06:27
TEDLagos Ideas Search

Stephanie Busari: How fake news does real harm

ステファニー・ブサリ: 偽のニュースがいかに実害を引き起こすのか

Filmed:

2014年4月14日テロ組織のボコ・ハラムがナイジェリアのチボクで200人以上の女子生徒を拉致しました。この事件は、#BringBackOurGirls 「娘たちを返して」というスローガンの下、世界に広まりました。しかし、ナイジェリア政府が事件をでっち上げであるとしたため、混乱が生じ、生徒救出が遅れました。この説得力のあるトークで、ジャーナリストのステファニー・ブサリがチボクの悲劇を取り上げ、偽のニュースの致命的な危険性と、どんな対策ができるのかを語ります。

- Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital. Full bio

ある女の子の話をします
00:13
I want to tell you a story about a girl.
実名は明かせませんが
00:16
But I can't tell you her real name.
ハディーザと呼びましょう
00:19
So let's just call her Hadiza.
ハディーザは20歳で
00:21
Hadiza is 20.
内気なタイプですが
00:23
She's shy,
素敵な笑顔の持ち主で
笑うと顔がパッと明るくなります
00:24
but she has a beautiful smile
that lights up her face.
でも 絶えず痛みに苦しんでいます
00:28
But she's in constant pain.
おそらく 生涯に渡って
薬を飲み続けることになるでしょう
00:32
And she will likely be on medication
for the rest of her life.
なぜだと思いますか?
00:37
Do you want to know why?
ハディーザはチボクの住民です
00:39
Hadiza is a Chibok girl,
2014年4月14日
ボコ・ハラムのテロリストに
00:42
and on April 14, 2014, she was kidnapped
拉致されました
00:46
by Boko Haram terrorists.
拉致された女子生徒たちを運ぶ
トラックから飛び降りて
00:48
She managed to escape, though,
00:51
by jumping off the truck
that was carrying the girls.
なんとか逃げ切りましたが
着地した時
両足を骨折してしまい
00:54
But when she landed,
she broke both her legs,
腹這いで茂みに隠れなければ
なりませんでした
00:57
and she had to crawl on her tummy
to hide in the bushes.
ボコ・ハラムが探しに来るのが
とても怖かったそうです
01:00
She told me she was terrified
that Boko Haram would come back for her.
ハディーザは その日トラックから飛び降りた
女子生徒57人の中の1人でした
01:05
She was one of 57 girls who would escape
by jumping off trucks that day.
この事件は当然ながら
01:10
This story, quite rightly, caused ripples
世界中に波紋を広げました
01:12
around the world.
ミシェル・オバマやマララ
といった人々が
01:14
People like Michelle Obama,
Malala and others
抗議の声をあげました
01:17
lent their voices in protest,
当時私はロンドンに住んでいたのですが
ほぼ同じ時期に
01:19
and at about the same time --
I was living in London at the time --
ナイジェリアでは初の開催となる
世界経済フォーラムを取材するため
01:23
I was sent from London to Abuja
to cover the World Economic Forum
ロンドンからアブジャに
派遣されていました
01:27
that Nigeria was hosting
for the first time.
到着すると 町はこの拉致事件の
話で持ち切りでした
01:30
But when we arrived, it was clear
that there was only one story in town.
私たちは政府に圧力を加え
01:35
We put the government under pressure.
人質救出のため
何をしているのかという
01:37
We asked tough questions
about what they were doing
厳しい質問をしました
01:40
to bring these girls back.
無理もないことですが
01:42
Understandably,
政府は一連の質問を快く思わず
01:44
they weren't too happy
with our line of questioning,
返答内容は「もう一つの真実」でしかなかった
とだけ言っておきましょう
01:46
and let's just say we received
our fair share of "alternative facts."
(笑)
01:50
(Laughter)
当時 ナイジェリアの有力者たちには
01:53
Influential Nigerians
were telling us at the time
考え方が甘いとか
01:56
that we were naïve,
ナイジェリアの政情に疎い
などと言われました
01:58
we didn't understand
the political situation in Nigeria.
それだけでなく
02:02
But they also told us
02:05
that the story of the Chibok girls
チボクの女子生徒拉致事件も
でっち上げだと言うのです
02:07
was a hoax.
悲しいことに
このでっち上げ説が根強く残り
02:10
Sadly, this hoax narrative has persisted,
ナイジェリアには今でも
02:12
and there are still people
in Nigeria today
生徒拉致事件はなかったと
考える人々もいます
02:15
who believe that the Chibok girls
were never kidnapped.
でも私は この写真のような人々と
話しました
02:18
Yet I was talking to people like these --
打ちひしがれた親たちです
02:22
devastated parents,
ボコ・ハラムに
娘たちがさらわれた日
02:24
who told us that on the day
Boko Haram kidnapped their daughters,
拉致したトラックを追って
サンビサの森へ駆け込んだそうです
02:28
they ran into the Sambisa Forest
after the trucks carrying their daughters.
マチェーテを持って行ったものの
ボコ・ハラムが銃を持っていたので
02:32
They were armed with machetes,
but they were forced to turn back
引き返さざるを得ませんでした
02:36
because Boko Haram had guns.
2年で 必然的に
ニュースの焦点は切り替わり
02:39
For two years, inevitably,
the news agenda moved on,
そして2年間
02:43
and for two years,
拉致された生徒たちについて
あまり報道されませんでした
02:44
we didn't hear much
about the Chibok girls.
死んだものと
誰もが思っていました
02:47
Everyone presumed they were dead.
しかし 去年の4月に
02:50
But in April last year,
このビデオを入手しました
02:52
I was able to obtain this video.
少女たちが生きていることを
02:55
This is a still from the video
証明するためにボコ・ハラムが撮影した
ビデオの静止画です
02:56
that Boko Haram filmed as a proof of life,
ビデオの出元は ある情報筋です
03:00
