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TEDIndia 2009

Aditi Shankardass: A second opinion on developmental disorders

アディティ・シャンカーダス: 学習障害に対するセカンドオピニオン

November 11, 2009

子どもの発達障害の一般的な診断の仕方は、彼らの行動を観察することですが、アディティ・シャンカーダスは脳を直接見るべきだと言います。シャンカーダスの研究所にある驚くべき脳波図計が従来の間違った診断を明らかにし、子どもたちの人生を変えた様子を語ります。

Aditi Shankardass - Neuroscientist
Aditi Shankardass is pioneering the use of EEG technology to give children with developmental disorders their most accurate diagnosis. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
When I was 10 years old,
私が10歳のとき 医学生のいとこが
00:16
a cousin of mine took me on a tour of his medical school.
彼の大学を案内してくれました
00:19
And as a special treat,
特別にと 病理学研究室に
00:22
he took me to the pathology lab
私を入れてくれたのです
00:24
and took a real human brain
彼は 瓶に入っていた―
00:26
out of the jar
人間の脳を取りだし
00:28
and placed it in my hands.
私の手にのせてくれました
00:30
And there it was,
そこには
00:32
the seat of human consciousness,
人間の意識の源―
00:34
the powerhouse of the human body,
人間の体を司るものが
00:36
sitting in my hands.
のっていました
00:38
And that day I knew that when I grew up,
そのときです
00:40
I was going to become a brain doctor,
大人になったら 神経学者か
00:42
scientist, something or the other.
科学者になると確信しました
00:44
Years later, when I finally grew up,
それから何年も経過して
00:47
my dream came true.
私の夢は叶いました
00:50
And it was while I was doing my Ph.D.
博士号のテーマは
00:52
on the neurological causes
神経に起因する―
00:54
of dyslexia in children
子どもの失読症 でした
00:56
that I encountered a startling fact
そのときに私が直面した―
00:58
that I'd like to share with you all today.
驚きの事実を今日はお話しします
01:00
It is estimated that one in six children,
6人に1人の子どもが
01:04
that's one in six children,
発達障害を抱えると
01:06
suffer from some developmental disorder.
推定されています
01:09
This is a disorder that
発達障害とは 子どもの
01:13
retards mental development in the child
精神的発達が遅滞し
01:15
and causes permanent mental impairments.
一生続く精神障害の原因となるものです
01:17
Which means that each and every one of you here today
この会場にいる皆さん誰もが
01:21
knows at least one child that is suffering
発達障害の子どもを
01:24
from a developmental disorder.
1人は知っている計算になります
01:27
But here's what really perplexed me.
しかし 私が困惑したのは
01:30
Despite the fact that each
このような障害は
01:32
and every one of these disorders
例外なく
01:34
originates in the brain,
脳から発生しているのに
01:36
most of these disorders
そのケースのほとんどが
01:39
are diagnosed solely on the basis
目に見える行動だけを基準に
01:41
of observable behavior.
診断されているのです
01:43
But diagnosing a brain disorder
実際に脳を見ず
01:46
without actually looking at the brain
脳の障害を診断するのは
01:48
is analogous to treating a patient with a heart problem
心臓に問題がある患者の心電図や
01:51
based on their physical symptoms,
胸部のX線写真さえ撮らずに
01:54
without even doing an ECG or a chest X-ray
身体的症状を頼りに
01:56
to look at the heart.
治療するようなものです
01:59
It seemed so intuitive to me.
脳障害の正しい診断や
02:01
To diagnose and treat a brain disorder accurately,
適切な治療には まず脳を見る必要がある―
02:04
it would be necessary to look at the brain directly.
というのが私の直感でした
02:07
Looking at behavior alone
行動だけを観察していると
02:10
can miss a vital piece of the puzzle
子どもの問題の
02:12
and provide an incomplete, or even a misleading,
肝心な部分を見逃したり
02:15
picture of the child's problems.
ときには誤った理解に至ります
02:18
Yet, despite all the advances in medical technology,
しかし これだけ医療技術が進歩しているにも関わらず
02:21
the diagnosis of brain disorders
6人に1人が抱える―
02:24
in one in six children
脳障害の診断法は
02:26
still remained so limited.
あまりにも決まりきったものでした
02:28
And then I came across a team at Harvard University
そんなとき ハーバード大学のチームを知ることになりました
02:32
that had taken one such advanced medical technology
彼らは ある高度な医療技術を
02:35
and finally applied it,
脳の研究ではなく
02:38
instead of in brain research,
脳障害をもつ子どもの診断に
02:40
