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TEDxAustin

David R. Dow: Lessons from death row inmates

ディビッド・R・ダウ: 死刑囚からの教訓

February 11, 2012

殺人の前に何が起きているのでしょうか。死刑判決を減らす方法を探しているうちに、ディビッド・R・ダウが気づいたことがあります。驚くほど多くの死刑囚は、その生い立ちが似ているのです。このトークでは、そもそも殺人が起こらないようにするための思いきった提案が紹介されます。(TEDxAustin にて収録)

David R. Dow - Death penalty lawyer
David R. Dow has defended over 100 death row inmates in 20 years. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Two weeks ago,
2週間前のことです
00:16
I was sitting at the
私はキッチンのテーブルで
00:18
kitchen table with my wife Katya,
妻のカティアと話をしていました
00:20
and we were talking about what I was gonna talk about today.
今日 何を話そうかと相談していました
00:23
We have an 11-year-old son; his name is Lincoln. He was sitting at the same table
11歳の息子リンカーンは同じテーブルで
00:28
doing his math homework.
算数の宿題をしていました
00:33
And during a pause in my conversation
会話のあいまに
00:36
with Katya, I looked over at Lincoln
ふとリンカーンに目をやって突然
00:39
and I was suddenly thunderstruck
激しい衝撃を覚えました
00:41
by a recollection of a client of mine.
あるクライアントのことを思い出したのです
00:45
My client was a guy named Will.
ウィルと言う名前の男で
00:48
He was from North Texas.
ノーステキサスの出身でした
00:51
He never knew his father very well, because his father left
彼は父親のことを知るよしもありませんでした
00:53
his mom while she was pregnant with him.
父親は 妊娠中の母親を残して蒸発したのです
00:58
And so, he was destined to be raised by a single mom,
そこで シングルマザーの家庭で育てられました
01:02
which might have been all right
そういう人は他にもいますが
01:06
except that this particular single mom
この母親は
01:08
was a paranoid schizophrenic,
妄想型の統合失調症でした
01:10
and when Will was five years old she
tried to kill him with a butcher knife.
5歳の時 ウィルは包丁で殺されそうになりました
01:13
She was
母親は
01:18
taken away by authorities and placed in a
psychiatric hospital,
精神病院に入れられました
01:20
and so for the next several years Will
lived with his older brother
その後の数年間ウィルは兄と暮らしていましたが
01:24
until he committed suicide by shooting
himself through the heart.
兄は拳銃で胸を撃って自殺しました
01:28
And after that
その後 ウィルは
01:31
Will bounced around from one family
member to another,
親戚の家を転々としました
01:34
until, by the time he was nine years old,
he was essentially living on his own.
そして9歳になる頃にはひとりで生きていました
01:37
That morning that I was sitting with
Katya and Lincoln, I looked at my son,
私は 家族で過ごしていたその朝
01:42
and I realized that when my client, Will,
息子の姿から気づいたのです
01:47
was his age,
この年頃には
01:51
he'd been living by himself for two years.
ウィルはもう2年もひとりで暮らしていたのです
01:53
Will eventually joined a gang
結局 ウィルはギャングのメンバーとなり
01:57
and committed
そして 何件もの
01:59
a number of very serious crimes,
重大犯罪に手を染めました
02:01
including, most seriously of all,
最も重大な犯罪は
02:04
a horrible, tragic murder.
恐ろしい 悲劇的な殺人でした
02:06
And Will was ultimately executed
やがてウィルは罪に問われて
02:09
as punishment for that crime.
死刑を執行されました
02:14
But I don't want to
でも私が今日 お話ししたいのは
02:16
talk today
死刑の道義性ではありません
02:19
about the morality of capital punishment. I certainly think that my client
もちろんクライアントの死刑について
02:21
shouldn't have been executed, but what I would like to do today instead
納得はしていません しかし今日は死刑について
02:25
is talk about the death penalty
これまでとは違う角度から
02:30
in a way I've never done before,
お話ししてみたいと思います
02:33
in a way
皆さんに
02:36
that is entirely noncontroversial.