and through a source,
I obtained this video.
しかし 公表する前に
03:04
But before I could publish it,
ナイジェリアの北東部に
行かなければなりませんでした
03:05
I had to travel
to the northeast of Nigeria
親たちと話して
本人確認するためです
03:08
to talk to the parents, to verify it.
すぐに確証が得られました
03:11
I didn't have to wait
too long for confirmation.
母親の1人はビデオを見て
03:15
One of the mothers,
when she watched the video, told me
もし 画面の中に手を伸ばして
03:18
that if she could have reached
into the laptop
パソコンから自分の子供を
引っ張り出せるなら
03:21
and pulled our her child from the laptop,
そうするのにと言いました
03:25
she would have done so.
会場の中で 私と同じように
子供のいる方は
03:28
For those of you who are parents,
like myself, in the audience,
その母親が感じていた苦悩が
03:31
you can only imagine the anguish
お分かりになると思います
03:34
that that mother felt.
このビデオによりボコ・ハラムとの
交渉が始まりました
03:37
This video would go on to kick-start
negotiation talks with Boko Haram.
ナイジェリアのある議員は
このビデオがあったからこそ
03:44
And a Nigerian senator told me
that because of this video
交渉が始まったのだと言いました
03:48
they entered into those talks,
チボクの女生徒は死んだと
ずっと考えらていたからです
03:50
because they had long presumed
that the Chibok girls were dead.
21人の女子生徒が
去年の10月に解放されました
03:54
Twenty-one girls were freed
in October last year.
悲しいことに 200人近くが
行方不明のままです
03:59
Sadly, nearly 200 of them
still remain missing.
正直なところ 報道するにあたって
感情を挟まずにはいられませんでした
04:03
I must confess that I have not been
a dispassionate observer
04:07
covering this story.
女子生徒たちを救出する機会を
みすみす無駄にしたことを思うと
04:09
I am furious when I think
about the wasted opportunities
猛烈に腹が立ちます
04:14
to rescue these girls.
親たちから聞いたことを思うと
猛烈に腹が立ちます
04:15
I am furious when I think about
what the parents have told me,
金持ちや有力者の子供だったなら
04:19
that if these were daughters
of the rich and the powerful,
もっと早く捜索されていた
と言っていました
04:22
they would have been found much earlier.
そして「でっち上げ」説にも
04:26
And I am furious
猛烈に腹が立ちます
04:28
that the hoax narrative,
捜査が遅れた原因だと
04:30
I firmly believe,
私は確信しています
04:32
caused a delay;
少女たちの返還が
遅れた理由の1つです
04:34
it was part of the reason
for the delay in their return.
ここから 偽のニュースの
致命的な危険性が浮き彫りになります
04:38
This illustrates to me
the deadly danger of fake news.
ではどんな対策ができるのでしょう?
04:43
So what can we do about it?
GoogleやFacebookには
04:45
There are some very smart people,
テクノロジーを使って
偽のニュースの
04:47
smart engineers at Google and Facebook,
拡散防止に努める優秀な社員や
エンジニアがいます
04:50
who are trying to use technology
to stop the spread of fake news.
でもそれに加えて
あなたも私も ここにいる誰もが
04:55
But beyond that, I think
everybody here -- you and I --
対策の一端を担うのです
05:00
we have a role to play in that.
ニュースの中身を
シェアするのは私たちです
05:02
We are the ones who share the content.
ニュース記事をネットでシェアするのは
私たちなのです
05:04
We are the ones who share
the stories online.
今の時代 私たち全員が
出版媒体なのであり
05:07
In this day and age, we're all publishers,
私たちには責任があるのです
05:10
and we have responsibility.
ジャーナリストとしての私は
仕事の中で
05:13
In my job as a journalist,
調べて 裏を取り
05:15
I check, I verify.
自分の勘を信じながらも
本質を問います
05:17
I trust my gut, but I ask tough questions.
「なぜこの人は私にこんな話をするのか?」
05:21
Why is this person telling me this story?
「この情報を提供してくれることに
どんな利益があるのだろうか?」
05:24
What do they have to gain
by sharing this information?
「隠された思惑があるのか?」
05:28
Do they have a hidden agenda?
私たち皆 ネット上の情報を
より厳しく検証し始めねばならないと
05:30
I really believe that we must all start
to ask tougher questions
私は強く信じています
05:36
of information that we discover online.
調査によると
記事をシェアするときに
05:41
Research shows that some of us
don't even read beyond headlines
見出し以外は
読んでさえいない人もいます
05:47
before we share stories.
覚えのある方いませんか?
05:49
Who here has done that?
私がそうです
05:51
I know I have.
でも もし私たちが
05:54
But what if
見つけた情報を
鵜呑みにするのをやめたなら?
05:57
we stopped taking information
that we discover at face value?
もし 私たちが少し立ち止まって
06:02
What if we stop to think
about the consequence
自分が流した情報から生じる結果や
06:05
of the information that we pass on
そこから暴力や憎しみが生まれる可能性を
考えたとしたら?
06:08
and its potential to incite
violence or hatred?
少し立ち止まって
自分がネット上でシェアした情報が
06:12
What if we stop to think
about the real-life consequences
現実世界に及ぼす結果を考えたとしたら?
06:17
of the information that we share?
ご清聴ありがとうございました
06:20
Thank you very much for listening.
(拍手)
06:21
(Applause)
Translated by Masako Kigami
Reviewed by Riaki Poništ