towards diagnosing brain disorders in children.
適用するところまで来たのです
02:42
Their groundbreaking technology
その革新的な技術とは
02:46
records the EEG, or the electrical activity
脳波 すなわち脳の電気活動を
02:48
of the brain, in real time,
リアルタイムで記録します
02:51
allowing us to watch the brain
脳の様々な働きを
02:54
as it performs various functions
観察することができて
02:56
and then detect even the slightest abnormality
視覚 注意力 言語 聴覚を司る働きの
02:59
in any of these functions:
異常が少しでもあれば
03:01
vision, attention, language, audition.
見つけ出すことができます
03:03
A program called Brain Electrical
脳電気活動図と呼ばれる―
03:06
Activity Mapping
プログラムで
03:08
then triangulates the source
異常な電気信号の
03:10
of that abnormality in the brain.
場所を特定します
03:12
And another program called
統計的確率マッピングという
03:14
Statistical Probability Mapping
別のプログラムが
03:16
then performs mathematical calculations
数学的計算を行い
03:18
to determine whether any of these abnormalities
異常を示すものが
03:21
are clinically significant,
臨床的に重要かどうか 判定します
03:23
allowing us to provide a much more accurate
子どもの脳神経の症状に
03:25
neurological diagnosis
正確な診断を
03:27
of the child's symptoms.
下すことができるのです
03:29
And so I became the head of neurophysiology
そんなわけで私は神経生理を扱う―
03:31
for the clinical arm of this team,
部門を指揮することになりました
03:34
and we're finally able to use this technology
この技術を用いて
03:36
towards actually helping
脳障害をもつ子どもたちを
03:38
children with brain disorders.
やっと助けられるようになりました
03:40
And I'm happy to say that I'm now in the process
インドでも この技術を
03:42
of setting up this technology here in India.
立ち上げる最中であることを嬉しく思います
03:44
I'd like to tell you about one such child,
ある男の子の話を紹介します
03:48
whose story was also covered by ABC News.
ABCニュースでも取り上げられた―
03:51
Seven-year-old Justin Senigar
7歳のジャスティンです
03:55
came to our clinic with this diagnosis
彼は我々の診療所に来る前
03:57
of very severe autism.
重度の自閉症と診断されていました
03:59
Like many autistic children,
自閉症の子どもに多いように
04:01
his mind was locked inside his body.
彼は心を閉ざしていました
04:03
There were moments when he would
ジャスティンは時に
04:06
actually space out for seconds at a time.
うわの空になることもありました
04:08
And the doctors told his parents
両親は医師から
04:11
he was never going to be able
ジャスティンが社会性を身につけるのは
04:13
to communicate or interact socially,
無理だろうと言われていました
04:15
and he would probably never have too much language.
また 言葉の習得の難しさも指摘されていました
04:17
When we used this groundbreaking EEG technology
我々が 革新的な脳波技術を使って
04:21
to actually look at Justin's brain,
ジャスティンの脳を実際に観察したとき
04:24
the results were startling.
驚く結果が出ました
04:27
It turned out that Justin was almost
ジャスティンが自閉症ではないと
04:30
certainly not autistic.
ほぼ確実に言える結果が出たのです
04:32
He was suffering from brain seizures
肉眼だけでは特定できない―
04:34
that were impossible to see with the naked eye,
てんかん発作を患っていましたが
04:37
but that were actually causing symptoms
自閉症の症状に類似した―
04:40
that mimicked those of autism.
症状を引き起こしていました
04:42
After Justin was given anti-seizure medication,
抗てんかん薬を飲んでから
04:45
the change in him was amazing.
驚く変化がありました
04:48
Within a period of 60 days,
60日もしないうちに
04:51
his vocabulary went from two to three words
彼の言葉は数える程度から
04:53
to 300 words.
300に増えました
04:56
And his communication and social interaction
コミュニケーションも
04:58
were improved so dramatically
劇的に向上し
05:00
that he was enrolled into a regular school
普通の学校に入り
05:02
and even became a karate super champ.
空手でも優秀な成績を収めました
05:05
Research shows that 50 percent of children,
自閉症と診断された―
05:09
almost 50 percent of children
子どものうちの約半数は
05:11
diagnosed with autism
目に見えないてんかん発作が
05:13
are actually suffering from hidden brain seizures.
原因だという研究結果が出ています
05:15
These are the faces of the children
これは私が検査をした―
05:20
that I have tested
子どもたちです
05:22
with stories just like Justin.
皆 ジャスティンと同じ境遇にいたのです
05:24
All these children