納得して頂けるようなお話をしたいと思います
02:37
I think that's possible,
それが可能だと考える理由は
02:39
because there is a corner
死刑に関する議論は
02:42
of the death penalty debate --
ある点でひとつに交わり
02:45
maybe the most important corner --
この交差点は
02:47
where everybody agrees,
誰もが同意できる重要な点だからです
02:49
where the most ardent death penalty supporters
死刑を強く支持する人も
02:52
and the most vociferous abolitionists
死刑廃止を強く主張する人も
02:56
are on exactly the same page.
同意するポイントです
03:00
That's the corner I want to explore.
そのことを考えてみたいと思います
03:03
Before I do that, though, I want to spend a couple of minutes telling you how a death
しかし その前に死刑に至る道筋を
03:06
penalty case unfolds,
簡単にお話しします
03:11
and then I want to tell you two lessons that I have learned over the last 20 years
それから この20年間に学んだふたつの教訓をお話しします
03:13
as a death penalty lawyer,
弁護士として死刑にかかわる
03:18
from watching well more than a hundred cases unfold in this way.
100件以上の案件を担当して学んだことです
03:20
You can think of a death penalty case as
a story
死刑に至る物語は4つの章からなる
03:25
that has four chapters.
物語と捉えて下さい
03:29
The first chapter of every case is exactly the same,
第1章はどれも同じです
03:31
and it is tragic.
悲劇です
03:35
It begins with the murder
始めは殺人—
03:36
of an innocent human being,
罪もない人が殺されて
03:38
and it's followed by a trial
そして裁判が行われます
03:40
where the murderer is convicted and sent to death row,
有罪となり死刑が宣告されます
03:42
and that death sentence is ultimately
その死刑宣告は最終的には
03:44
upheld by the state appellate court.
州控訴裁判所も認めます
03:46
The second chapter consists of a
complicated legal proceeding known as
第2章は複雑な法律上の手続きです
03:48
a state habeas corpus appeal.
州の人身保護令状請求というものです
03:53
The third chapter is an even more complicated legal proceeding known as a
第3章はもっと複雑は法律上の手続きで
03:56
federal habeas corpus proceeding.
連邦レベルの人身保護手続きです
04:00
And the fourth chapter
そして第4章では様々なことが起きます
04:02
is one where a variety of things can happen. The lawyers might file a clemency petition,
弁護士が減刑嘆願書を提出する可能性もあります
04:04
they might initiate even more complex
litigation,
もっと複雑な法廷闘争の可能性もあります
04:08
or they might not do anything at all.
もしくは 何もしないかもしれません
04:11
But that fourth chapter always ends
いずれにせよ
04:13
with an execution.
第4章の最後は死刑執行で終わります
04:15
When I started representing death row
inmates more than 20 years ago,
私が死刑囚を担当するようになったのは20年以上前です
04:17
people on death row did not have a right
to a lawyer in either the second
当時 この物語の2章と4章において
04:22
or the fourth chapter of this story.
弁護を受ける権利は与えられず
04:26
They were on their own.
彼らを助ける人はいませんでした
04:29
In fact, it wasn't until the late 1980s that they acquired a
第3章で弁護を受ける権利すら
04:30
right to a lawyer during the third chapter
80年代後半にようやく
04:34
of the story.
与えられたものでした
04:36
So what all of these death row inmates had to do
ですから死刑囚の
04:38
was rely on volunteer lawyers
法律上の手続きを取り扱おうにも
04:40
to handle their legal proceedings.
ボランティアの弁護士頼みでした
04:43
The problem is that there were way more
guys on death row
困ったことに 死刑囚の数は
04:45
than there were lawyers who had both the interest and the expertise to work on these cases.
