06:27
TEDLagos Ideas Search

Stephanie Busari: How fake news does real harm

史蒂芬妮‧布薩里: 假新聞造成的真實傷害

Filmed:

2014 年 4 月 14 日,超過 200 名奇博克女孩被博科勝地恐怖分子綁架,此事件在世界上引發了 #釋放我們的女孩 (#BringBackOurGirls) 的活動。但奈及利亞政府卻聲稱該綁架案是假新聞,因此而延誤了救援行動。在這場演講中,記者史蒂芬妮‧布薩里以奇博克綁架案說明假新聞的致命性,以及我們該如何阻止假新聞的傳播。

- Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital. Full bio

我想和你們分享一個女孩的故事,
00:13
I want to tell you a story about a girl.
但我不能說出她的真名,
00:16
But I can't tell you her real name.
所以我們暫且稱她為哈狄札。
00:19
So let's just call her Hadiza.
她今年 20 歲,
00:21
Hadiza is 20.
她很害羞,
00:23
She's shy,
她的笑容看起來很美麗,
00:24
but she has a beautiful smile
that lights up her face.
但她卻身在痛苦中,
00:28
But she's in constant pain.
而且她可能終生都需要藥物治療。
00:32
And she will likely be on medication
for the rest of her life.
你知道為什麼嗎?
00:37
Do you want to know why?
哈狄札來自奇博克,
00:39
Hadiza is a Chibok girl,
2014 年 4 月 14 日,
00:42
and on April 14, 2014, she was kidnapped
她被博科聖地恐怖分子綁架。
00:46
by Boko Haram terrorists.
她試圖要逃跑,
00:48
She managed to escape, though,
她從載滿女孩的卡車上跳下,
00:51
by jumping off the truck
that was carrying the girls.
但在著地時摔斷了雙腿,
00:54
But when she landed,
she broke both her legs,
她得爬進草叢裡躲起來。
00:57
and she had to crawl on her tummy
to hide in the bushes.
她非常害怕恐怖份子會再度找上她,
01:00
She told me she was terrified
that Boko Haram would come back for her.
那天共有 57 個女孩逃出卡車。
01:05
She was one of 57 girls who would escape
by jumping off trucks that day.
這個事件很快的,
01:10
This story, quite rightly, caused ripples
引起全球的關注。
01:12
around the world.
蜜雪兒歐巴馬、馬拉拉以及其他名人,
01:14
People like Michelle Obama,
Malala and others
都站出來發聲。
01:17
lent their voices in protest,
當時我正住在倫敦,
01:19
and at about the same time --
I was living in London at the time --
我被派到阿布加參與
01:23
I was sent from London to Abuja
to cover the World Economic Forum
奈及利亞首次主辦的
世界經濟論壇會議。
01:27
that Nigeria was hosting
for the first time.
當時綁架案在當地受到很大的關注,
01:30
But when we arrived, it was clear
that there was only one story in town.
我們向當地政府施壓。
01:35
We put the government under pressure.
並詢問他們,
01:37
We asked tough questions
about what they were doing
解救人質的進展。
01:40
to bring these girls back.
可以理解的是,
01:42
Understandably,
他們不喜歡被質問,
01:44
they weren't too happy
with our line of questioning,
所以我們只得到一些
「小道的事實消息」,
01:46
and let's just say we received
our fair share of "alternative facts."
(笑聲)
01:50
(Laughter)
具有影響力的當地人告訴我們,
01:53
Influential Nigerians
were telling us at the time
我們太天真了。
01:56
that we were naïve,
我們不了解奈及利亞的政治情勢,
01:58
we didn't understand
the political situation in Nigeria.
但他們也告訴我們。
02:02
But they also told us
奇博克女孩綁架案,
02:05
that the story of the Chibok girls
是假的,
02:07
was a hoax.
難過的是,這些假謠言仍被流傳著。
02:10
Sadly, this hoax narrative has persisted,
直到現在,仍有當地人,
02:12
and there are still people
in Nigeria today
深信奇博克女孩綁架案從未發生過,
02:15
who believe that the Chibok girls
were never kidnapped.
但我採訪過那些受害者,
02:18
Yet I was talking to people like these --
我採訪過那些絕望的父母,
02:22
devastated parents,
他們訴說著女兒被綁架的那天,
02:24
who told us that on the day
Boko Haram kidnapped their daughters,
他們追著卡車跑進山姆畢沙叢林裡,
02:28
they ran into the Sambisa Forest
after the trucks carrying their daughters.
他們帶著彎刀衝進叢林裡,
但卻被迫回頭,
02:32
They were armed with machetes,
but they were forced to turn back
因為恐怖分子持有槍。
02:36
because Boko Haram had guns.
這兩年來,此新聞受到的
關注越來越少,
02:39
For two years, inevitably,
the news agenda moved on,
過去兩年來,
02:43
and for two years,
我們沒有聽到太多
關於奇博克女孩的消息,
02:44
we didn't hear much
about the Chibok girls.
大家都認為她們死了。
02:47
Everyone presumed they were dead.
但去年四月,
02:50
But in April last year,
我拿到一部影片,
02:52
I was able to obtain this video.
這是擷自影片的畫面,
02:55
This is a still from the video
恐怖分子以此證明女孩們還活著,
02:56
that Boko Haram filmed as a proof of life,
我透過關係取得這部影片,
03:00
and through a source,