どの子どもたちも
05:27
came to our clinic with a diagnosis
我々の診療所を訪れる前に
05:29
of autism, attention deficit disorder,
自閉症 注意欠陥障害 知的障害
05:31
mental retardation, language problems.
言語障害という診断を受けていました
05:34
Instead, our EEG scans revealed
私たちの脳波スキャナーで
05:38
very specific problems hidden within their brains
脳に隠れた特定の問題があることがわかりました
05:41
that couldn't possibly have been detected
彼らの行動を判断するだけでは
05:44
by their behavioral assessments.
絶対に発見できなかった問題です
05:46
So these EEG scans
このような脳波スキャンは
05:49
enabled us to provide these children
子どもたちに より正確な
05:51
with a much more accurate neurological diagnosis
脳神経の診断をすることができ
05:53
and much more targeted treatment.
より適した治療をすることができます
05:56
For too long now, children with developmental disorders
発達障害の子どもたちは
06:00
have suffered from misdiagnosis
長いこと誤診のために
06:03
while their real problems have gone undetected
本来の問題を見いだしてもらえず
06:05
and left to worsen.
悪化するまま見捨てられてきました
06:07
And for too long, these children and their parents
そして このような子どもと親は長い間
06:09
have suffered undue frustration and desperation.
ひどい苛立ちと絶望感に苛まれてきました
06:12
But we are now in a new era of neuroscience,
しかし我々は神経科学の新しい時代におり
06:15
one in which we can finally look
リアルタイムで脳の機能を
06:18
directly at brain function in real time
じかに見れるようになりました
06:21
with no risks and no side effects, non-invasively,
それに伴うリスクや副作用はなく
06:24
and find the true source
障害をもつ多くの子どもたちの
06:27
of so many disabilities in children.
本当の原因を痛みを伴わずに突き止められます
06:29
So if I could inspire
皆さんが
06:32
even a fraction of you in the audience today
発達障害に苦しむお子さんがいる方を
06:34
to share this pioneering diagnostic approach
一人でもご存じなら
06:37
with even one parent whose child
この革新的な
06:40
is suffering from a developmental disorder,
診断方法を ぜひお伝えください
06:42
then perhaps one more puzzle
一人でも多くの悩みが
06:45
in one more brain will be solved.
解消できるかもしれません
06:47
One more mind will be unlocked.
もう1人の子どもの心が扉が開き
06:49
And one more child who has been misdiagnosed
誤診されていた子ども―
06:51
or even undiagnosed by the system
または従来の方法で 診断さえされていなかった―
06:53
will finally realize his or her true potential
子どもの本当の可能性に気づけるのです
06:56
while there's still time
そこにはまだ
06:59
for his or her brain to recover.
回復するだけの時間があります
07:01
And all this by simply watching the child's brainwaves.
方法は簡単 彼らの脳波を観察するだけです
07:03
Thank you.
ありがとう
07:06
(Applause)
(拍手)
07:08
Translator:Takako Sato
Reviewer:Natsuhiko Mizutani

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Aditi Shankardass - Neuroscientist
Aditi Shankardass is pioneering the use of EEG technology to give children with developmental disorders their most accurate diagnosis.

Why you should listen

Aditi Shankardass is a neuroscientist trained across three disciplines of the field: neurophysiology, neuroanatomy and neuropsychology. She has also worked across different levels of the field, from cellular to cognitive neuroscience, and been based in research labs as well as diagnostic clinics. Currently, she leads the Neurophysiology Lab of the Communicative Disorders Department at California State University.

Much of Shankardass' work has been devoted to the use of an advanced form of digital quantitative EEG (electroencephalography) technology that records the brain's activity in real time, and then analyzes it using complex display schematics and statistical comparisons to norms, enabling far more accurate diagnoses for children with developmental disorders. She is also actively involved in public outreach to increase understanding of brain disorders as a board member of the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation and a consultant for the BBC Science Line.

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