死刑に関心と専門性を有する弁護士の数よりも
遥かに多いのです
04:49
And so inevitably,
必然的に
04:54
lawyers drifted to cases that were
already in chapter four --
第4章の案件に弁護士が集まるのは無理もないことです
04:56
that makes sense, of course. Those are the
cases that are most urgent;
最も緊急性の高い案件であり
04:59
those are the guys who are closest to being executed.
被告に対する死刑執行が近いのです
05:02
Some of these lawyers were successful; they managed to get new trials for their clients.
うまく行くと クライアントは
新たな審理を受けることになります
05:05
Others of them managed to extend
the lives of their clients, sometimes by
またクライアントが長く生きられる場合もあります
05:09
years, sometimes by months.
ときには数年 ときには数ヶ月
05:13
But the one thing that didn't happen
しかしテキサスで1年間に執行される
05:15
was that there was never a serious and
sustained decline in the number of
死刑の件数が大幅に減り続けるという
05:17
annual executions in Texas.
事態にはなりませんでした
05:22
In fact, as you can see from this graph,
from the time that the Texas execution
実際 グラフを見ればテキサス州の死刑執行は
05:25
apparatus got efficient in the mid- to
late-1990s,
90年代の半ば以降スピード化しました
05:28
there've only been a couple of years where
the number of annual executions dipped
年間の執行数が20人を下回る年は
05:32
below 20.
ほんの2−3年だけです
05:36
In a typical year in Texas,
テキサスでは
05:38
we're averaging about
典型的な件数は平均して
05:40
two people a month.
月に2人です
05:42
In some years in Texas, we've executed
close to 40 people, and this number
40人近くを執行する年もあります
05:44
has never significantly declined over
the last 15 years.
ここ15年間 この人数は特に減ったりしていません
05:48
And yet, at the same time that we
continue to execute
その一方で毎年
05:53
about the same number of people every
year,
ほとんど同じ人数を死刑執行しているのに
05:57
the number of people who we're sentencing
to death
一年間に死刑の判決を受ける人数は
05:59
on an annual basis
比較的急速に
06:01
has dropped rather steeply.
減ってきています
06:03
So we have this paradox,
矛盾が生じています
06:05
which is that the number of annual
executions has remained high
年間に処刑される人数は多いのに
06:06
but the number of new death sentences
has gone down.
新たな死刑判決の数は減っているのです
06:11
Why is that?
なぜでしょう
06:16
It can't be attributed to a decline in the murder rate,
殺人事件の割合が減ったからではありません
06:17
because the murder rate has not declined
実際 このグラフの
06:20
nearly so steeply as the red line on
that graph has gone down.
赤線のように急速には減っていないのです
06:21
What has happened instead is
その代わりにこんなことが起きたのでした
06:26
that juries have started to sentence
more and more people to prison
陪審が仮出所のない終身刑を
06:29
for the rest of their lives without the
possibility of parole,
選び始めたのです
06:32
rather than sending them to the
execution chamber.
処刑台に送る代わりにです
06:36
Why has that happened?
どうしてこうなったのでしょう
06:39
it hasn't happened because of a
dissolution of popular support
死刑への支持基盤が失われたからではありません
06:42
for the death penalty. Death penalty opponents take great solace in the fact
テキサスでの死刑賛成派の割合は過去最低となり
06:46
that death penalty support in Texas is at
an all-time low.
死刑反対派は大いに喜んでいます
06:50
Do you know what all-time low in Texas
means?
過去最低とはどういう意味かわかりますか?
06:54
It means that it's in the low 60 percent.
60パーセント前半ということです
06:56
Now that's really good compared to the
mid 1980s, when it was in
賛成派が80パーセントを越えていた
06:59
excess of 80 percent,
80年代中頃に比べると大幅前進です
07:02
but we can't explain the decline in
death sentences and the affinity for
死刑判決よりも仮出所なし終身刑が選ばれる理由は
07:04
life without the possibility of parole
by an erosion of support for the death
死刑に対する支持が失われたからではありません
07:09
penalty, because people still support the
death penalty.
