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TEDxBrussels

John Bohannon: Dance vs. powerpoint, a modest proposal

ジョン・ボハノン 「ダンスか PowerPointか ― ささやかな提案」

November 22, 2011

「PowerPointの代わりにダンサーを。」これが科学ライター、ジョン・ボハノンの「ささやかな提案」です。Black Label Movementのメンバーによる魅力的なダンスと語りを通して、主張を証明します。(撮影:TEDxBrussels)

Black Label Movement - Dance troupe
Black Label Movement is an explosively physical Minneapolis dance company. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
(Music)
(音楽)
00:18
Good afternoon.
こんにちは
00:40
As you're all aware, we face difficult economic times.
ご承知の通り 我々は
経済危機に直面しています
00:42
I come to you with a modest proposal
そこで私はささやかながら
00:47
for easing the financial burden.
財政負担の緩和策を提案します
00:49
This idea came to me while talking to
これを思いついたのは
00:52
a physicist friend of mine at MIT.
MITにいる 友人の
物理学者と話していた時です
00:53
He was struggling to explain something to me:
彼が一生懸命 説明していたのは
00:56
a beautiful experiment that uses lasers to cool down matter.
レーザー光で物質の
温度を下げる 見事な実験です
00:59
Now he confused me from the very start,
私は いきなり混乱しました
01:03
because light doesn't cool things down.
光は物質の温度を上げますが
01:05
It makes it hotter. It's happening right now.
下げることはないはずです
お見せしましょう
01:08
The reason that you can see me standing here is because
ステージに立つ私が見えるのは
01:11
this room is filled with more than 100 quintillion photons,
この空間が10の20乗個もの
光子で満たされているからです
01:14
and they're moving randomly through the space, near the speed of light.
光子は ほぼ光速で
ランダムに飛び回ります
01:17
All of them are different colors,
それぞれ異なる色で
01:21
they're rippling with different frequencies,
異なる周波数を持っています
01:23
and they're bouncing off every surface, including me,
光子は 私を含む
あらゆる物体の表面で反射し
01:24
and some of those are flying directly into your eyes,
いくつかは皆さんの目に入って
01:27
and that's why your brain is forming an image of me standing here.
脳がステージ上の私の映像を作ります
01:30
Now a laser is different.
レーザー光は違います
01:33
It also uses photons, but they're all synchronized,
光子の周波数が一定で
01:35
and if you focus them into a beam,
集光してビームにすると
01:39
what you have is an incredibly useful tool.
便利なツールとして使えます
01:41
The control of a laser is so precise
レーザーは正確に
01:44
that you can perform surgery inside of an eye,
制御できるので
眼球内部の手術や
01:46
you can use it to store massive amounts of data,
膨大なデータの保存に使えます
01:49
and you can use it for this beautiful experiment
また友達が説明に苦労した ―
01:51
that my friend was struggling to explain.
見事な実験にも利用できます
01:54
First you trap atoms in a special bottle.
まず 原子を特殊な容器に閉じ込めます
01:56
It uses electromagnetic fields to isolate the atoms
容器には 環境ノイズから
原子を隔離するために
01:59
from the noise of the environment.
電磁場が使われています
02:02
And the atoms themselves are quite violent,
原子は激しく動きますが
02:04
but if you fire lasers that are precisely tuned to the right frequency,
特定の周波数の
レーザーを照射すると
02:07
an atom will briefly absorb those photons
その光子を一時的に吸収して
02:11
and tend to slow down.
動きが遅くなります
02:14
Little by little it gets colder
原子は少しずつ冷えて
02:15
until eventually it approaches absolute zero.
絶対零度に近づいていきます
02:19
Now if you use the right kind of atoms and you get them cold enough,
特定の原子を十分に冷やすと
02:23
something truly bizarre happens.
実に奇妙なことが起こります
02:26
It's no longer a solid, a liquid or a gas.
原子は 固体でも 液体でも
気体でもなくなります
02:30
It enters a new state of matter called a superfluid.
「超流動体」という
新しい状態になるのです
02:33
The atoms lose their individual identity,
原子は固有の特徴を失い
02:37
and the rules from the quantum world take over,
量子の世界のルールに従います
02:39
and that's what gives superfluids such spooky properties.
これが超流動体の
不気味な性質の原因です
02:42
For example, if you shine light through a superfluid,
例えば 超流動体に光を当てると
02:46
it is able to slow photons down
光子のスピードを
時速60kmまで落とせます
02:50
to 60 kilometers per hour.
光子のスピードを
時速60kmまで落とせます
02:53
Another spooky property is that it flows
別の不気味な性質は
03:02
with absolutely no viscosity or friction,
粘性や摩擦がゼロになること
03:05
so if you were to take the lid off that bottle,
だから容器のふたを取ると
03:08
it won't stay inside.
超流動体は外に出てしまいます
03:10
A thin film will creep up the inside wall,
薄い膜になって容器の壁を登り ―
03:12
flow over the top and right out the outside.
ふちを乗り越えて
外に出てしまいます
03:15
Now of course, the moment that it does hit the outside environment,
外の環境にさらされて
03:19
and its temperature rises by even a fraction of a degree,
少しでも温度が上がると
あっという間に ―
03:22