I obtained this video.
但在我發佈影片前。
03:04
But before I could publish it,
我必須到奈及利亞的東北部,
03:05
I had to travel
to the northeast of Nigeria
向受害者家長確認影片真實性,
03:08
to talk to the parents, to verify it.
我很快就得到了答案。
03:11
I didn't have to wait
too long for confirmation.
其中有一個母親
在看過影片後跟我說,
03:15
One of the mothers,
when she watched the video, told me
如果她能把手伸進螢幕裡,
03:18
that if she could have reached
into the laptop
並把她的女兒拉出來,
03:21
and pulled our her child from the laptop,
她真的很想這麼做。
03:25
she would have done so.
各位,如果你們跟我一樣,
已經為人父母的話,
03:28
For those of you who are parents,
like myself, in the audience,
你大概能想像那位母親,
03:31
you can only imagine the anguish
所承受的極大痛苦,
03:34
that that mother felt.
這部影片是與博科聖地談判的開端,
03:37
This video would go on to kick-start
negotiation talks with Boko Haram.
奈及利亞的議員跟我說,
因為這部影片,
03:44
And a Nigerian senator told me
that because of this video
他們現在才採取行動。
03:48
they entered into those talks,
因為他們之前認為女孩們早已死亡,
03:50
because they had long presumed
that the Chibok girls were dead.
去年十月,21 位女孩被釋放了,
03:54
Twenty-one girls were freed
in October last year.
不幸的是,大概還有
200 位失蹤的女孩,
03:59
Sadly, nearly 200 of them
still remain missing.
我得承認我沒有站在客觀的角度
04:03
I must confess that I have not been
a dispassionate observer
報導此事件,
04:07
covering this story.
每當想起有許多機會都被浪費掉時,
04:09
I am furious when I think
about the wasted opportunities
我就非常地氣憤。
04:14
to rescue these girls.
每當想起那些父母說,
04:15
I am furious when I think about
what the parents have told me,
如果他們是有錢有勢的人,
04:19
that if these were daughters
of the rich and the powerful,
那些女孩們早就被解救時,
我就很氣憤。
04:22
they would have been found much earlier.
我也對假新聞
04:26
And I am furious
感到憤怒。
04:28
that the hoax narrative,
我深信著
04:30
I firmly believe,
那是拖延救援的原因。
04:32
caused a delay;
害那些女孩無法提早被救出來,
04:34
it was part of the reason
for the delay in their return.
這讓我了解到假新聞
所造成的真實傷害,
04:38
This illustrates to me
the deadly danger of fake news.
我們能做什麼?
04:43
So what can we do about it?
在谷歌及臉書有一群,
04:45
There are some very smart people,
非常聰明的工程師們,
04:47
smart engineers at Google and Facebook,
試圖用新科技防止假新聞的散佈。
04:50
who are trying to use technology
to stop the spread of fake news.
但除此之外,我想每一個人,
04:55
But beyond that, I think
everybody here -- you and I --
包含你和我,
都要參與其中,
05:00
we have a role to play in that.
我們會分享新聞,
05:02
We are the ones who share the content.
我們會在網路上分享故事,
05:04
We are the ones who share
the stories online.
在這個時代,我們就是出版者,
05:07
In this day and age, we're all publishers,
所以我們應要承擔責任。
05:10
and we have responsibility.
身為一位記者,
05:13
In my job as a journalist,
我會檢查、確認。
05:15
I check, I verify.
我相信我的直覺,但我也會質問,
05:17
I trust my gut, but I ask tough questions.
為什麼這個人要告訴我這個故事?
05:21
Why is this person telling me this story?
他們能從分享此資訊中獲得什麼?
05:24
What do they have to gain
by sharing this information?
他們是不是有別的意圖?
05:28
Do they have a hidden agenda?
我相信我們應該要開始質問
05:30
I really believe that we must all start
to ask tougher questions
我們在網路上發現的資訊,
05:36
of information that we discover online.
有研究指出,有些人只看到標題,
05:41
Research shows that some of us
don't even read beyond headlines
就分享資訊。
05:47
before we share stories.
在座有人這麼做過嗎?
05:49
Who here has done that?
我就曾經做過,
05:51
I know I have.
但如果
05:54
But what if
我們能停止轉發未經證實的消息,
05:57
we stopped taking information
that we discover at face value?
如果我們能仔細思考,
06:02
What if we stop to think
about the consequence
我們所轉發的訊息,
06:05
of the information that we pass on
可能會引發暴力或仇恨,
06:08
and its potential to incite
violence or hatred?
如果我們能在分享訊息前仔細思考,
06:12
What if we stop to think
about the real-life consequences
此舉會對真實世界造成什麼樣影響?
06:17
of the information that we share?
感謝各位的聆聽。
06:20
Thank you very much for listening.
(掌聲)
06:21
(Applause)
Translated by Candice Su
Reviewed by Yanyan Hong