未だに死刑は支持されているからです
07:12
What's happened to cause this phenomenon?
では何が起きてこうなっているのでしょう
07:15
What's happened is
実は
07:18
that lawyers
死刑囚の
07:20
who represent death row inmates have
shifted their focus
弁護を行う弁護士たちは
07:21
to earlier and earlier chapters of the
death penalty story.
死刑へのストーリーの早い段階に
力を注ぐようになったのです
07:24
So 25 years ago, they focused on
chapter four.
25年前は第4章に注力していました
07:29
And they went from chapter four 25 years ago to chapter three
25年前の第4章から80年代後半には
07:32
in the late 1980s.
第3章に移り
07:36
And they went from chapter three in the
late 1980s to chapter two in
80年代後半の第3章から
90年代中頃には第2章に移りました
07:38
the mid-1990s. And beginning
in the mid- to late-1990s,
90年代中頃から後半には
07:41
they began to focus on chapter one of
the story.
第1章が注力されるようになったのです
07:44
Now you might think that this decline in
death sentences and the increase in the
死刑の減少と終身刑の増加については
07:47
number of life sentences is a good thing
or a bad thing.
評価は分かれるでしょう
07:51
I don't want to have a conversation about that
today.
今日はその話はしません
07:54
All that I want to tell you is that the
reason that this has happened
お話ししたいことは こうなった理由です
07:56
is because death penalty lawyers have
understood
事案に介入するのが早ければ早いほど
08:00
that the earlier you intervene in a
case,
クライアントの命を助けられる見込みが高いことに
08:03
the greater the likelihood that you're
going to save your client's life.
死刑囚の弁護士が気づいたためなのです
08:05
That's the first thing I've learned.
これが学んだことのひとつ目です
08:10
Here's the second thing I learned:
次は2つ目です
08:12
My client Will
クライアントのウィルにもあてはまる
08:14
was not the exception to the rule;
法則があります
08:15
he was the rule.
まさに法則どおりの展開でした
08:18
I sometimes say, if you tell me the name
of a death row inmate --
こんな話をすることがあります
死刑囚の名前を教えてくれたら
08:21
doesn't matter what state he's in, doesn't matter if I've ever met him before --
彼の状態にかかわらず 面会したことの有無にかかわらず
08:25
I'll write his biography for you.
彼の生い立ちを描いてみせましょう
08:28
And eight out of 10 times,
十中八九
08:31
the details of that biography
その生い立ちの記述は
08:34
will be more or less accurate.
細部さえも多少なりとも重なり合っているのです
08:35
And the reason for that is that 80 percent of the people on death row are
なぜなら 80パーセントの死刑囚は
08:38
people who came from the same sort of
dysfunctional family that Will did.
ウィルのように崩壊した家庭に生まれているのです
08:42
Eighty percent of the people on death row
死刑囚の80パーセントは
08:46
are people who had exposure
少年司法制度に
08:48
to the juvenile justice system.
関わった経歴を有しています
08:50
That's the second lesson
これが私の学んだ
08:53
that I've learned.
2つ目の教訓でした
08:55
Now we're right on the cusp of that corner
さて今まさに 誰もが同意するであろう点に
08:57
where everybody's going to agree.
近づいてきました
09:00
People in this room might disagree
ウィルの処刑について
09:03
about whether Will should have been
executed,
会場の皆さんの意見は一致しないでしょう
09:05
but I think everybody would agree
でも彼のストーリーの最良のバージョンでは
09:07
that the best possible version of his story
そもそも殺人が起こりません
09:10
would be a story
このことについては
09:14
where no murder ever occurs.
誰もが同意するでしょう
09:15
How do we do that?
どうすればそうできるのか?
09:20
When our son Lincoln was working on that
math problem
2週間前 息子のリンカーンが取り組んでいた数学の問題は
09:22
two weeks ago, it was a big, gnarly problem.