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About the Speaker:

Stephanie Busari - Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital.

Why you should listen

Stephanie Busari moved to Lagos from London in July 2016 to pioneer CNN's first digital and multimedia bureau. She also reports on-air in breaking news situations for CNN International.

In April 2016 Busari exclusively obtained the "proof of life" video that showed that the missing Chibok schoolgirls who were kidnapped in Nigeria in 2014 were still alive. She was also an instrumental member of the CNN team that won a Peabody Award in May 2015 for the network's coverage of the missing girls. Busari recently won a Gracie Award for her persistence in covering this story, and she's also a previous recipient of the Outstanding Woman in the Media Awards.

Busari is a passionate community activist who curated TEDxBrixton for three years before she left London. She founded TEDxBrixton in 2013 driven by a desire to bring disparate elements of her community together and to create a platform for those who wouldn't normally have one to share their ideas worth spreading.

A passionate and adept public speaker, Busari is regularly invited to share her insights and host panels. She has spoken at UN Women, Said Business School, Oxford, Africa Gathering among others.

Over a 15-year career, Busari has worked as a news reporter, entertainment and features writer, court reporter and columnist, and she has been published in many of the UK and international media's most influential outlets, such as the BBC and Daily Mirror.

During a six-month stint in Northern Ireland in 2003, Busari spent time in some of the worst affected areas of "The Troubles" and secured interviews with a crucifixion victim, government ministers and paramilitaries. While there, she also launched and edited an award-winning lifestyle column.

A native Yoruba speaker, Busari also speaks fluent French and is currently learning Hausa.  

More profile about the speaker
Stephanie Busari | Speaker | TED.com