You know, it's about time."
(笑)
05:50
(Laughter)
これから分かった事は
05:51
So what have we learned?
彼らの人生から得た
何万ページにもなる情報から
05:53
What are the lessons that come
from the tens of thousands of pages
分かった事は何でしょう?
05:58
of information that we've generated
06:01
on these lives?
それは富でも名声でも
無我夢中で働く事でもなく
06:03
Well, the lessons aren't about wealth
or fame or working harder and harder.
75年に渡る研究から
はっきりと分かった事は
06:10
The clearest message that we get
from this 75-year study is this:
私たちを健康に幸福にするのは
良い人間関係に尽きるという事です
06:16
Good relationships keep us
happier and healthier. Period.
これから人間関係に関して
3つの大きな教訓がありました
06:23
We've learned three big lessons
about relationships.
第一に周りとの繫がりは
健康に本当に良いという事
06:26
The first is that social connections
are really good for us,
孤独は命取りで
06:30
and that loneliness kills.
家族 友達 コミュニティと
06:33
It turns out that people
who are more socially connected
よく繋がっている人程
06:37
to family, to friends, to community,
幸せで 身体的に健康で
繫がりの少ない人より
06:40
are happier, they're physically healthier,
and they live longer
長生きするという事が
分かりました
06:45
than people who are less well connected.
孤独は害となるという
研究結果が出たのです
06:48
And the experience of loneliness
turns out to be toxic.
孤立化を甘んじて受け
生活している人は
06:51
People who are more isolated
than they want to be from others
あまり幸せに感じていないのです
06:57
find that they are less happy,
中年になり健康の衰えは早く
07:00
their health declines earlier in midlife,
脳機能の減退も早期に始まり
07:03
their brain functioning declines sooner
孤独でない人より
寿命は短くなります
07:05
and they live shorter lives
than people who are not lonely.
悲しい現実ですが
これから先 いつでも
07:10
And the sad fact
is that at any given time,
アメリカ人の2割以上は
孤独だと回答するでしょう
07:13
more than one in five Americans
will report that they're lonely.
しかし 群衆の中や
結婚生活の中でも
07:19
And we know that you
can be lonely in a crowd
孤独を感じることはあります
07:21
and you can be lonely in a marriage,
つまり ここで重大な事は
07:24
so the second big lesson that we learned
友人の数だけが
ものをいうのではなく
07:26
is that it's not just
the number of friends you have,
生涯を共にする相手の
有無でもないのです
07:29
and it's not whether or not
you're in a committed relationship,
重要なのは
身近な人達との関係の質なのです
07:33
but it's the quality
of your close relationships that matters.
争いの真っただ中で暮らすのは
健康に悪い事が分かっています
07:38
It turns out that living in the midst
of conflict is really bad for our health.
例えば愛情が薄い
喧嘩の多い結婚は
07:43
High-conflict marriages, for example,
without much affection,
健康に悪影響を及ぼし
恐らく離婚より悪いでしょう
07:47
turn out to be very bad for our health,
perhaps worse than getting divorced.
愛情のある 良い関係は
人を保護します
07:53
And living in the midst of good,
warm relationships is protective.
我々は参加者全員を追跡し
07:57
Once we had followed our men
all the way into their 80s,
彼らが80代になった時
08:01
we wanted to look back at them at midlife
中年の彼らを振り返り
08:04
and to see if we could predict
誰が健康で幸せな80代になったか
08:05
who was going to grow
into a happy, healthy octogenarian
予測してみたかったのです
08:09
and who wasn't.
彼らが50才の頃に得た
彼らのデータを全て
08:11
And when we gathered together
everything we knew about them
集めてみると
08:15
at age 50,
中年のコレステロール値等とは
関連性はなく
08:18
it wasn't their middle age
cholesterol levels
08:20
that predicted how they
were going to grow old.
どの様な老年を迎えるかは
当時の人間関係の満足度で
予測される事が分かりました
08:23
It was how satisfied they were
in their relationships.
50才で最も幸せな人間関係にいた人が
08:27
The people who were the most satisfied
in their relationships at age 50
80才になっても一番健康だったのです
08:31
were the healthiest at age 80.
親密な良い関係が
クッションとなり
08:35
And good, close relationships
seem to buffer us
加齢過程での様々な問題を
和らげてくれてるようです
08:38
from some of the slings and arrows
of getting old.
中でも特にパートナー共に
幸福だと感じていた人達は
08:42
Our most happily partnered men and women
80代になり
08:46
reported, in their 80s,
身体的苦痛があっても
08:48
that on the days
when they had more physical pain,
精神的に幸福だという
報告が出ています
08:51
their mood stayed just as happy.
しかし不幸な関係にある人達は
08:54
But the people who were
in unhappy relationships,
身体的苦痛がある日には
08:57
on the days when they
reported more physical pain,
精神的苦痛でその身体的苦痛が
更に増幅されていました
09:00
it was magnified by more emotional pain.
人間関係と健康に関して
分かった3つ目の大きな事は
09:04
And the third big lesson that we learned
about relationships and our health
良い関係は身体の健康だけでなく
09:08
is that good relationships
don't just protect our bodies,
脳をも守ってくれるという事です
09:12
they protect our brains.
09:14
It turns out that being
in a securely attached relationship
堅固な良い関係をしっかりと
80代にまで持ち続ける人は
その関係に守られています
09:19
to another person in your 80s
is protective,
そういう関係にいる人—
09:23
that the people who are in relationships
何かあった時
本当に頼れる人がいる
09:25
where they really feel they can count
on the other person in times of need,
と感じている人の記憶は
はっきりしています
09:29
those people's memories
stay sharper longer.
一方 パートナーには
09:32
And the people in relationships
全く頼れない と感じている人には
09:34
where they feel they really
can't count on the other one,
記憶障害が早期に現れ始めます
09:37
those are the people who experience