大きくてやっかいな問題でした
09:26
And he was learning how, when you have a big old gnarly problem,
大きくて難しいこの手の問題を解くために
09:29
sometimes the solution is to slice it
into smaller problems.
どうやって問題を小さく分解するかを勉強していました
09:32
That's what we do for most problems -- in
math and physics, even in social policy --
物理や数学では普通のこのやり方は
社会問題にも使われます
09:36
we slice them into smaller, more
manageable problems.
問題を小さくわけて扱いやすくするのです
09:40
But every once in a while,
でもアイゼンハワーも言っているように
09:44
as Dwight Eisenhower said,
ときには
09:45
the way you solve a problem
問題を大きく捉えることで
09:47
is to make it bigger.
解決することもあるのです
09:49
The way we solve this problem
この問題を解決する方法は
09:51
is to make the issue of the death
penalty bigger.
死刑の問題をさらに大きく捉えることです
09:55
We have to say, all right.
こう語るべきなのです
09:59
We have these four chapters
死刑のストーリーは
10:01
of a death penalty story,
4章からなっていますが
10:03
but what happens before
このストーリーの始まる前は
10:06
that story begins?
何が起きているのだろうか
10:08
How can we intervene in the life of a murderer
どうすれば 殺人が起きる前に
10:10
before he's a murderer?
殺人犯の人生に介入できるでしょうか?
10:15
What options do we have
道を外れ 後に最悪の結果をもたらす
10:17
to nudge that person
人物にどんな方法で働きかけたら
10:20
off of the path
良いでしょう
10:21
that is going to lead to a result that
everybody --
最悪の結果とは 死刑賛成派も死刑反対派も
10:22
death penalty supporters and death penalty
opponents --
同様に避けたいと考える結果 —
10:27
still think
それはすなわち
10:29
is a bad result:
それはすなわち
10:30
the murder of an innocent human being?
罪なき人が殺されることです
10:33
You know, sometimes people say
ロケット科学という
10:37
that something
言葉を聞いたことが
10:40
isn't rocket science.
あるでしょう
10:41
And by that, what they mean is rocket
science is really complicated
ロケット科学という本当に複雑なものに比べたら
10:43
and this problem that we're talking
about now is really simple.
話題にしている課題なんて
本当に単純だというときに使う言葉です
10:46
Well that's rocket science;
ロケット科学では
10:50
that's the mathematical expression
ロケットエンジンが生みだす推進力の
10:51
for the thrust created by a rocket.
数学的な表現を扱うからです
10:53
What we're talking about today
今日 お話ししていることは
10:57
is just as complicated.
同じように込み入った話です
10:59
What we're talking about today is also
今日 お話ししていることもまた
11:02
rocket science.
「ロケット科学」です
11:04
My client Will
クライアントのウィルにも
11:07
and 80 percent of the people on
death row
80パーセントの死刑囚にも
11:09
had five chapters in their lives
死刑に連なる四章のストーリーの
11:12
that came before
その前の人生には
11:15
the four chapters of the death penalty
story.
五つの章がありました
11:17
I think of these five chapters as points
of intervention,
この五章こそが介入すべき時期であり
11:18
places in their lives when our society
我々の社会が彼らの人生に介入して
11:23
could've intervened in their lives and
nudged them off of the path that they were on
彼らの歩む道筋から逸れさせるべきポイントです
11:26
that created a consequence that we all -- death penalty supporters or death
その道筋は死刑賛成派も死刑反対派も
11:31
penalty opponents --
同様に避けたいと考える
11:35
say was a bad result.
最悪の結果への道筋です
11:37
Now, during each of these five
chapters:
五つの章の間それぞれに—
11:39
when his mother was pregnant with him;
母親が彼を身ごもっていた時期
11:42
in his early childhood years;
幼児期
11:43
when he was in elementary school;
小学校に通っていた時期
11:45
when he was in middle school and then high
school;
中高生の時期
11:47
and when he was in the juvenile justice
system -- during each of those five chapters,
そして少年司法で処置されている時期
これら五つの時期に
11:49
there were a wide variety of things that society could have done.