it immediately turns back into normal matter.
普通の状態に戻ります
03:26
Superfluids are one of the most fragile things we've ever discovered.
我々が知る中でも
極めて不安定な存在です
03:28
And this is the great pleasure of science:
ここに科学の面白さがあります
03:32
the defeat of our intuition through experimentation.
実験によって 直感が
裏切られる面白さです
03:34
But the experiment is not the end of the story,
でも実験で終わるのではなく
得た知識を広める必要があります
03:38
because you still have to transmit that knowledge to other people.
でも実験で終わるのではなく
得た知識を広める必要があります
03:40
I have a Ph.D in molecular biology.
私は分子生物学の
博士号を持っていますが
03:44
I still barely understand what most scientists are talking about.
それでも科学者の話を
理解するのは大変です
03:46
So as my friend was trying to explain that experiment,
友達が この実験について
説明しようとした時だって
03:50
it seemed like the more he said,
話せば 話すほど
03:52
the less I understood.
わからなくなった気がしました
03:55
Because if you're trying to give someone the big picture
複雑な概念の本質を捉えて
03:58
of a complex idea, to really capture its essence,
大まかに説明しようとする場合 ―
04:01
the fewer words you use, the better.
話はできるだけ短い方がいい
04:05
In fact, the ideal may be to use no words at all.
いや 言葉を使わないのが
理想かもしれません
04:08
I remember thinking, my friend could have explained
私は思いました ―
04:12
that entire experiment with a dance.
ダンスで説明すればよかったのでは?
04:13
Of course, there never seem to be any dancers around when you need them.
もちろん ダンサーがいつも
身近にいるとは限りません
04:16
Now, the idea is not as crazy as it sounds.
でも発想はそれほど
おかしくありません
04:21
I started a contest four years ago called Dance Your Ph.D.
だから4年前に “Dance Your Ph.D”
コンテストを始めました
04:23
Instead of explaining their research with words,
コンテストでは
科学者が自分の研究を
04:26
scientists have to explain it with dance.
言葉でなくダンスで解説します
04:29
Now surprisingly, it seems to work.
驚いたことに 上手くいっています
04:32
Dance really can make science easier to understand.
ダンスだと 科学は
わかり易くなるのです
04:34
But don't take my word for it.
私の言葉を信じる前に
04:37
Go on the Internet and search for "Dance Your Ph.D."
インターネットで
検索してください
04:39
There are hundreds of dancing scientists waiting for you.
たくさんの科学者が
踊るところを見られます
04:42
The most surprising thing that I've learned while running this contest
コンテストを運営して驚いたことは
04:45
is that some scientists are now working directly with dancers on their research.
ダンサーと共同で研究する
科学者が現れたことです
04:47
For example, at the University of Minnesota,
ミネソタ大学では
04:53
there's a biomedical engineer named David Odde,
医用生体工学者のデビッド・オーディが
04:55
and he works with dancers to study how cells move.
細胞の移動を
ダンサーと研究しています
04:57
They do it by changing their shape.
細胞は形を変えて移動します
05:00
When a chemical signal washes up on one side,
ある方向から化学的シグナルが来ると
05:03
it triggers the cell to expand its shape on that side,
細胞はそちらの方向に
伸びていきます
05:05
because the cell is constantly touching and tugging at the environment.
細胞は常に環境と
やりとりしているためです
05:09
So that allows cells to ooze along in the right directions.
その結果 正しい方向に
ゆっくり移動します
05:12
But what seems so slow and graceful from the outside
外から見ると優雅な動きですが
05:16
is really more like chaos inside,
内部はカオスです
05:20
because cells control their shape with a skeleton of rigid protein fibers,
細胞は骨格タンパク質の
繊維で形態を制御します
05:22
and those fibers are constantly falling apart.
この繊維はバラバラになりますが
05:27
But just as quickly as they explode,
すぐにタンパク質がくっついて
05:29
more proteins attach to the ends and grow them longer,
成長します
05:32
so it's constantly changing
つまり同じ形を保つために
05:34
just to remain exactly the same.
変化し続けているのです
05:37
Now, David builds mathematical models of this and then he tests those in the lab,
普通 数理モデルを
作ってから実験しますが
05:40
but before he does that, he works with dancers
彼はまず どんなモデルにするか ―
05:43
to figure out what kinds of models to build in the first place.
決めるためにダンサーと作業します
05:46
It's basically efficient brainstorming,
要はブレーンストーミングのようなものです
05:49
and when I visited David to learn about his research,
研究について教えてもらおうと
05:52
he used dancers to explain it to me
私が訪ねると
PowerPointではなく
05:55
rather than the usual method: PowerPoint.
ダンサーを使って
説明してくれました
05:58
And this brings me to my modest proposal.
この経験から ささやかな
提案を思いついたのです
06:02
I think that bad PowerPoint presentations
PowerPointによる無駄なプレゼンは
06:05
are a serious threat to the global economy.
世界経済に対する深刻な脅威です
06:08
(Laughter) (Applause)
(笑)(拍手)
06:10
Now it does depend on how you measure it, of course,
計算方法にもよりますが
06:18