earlier memory decline.
良い人間関係といっても
波風がない訳ではありません
09:42
And those good relationships,
they don't have to be smooth all the time.
ある80代のカップルは
明けても暮れても小言を
09:46
Some of our octogenarian couples
could bicker with each other
言い合っている
かも知れませんが
09:49
day in and day out,
お互い頼り合える
と感じている限り
09:51
but as long as they felt that they
could really count on the other
彼らが苦難に遭遇した時
09:54
when the going got tough,
口論しても後々まで残る
という事はありませんでした
09:56
those arguments didn't take a toll
on their memories.
この教え—
10:01
So this message,
親密で良い関係は 包括的に
私たちに益となっているという教えは
10:04
that good, close relationships
are good for our health and well-being,
今に分かった事ではありませんね
10:10
this is wisdom that's as old as the hills.
何故そんな関係は築き難く
無視され易いのでしょう
10:13
Why is this so hard to get
and so easy to ignore?
誰もそうですが
10:17
Well, we're human.
私たちは手っ取り早く
10:19
What we'd really like is a quick fix,
手に入れられる
10:21
something we can get
生活を快適に維持してくれるものが
大好きです
10:23
that'll make our lives good
and keep them that way.
人間関係は複雑に込み入っています
10:27
Relationships are messy
and they're complicated
家族や友達との関係をうまく
維持して行くのは至難の業です
10:30
and the hard work of tending
to family and friends,
その地道な努力は地味で
10:34
it's not sexy or glamorous.
その上その仕事は
死ぬまで続きます
10:37
It's also lifelong. It never ends.
75年間に渡る研究で
定年退職後 一番幸福な人は
10:40
The people in our 75-year study
who were the happiest in retirement
仕事仲間に代わる新しい仲間を
自ら進んで作った人達です
10:45
were the people who had actively worked
to replace workmates with new playmates.
最近の調査での
新世紀世代のように
10:51
Just like the millennials
in that recent survey,
この研究の参加者の多くは
彼らが青年期に入った時
10:54
many of our men when they
were starting out as young adults
名声や富や業績が
良い生活をするには
10:58
really believed that fame and wealth
and high achievement
必要なものだと
本当に信じていましたが
11:02
were what they needed to go after
to have a good life.
75年もの間 我々の研究で
繰り返し繰り返し示されたのは
11:06
But over and over, over these 75 years,
our study has shown
最も幸せに過ごして来た人は
人間関係に頼った人々だという事した
11:10
that the people who fared the best were
the people who leaned in to relationships,
それは家族 友達や
コミュニティだったり様々です
11:16
with family, with friends, with community.
あなたはどうですか?
11:21
So what about you?
今 あなたが25才 40才 60才なら
11:23
Let's say you're 25,
or you're 40, or you're 60.
あなたが人間関係に頼るとは
どういう事なのかでしょうか?
11:27
What might leaning in
to relationships even look like?
あなたに出来る事は
実際 無限にあります
11:31
Well, the possibilities
are practically endless.
テレビやPCの前の時間を
人と過ごす時間に充てる
11:35
It might be something as simple
as replacing screen time with people time
新鮮さを失った関係を活気づける為
何か新しい事をパートナーとする
11:41
or livening up a stale relationship
by doing something new together,
長い散歩とかデートなどです
11:46
long walks or date nights,
また何年も話していない家族に
連絡を取るのも1つの方法です
11:49
or reaching out to that family member
who you haven't spoken to in years,
よくある家族の いざこざは
11:54
because those all-too-common family feuds
遺恨を抱く人々に
11:57
take a terrible toll
ひどい悪影響を及ぼすからです
12:00
on the people who hold the grudges.
最後にマーク・トウェインの言葉を
引用して終わります
12:04
I'd like to close with a quote
from Mark Twain.
一世紀以上むかし
12:09
More than a century ago,
彼は人生を振り返り
12:11
he was looking back on his life,
こう書きました
12:14
and he wrote this:
「かくも短い人生に
12:16
"There isn't time, so brief is life,
諍い 謝罪し 傷心し
責任を追及している時間などない
12:20
for bickerings, apologies,
heartburnings, callings to account.
愛し合う為の時間しかない
12:26
There is only time for loving,
それが例え一瞬にすぎなくとも」
12:29
and but an instant,
so to speak, for that."
良い人生は良い人間関係で築かれます
12:34
The good life is built
with good relationships.
ありがとうございました
12:39
Thank you.
(拍手)
12:40
(Applause)

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About the speaker:

Robert Waldinger - Psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and Zen priest
Robert Waldinger is the Director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies in history.

Why you should listen

Robert Waldinger is a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and Zen priest. He is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and directs the Harvard Study of Adult Development, one of the longest-running studies of adult life ever done. The Study tracked the lives of two groups of men for over 75 years, and it now follows their Baby Boomer children to understand how childhood experience reaches across decades to affect health and wellbeing in middle age. He writes about what science and Zen can teach us about healthy human development.

Dr. Waldinger is the author of numerous scientific papers as well as two books. He teaches medical students and psychiatry residents at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and he is a Senior Dharma Teacher in Boundless Way Zen.

To keep abreast of research findings, insights and more, visit robertwaldinger.com.

More profile about the speaker
Robert Waldinger | Speaker | TED.com