社会ができるいろいろなことがありました
11:53
In fact, if we just imagine
実際 考えてみるだけでも
11:56
that there are five different modes of
intervention, the way that society could intervene
五章のそれぞれに五種類ずつの異なった
11:58
in each of those five chapters,
社会的な介入の仕方があり
12:03
and we could mix and match them any way
we want,
それを好きなように組み合わせることで
12:05
there are 3,000 -- more than 3,000 -- possible strategies
3000以上の戦略があるのです
12:08
that we could embrace in order to nudge
kids like Will
それを選んでウィルのような子どもの
12:12
off of the path that they're on.
歩む道筋を変えさせるのです
12:16
So I'm not standing here today
今この場で
12:18
with the solution.
解決策を手にしているわけではありません
12:20
But the fact that we still have a lot to learn,
現実にこれから学ぶべきことは多いですが
12:22
that doesn't mean that we don't know a lot already.
多くのことを全く知らないわけでもありません
12:27
We know from experience in other states
他州での経験もあります
12:30
that there are a wide variety of modes
of intervention
介入の仕方には幅広いやり方があり
12:33
that we could be using in Texas, and in
every other state that isn't using them,
それをテキサスなど未適用の州でも使って
12:37
in order to prevent a consequence that we all agree is bad.
誰もが最悪と考える結果を予防できるのです
12:41
I'll just mention a few.
幾つか例を挙げましょう
12:46
I won't talk today about reforming the
legal system.
司法制度の改革の話ではありません
12:48
That's probably a topic that is best
reserved for a room full of lawyers and judges.
その話は弁護士と裁判官が集まったところで
話すべきでしょう
12:52
Instead, let me talk about a couple of
modes of intervention
代わりに皆さんの助けを得て達成しうる
12:57
that we can all help accomplish,
幾つかの介入の仕方について語ります
13:01
because they are modes of intervention
that will come about
その介入の仕方は 議員や政策当局が
13:03
when legislators and policymakers, when taxpayers and citizens,
—納税者や市民がそうすべきだと同意して
13:06
agree that that's what we ought to be
doing
税金を使おうとするときに
13:10
and that's how we ought to be spending our money.
登場する介入の仕方だからです
13:12
We could be providing early childhood care
経済面やその他の理由で困っている
13:14
for economically disadvantaged and
otherwise troubled kids,
小さな子どもへのケアの提供があります
13:16
and we could be doing it for free.
それは無償でできます
13:22
And we could be nudging kids like Will
off of the path that we're on.
我々の道筋から外れた
ウィルのような子どもの進路を変えられます
13:25
There are other states that do that, but we don't.
こういうことをしている州もありますが
我が州は違います
13:29
We could be providing special schools, at
both the high school level
特別な支援をする学校を高校や中学課程や
13:33
and the middle school level, but even in K-5,
さらには小学校課程でも設置できます
13:37
that target economically and otherwise
disadvantaged kids, and particularly kids
とりわけ 経済などで困っている子どもや
13:40
who have had exposure
そして少年司法に
13:44
to the juvenile justice system.
関わる子どもの支援を目指すのです
13:46
There are a handful of states that do that;
両手に余る州でこの支援は実施中ですが
13:48
Texas doesn't.
テキサスではまだです
13:50
There's one other thing we can be doing --
できることは他にもあります
13:52
well, there are a bunch of other things that we could be doing -- there's one other thing that we could be
たくさんありますが
13:54
doing that I'm going to mention, and this is
gonna be the only controversial thing
これから言おうとしていることは
13:56
that I say today.
今日の話の中で議論を呼ぶポイントでしょう
13:59
We could be intervening
さらに積極的な介入として
14:02
much more aggressively
危険なほどに崩壊した家庭に対して
14:03
into dangerously dysfunctional homes,
介入して 母親が肉切り包丁を手にして
14:05
and getting kids out of them
殺してやると口にする前に
14:08
before their moms pick up butcher knives
and threaten to kill them.