but one estimate has put the drain at 250 million dollars per day.
ある推計によれば
1日当たり2.5億ドルの損失です
06:23
Now that assumes half-hour presentations
年収35,000ドルの観客 ―
06:28
for an average audience of four people
平均4人に向けた ―
06:30
with salaries of 35,000 dollars,
30分のプレゼンを仮定します
06:32
and it conservatively assumes that
手堅く見積もって
06:35
about a quarter of the presentations are a complete waste of time,
プレゼンの4分の1は時間の無駄です
06:36
and given that there are some apparently
毎日3,000万のプレゼンが
06:40
30 million PowerPoint presentations created every day,
制作されると考えると
06:43
that would indeed add up to an annual waste
年間の損失額は 実に
06:46
of 100 billion dollars.
1,000億ドルに上ります
06:49
Of course, that's just the time we're losing
もちろんこれは 観客が失う ―
06:52
sitting through presentations.
時間の価値だけです
06:55
There are other costs, because PowerPoint is a tool,
他の損失も考えられます
PowerPointはツールだし ―
06:57
and like any tool, it can and will be abused.
どんなツールも
悪用されるものです
07:01
To borrow a concept from my country's CIA,
我が国のCIAがよくやるように
07:04
it helps you to soften up your audience.
相手を手なずけてしまうのです
07:07
It distracts them with pretty pictures, irrelevant data.
魅力的なイメージや
どうでもいいデータで注意をそらします
07:10
It allows you to create the illusion of competence,
相手に有能だと思わせたり
07:14
the illusion of simplicity,
シンプルだと思わせたり
07:18
and most destructively, the illusion of understanding.
さらに怖いことに
わかったと錯覚させるのです
07:21
So now my country is 15 trillion dollars in debt.
我が国は15兆ドルもの負債を抱え
07:26
Our leaders are working tirelessly to try and find ways to save money.
指導者達は懸命に
節約の方法を探しています
07:30
One idea is to drastically reduce public support for the arts.
方法の一つが アートへの
支援を大幅に削減することです
07:35
For example, our National Endowment for the Arts,
例えば1億5,000万ドルの予算を持つ ―
07:39
with its $150 million budget,
例えば1億5,000万ドルの予算を持つ ―
07:41
slashing that program would immediately reduce the national debt
国立芸術基金を廃止した場合
国の負債は一挙に ―
07:44
by about one one-thousandth of a percent.
1,000分の1パーセントも
減らせるのです
07:47
One certainly can't argue with those numbers.
数字に議論の余地はありません
07:50
However, once we eliminate public funding for the arts,
でも アートに対する
公的資金を削ると
07:52
there will be some drawbacks.
問題も生じます
07:57
The artists on the street will swell the ranks of the unemployed.
職を失った芸術家のせいで
失業者数が増加するでしょう
08:00
Many will turn to drug abuse and prostitution,
多くが麻薬や売春に手を染め
08:04
and that will inevitably lower property values in urban neighborhoods.
その結果 都市部の
地価は下落するでしょう
08:07
All of this could wipe out the savings we're hoping to make in the first place.
芸術基金の廃止による節約が
帳消しになるかもしれません
08:10
I shall now, therefore, humbly propose my own thoughts,
だから私は謹んで提案します
08:15
which I hope will not be liable to the least objection.
おそらく異議はないと思います
08:18
Once we eliminate public funding for the artists,
芸術家への公的支援をカットするなら
08:22
let's put them back to work
PowerPointの代わりに
08:24
by using them instead of PowerPoint.
彼らを使おうではありませんか
08:25
As a test case, I propose we start with American dancers.
手始めにアメリカの
ダンサーで試してはどうでしょう
08:28
After all, they are the most perishable of their kind,
最も危機に瀕した芸術家ですから
08:32
prone to injury and very slow to heal
ケガが多い上に
08:34
due to our health care system.
医療保険制度のおかげで治りは遅い
08:36
Rather than dancing our Ph.Ds,
ダンスで説明するのは
博士論文ではなく
08:39
we should use dance to explain all of our complex problems.
あらゆる厄介な問題を
説明するのに使いましょう
08:42
Imagine our politicians using dance
想像してください
政治家が ダンスを用いて
08:46
to explain why we must invade a foreign country
外国に侵攻すべき理由や
投資銀行を税金で ―
08:49
or bail out an investment bank.
救済する理由を説明するのです
08:52
It's sure to help.
きっと役に立つはずです
08:55
Of course someday, in the deep future,
当然 遠い将来に
08:57
a technology of persuasion
PowerPointより遥かに優れた ―
09:01
even more powerful than PowerPoint may be invented,
説得の技術が開発され
09:03
rendering dancers unnecessary as tools of rhetoric.
ダンサーが説明ツールの座を
奪われる日が来るかもしれません
09:07
However, I trust that by that day,
でも その頃には
09:10
we shall have passed this present financial calamity.
財政難は過去のものと
なっているでしょう
09:13
Perhaps by then we will be able to afford the luxury
たぶん その頃には
09:16
of just sitting in an audience
観客として人間の動き
そのものを楽しむという
09:20
with no other purpose
観客として人間の動き
そのものを楽しむという
09:23
than to witness the human form in motion.
贅沢が許されるのでは
ないでしょうか
09:25
(Music)
(音楽)
09:29
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:40
Translator:Kazunori Akashi
Reviewer:Akiko Hicks