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About the Speaker:

Stephanie Busari - Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital.

Why you should listen

Stephanie Busari moved to Lagos from London in July 2016 to pioneer CNN's first digital and multimedia bureau. She also reports on-air in breaking news situations for CNN International.

In April 2016 Busari exclusively obtained the "proof of life" video that showed that the missing Chibok schoolgirls who were kidnapped in Nigeria in 2014 were still alive. She was also an instrumental member of the CNN team that won a Peabody Award in May 2015 for the network's coverage of the missing girls. Busari recently won a Gracie Award for her persistence in covering this story, and she's also a previous recipient of the Outstanding Woman in the Media Awards.

Busari is a passionate community activist who curated TEDxBrixton for three years before she left London. She founded TEDxBrixton in 2013 driven by a desire to bring disparate elements of her community together and to create a platform for those who wouldn't normally have one to share their ideas worth spreading.

A passionate and adept public speaker, Busari is regularly invited to share her insights and host panels. She has spoken at UN Women, Said Business School, Oxford, Africa Gathering among others.

Over a 15-year career, Busari has worked as a news reporter, entertainment and features writer, court reporter and columnist, and she has been published in many of the UK and international media's most influential outlets, such as the BBC and Daily Mirror.

During a six-month stint in Northern Ireland in 2003, Busari spent time in some of the worst affected areas of "The Troubles" and secured interviews with a crucifixion victim, government ministers and paramilitaries. While there, she also launched and edited an award-winning lifestyle column.

A native Yoruba speaker, Busari also speaks fluent French and is currently learning Hausa.  

More profile about the speaker
Stephanie Busari | Speaker | TED.com