子どもを救出するのです
14:10
If we're gonna do that,
もしそれを行うとすれば
14:16
we need a place to put them.
子どもたちの受け入れ場所が必要でしょう
14:18
Even if we do all of those things, some
kids are going to fall through the cracks
これらの全てを実施しても 網をくぐって
14:20
and they're going to end up in that last
chapter before the murder story begins,
殺人の章の前まで行く者もいるでしょう
14:23
they're going to end up in the juvenile
justice system.
彼らは少年司法の場にたどり着きます
14:27
And even if that happens,
もしそうなったとしても
14:29
it's not yet too late.
まだ間に合います
14:32
There's still time to nudge them,
道筋を改めさせる時間が残されています
14:34
if we think about nudging them
単に罰することだけを考えるのではなく
14:37
rather than just punishing them.
道を改めることを考えましょう
14:38
There are two professors in the Northeast --
one at Yale and one at Maryland --
北東部のエール大とメリーランド大に二人の教授がいます
14:41
they set up a school
彼らは少年刑務所に
14:43
that is attached to a juvenile prison.
付属の学校を設立しました
14:45
And the kids are in prison, but they go
to school from eight in the morning
少年達は刑務所にいながら
14:49
until four in the afternoon.
8時から4時過ぎまで学校に行きます
14:52
Now, it was logistically difficult.
実現は困難でした
14:54
They had to recruit teachers
刑務所内で教える教師の採用
14:56
who wanted to teach inside a prison, they had to establish strict
学校で働く人と刑務所の監督官との
14:57
separation between the people who work
at the school and the prison authorities,
厳格な分離
15:00
and most dauntingly of all, they needed
to invent a new curriculum because
さらに新たなカリキュラム編成の必要もありました
15:03
you know what?
なぜか?
15:07
People don't come into and out of prison
on a semester basis.
刑務所に出入りする人の動きは学期と関係ないのです
15:08
But they did all those things.
こんな問題すべてに対処したのです
15:13
Now what do all of these things have in common?
これらのこと全てに共通することは何でしょう
15:16
What all of these things have in common
is that they cost money.
全てに共通して費用がかかるのです
15:19
Some of the people in the room might be
old enough to remember
ここにいる中で年上の方は
15:26
the guy on the old oil filter commercial.
昔のオイルフィルターのコマーシャルを
覚えているかもしれません
15:29
He used to say, "Well, you can pay me now
こんなセリフです 「今払わなくても
15:32
or you can pay me later."
いずれ払うお金です」
15:36
What we're doing
死刑制度というのは
15:39
in the death penalty system
後でお金を払わせる
15:41
is we're paying later.
やり方です
15:43
But the thing is
大事なことは
15:47
that for every 15,000 dollars
that we spend intervening
経済的理由などで困っている児童の支援に
15:49
in the lives of economically and
otherwise disadvantaged kids
早い時期に1万5千ドル使うたびに
15:53
in those earlier chapters,
早い時期に1万5千ドル使うたびに
15:57
we save 80,000 dollars in crime-related costs down the road.
ずっと将来の犯罪に関わる費用を8万ドル削減できるのです
15:58
Even if you don't agree
道徳的な義務に基づき実施すべき
16:03
that there's a moral imperative that we do it,
という点に同意が得られなくても
16:05
it just makes economic sense.
経済的にも意義があることです
16:08
I want to tell you about the last conversation that
I had with Will.
ウィルと交わした最後の会話のことをお話しします
16:13
It was the day that he was going to be executed,
死刑執行される予定の日に
16:17
and we were just talking.
私たちは話をしていました
16:22
There was nothing left to do
彼の事案には
16:26
in his case.
やり残しはなく
16:27
And we were talking about his life.