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John Bohannon - Science writer
John Bohannon is a scientist and writer who runs the annual Dance Your Ph.D. contest.

Why you should listen

John Bohannon is a biologist and journalist. After embedding in southern Afghanistan in 2010, he engineered the first voluntary release of civilian casualty data by the US-led military coalition. He studies the evolution of fame using data provided by Google, and writes for Science and WIRED. His research on the blurring line between the cuisine of man and pet caused Stephen Colbert to eat cat food on television.

Using an alter ego known as the Gonzo Scientist, he runs the "Dance Your Ph.D." contest. It's an international competition for scientists to explain their research with interpretive dance.

Black Label Movement - Dance troupe
Black Label Movement is an explosively physical Minneapolis dance company.

Why you should listen

Black Label Movement is a Twin Cities-based dance theater dedicated to creating wildly physical, naturally virtuosic, intellectually and emotionally engaging art. Led by Carl Flink, this collective of dance artists seeks to push the mind, body, and heart to the edge of what is possible and beyond.

A one-time company member and soloist with the New York City-based Limón Dance Company, Flink is known for choreography with intense athleticism, daring risk taking and humanistic themes that address diverse social, scientific, political and working class subjects in addition to more abstract dance approaches. He is also the endowed Nadine Jette Sween Professor of Dance and Chair of the Department of Theatre Arts and Dance at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities.  Beyond the dance world, he graduated from Stanford Law School in 2001 and worked as a staff attorney with Farmers' Legal Action Group, Inc. protecting the legal rights of low-income family farmers and promoting sustainable agriculture until 2004.

Credits for the TEDxBrussels performance:
BLM Movers: Jessica Ehlert, Brian Godbout, Stephanie Laager, Edward Oroyan, Nelle Hens, Camille Prieux, Mariel Blaise, Gapson Nenaks, David Zagari & Marcio Canabarro

Music: Greg Brosofske (and you can download the music)

Support from the Institute for Advanced Studies at the University of Minnesota was crucial.

 

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