私たちは彼の人生について話しました
16:29
And he was talking first about his dad,
who he hardly knew,
最初はほとんど知らない父親の話
16:31
who had died,
もう故人でした
16:34
and then about his mom,
それから母親のこと
16:35
who he did know,
彼のよく知る母親は
16:37
who is still alive.
まだ生きていました
16:39
And I said to him,
私は言いました
16:41
"I know the story.
「話は知っています
16:44
I've read the records.
記録を読んだから
16:46
I know that she tried to kill you."
お母さんに殺されそうになったことも」
16:48
I said, "But I've always wondered whether you
really
「ずっと不思議に思っていたけれど
16:50
actually remember that."
そのことを本当に覚えていますか?」
16:53
I said, "I don't remember anything
「5才頃のことなど
16:55
from when I was five years old.
私自身は何も覚えていない
16:56
Maybe you just remember somebody telling you."
誰かに聞いた話を覚えていませんか?」
16:59
And he looked at me and he leaned forward,
彼は私を見つめて身を乗り出して言いました
17:01
and he said, "Professor," -- he'd known me for
12 years, he still called me Professor.
「教授」—12年の付き合いを通して教授と呼ばれていました
17:04
He said, "Professor, I don't mean any
disrespect by this,
「教授 バカにするつもりはまったくないのですが
17:08
but when your mama
でも 自分よりも大きな
17:11
picks up a butcher knife that looks bigger
than you are,
肉切り包丁を手にした母親が
17:13
and chases you through the house
screaming she's gonna kill you,
殺してやると叫びながら家中を追いかけてきて
17:16
and you have to lock yourself in the
bathroom and lean against the door and
トイレに閉じこもって鍵をかけて
17:19
holler for help until the police get
there,"
大声で叫び続けて警官に助けられたら」
17:23
he looked at me and he said,
私を見て続けます
17:26
"that's something you don't forget."
「忘れられるものではありません」
17:29
I hope there's one thing you all won't forget:
ひとつ 覚えておいて欲しいことがあります
17:33
In between the time you arrived here
this morning and the time we break for lunch,
今朝ここに着いた時から昼休みまでの間に
17:35
there are going to be four homicides
アメリカでは4件の殺人が
17:38
in the United States.
発生しています
17:41
We're going to devote enormous social
resources to punishing the people who
相当の社会的なエネルギーをこういう犯罪者に
17:43
commit those crimes, and that's
appropriate, because we should punish
つぎ込んでいくことになります
17:47
people who do bad things.
悪人を罰することは妥当なことです
17:49
But three of those crimes are
preventable.
しかしそのうち3件は予防できるものなのです
17:51
If we make the picture bigger
広い視野で捉え
17:55
and devote our attention to the
earlier chapters,
もっと早いフェーズに注意をはらうことにすれば
17:58
then we're never going to write the
first sentence
死刑に連なる4章は 冒頭の判決文すら
18:03
that begins the death penalty story.
不要になります
18:06
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
18:08
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:10
Translator:Natsuhiko Mizutani
Reviewer:DSK INOUE

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David R. Dow - Death penalty lawyer
David R. Dow has defended over 100 death row inmates in 20 years.

Why you should listen

What does it feel like to know exactly the day and time you’re going to die -- because the state has decided for you? As a death penalty attorney in Texas, the state with the highest death penalty rate in the US, David R. Dow asks himself questions like this every day. In the past 20 years he has defended over 100 death row inmates, many of whom have died -- and most of whom were guilty. But according to an interview with Dow, “They should have been sentenced to life in prison instead of death at the hands of the state.” Dow is the Litigation Director at the Texas Defender Service and the Founder and Co-director of the Texas Innocence Network, an organization in which law students provide pro bono legal services to investigate claims of actual innocence brought by Texas prisoners. He writes on contract law, constitutional law and theory, and death penalty law, and has most recently published a book called The Autobiography of an Execution, partly a memoir and partly about the politics of capital punishment. Dow is a professor at the University of Houston Law Center.

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