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TEDxFiDiWomen

Jackson Katz: Violence against women -- it's a men's issue

ジャクソン・カッツ: ジャクソン・カッツ:女性への暴力―男の問題

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DVや性的虐待はしばしば「女性の問題」と呼ばれる。しかしジャクソン・カッツは大胆かつ率直に、これらの問題は本質的に男性の問題だと指摘し、こうした暴力的な振る舞いがいかに男らしさの定義と結びついているかを示す。男女問わずすべての人に対し、こうした暴力を許さない態度を取り、変化を起こすリーダーとなれと高らかに呼びかけている。

- Anti-sexism educator
Jackson Katz asks a very important question that gets at the root of why sexual abuse, rape and domestic abuse remain a problem: What's going on with men? Full bio

I'm going to share with you
これから
00:12
a paradigm-shifting perspective
ジェンダー・バイオレンス…
00:13
on the issues of gender violence --
つまり 性的暴行 DV
00:15
sexual assault, domestic violence, relationship abuse,
セクハラ 性的虐待等の問題への
00:17
sexual harassment, sexual abuse of children.
革新的視点をお見せします
00:20
That whole range of issues that I'll refer to in shorthand
「ジェンダー・バイオレンス」は
00:22
as "gender violence issues,"
総じて こう捉えられてきた
00:24
they've been seen as women's issues that some good men
「善き男性が助けるべき女性の問題」
00:26
help out with, but I have a problem with that frame
でも 私は正しいと思えない
00:29
and I don't accept it.
受け入れられない
00:32
I don't see these as women's issues that some good men help out with.
「善き男性が助けるべき女性の問題」ではない
00:33
In fact, I'm going to argue that these are men's issues,
何よりもまず問題があるのは
00:36
first and foremost.
男性の方なのです
00:38
(Applause)
(拍手)
00:40
Now obviously, they're also women's issues,
女性の問題でもある
00:43
so I appreciate that, but calling
それはわかる でもこの問題を
00:45
gender violence a women's issue is part of the problem,
女性の問題だと言う事自体
00:48
for a number of reasons.
問題の一部なのです
00:50
The first is that it gives men an excuse not to pay attention.
まず 男性が気にしなくなる
00:52
Right? A lot of men hear the term "women's issues"
「女性の問題」と聞けば男は
00:55
and we tend to tune it out, and we think,
それを頭から追い払う
00:57
"Hey, I'm a guy. That's for the girls," or "That's for the women."
「俺は男だ 女の子の問題なんか」とね
00:59
And a lot of men literally don't get beyond the first sentence
そして 文字通り一歩も先に
01:01
as a result.
進まなくなるのです
01:04
It's almost like a chip in our brain is activated,
まるで「女性の問題」と聞くと―
01:06
and the neural pathways take our attention in a different direction
頭の中のチップが神経回路に命じ
01:08
when we hear the term "women's issues."
違う方向を向かせるように
01:11
This is also true, by the way, of the word "gender,"
「ジェンダー」と聞いても同じ
01:13
because a lot of people hear the word "gender"
そう聞くと 多くの人が
01:15
and they think it means "women."
「女性」という意味だと思う
01:17
So they think that gender issues is synonymous with women's issues.
「ジェンダーの問題」とは「女性の問題」だと
01:19
There's some confusion about the term gender.
用法が混乱しているのです
01:23
And actually, let me illustrate that confusion by way of analogy.
アナロジーでこの混乱を説明します
01:25
So let's talk for a moment about race.
人種の話をしましょう
01:28
In the U.S., when we hear the word "race,"
米国で「人種」と聞けば
01:29
a lot of people think that means African-American,
「アフリカ系アメリカ人」
01:31
Latino, Asian-American, Native American,
「ラテン系」「アジア系」「ネイティブ」
01:34
South Asian, Pacific Islander, on and on.
「南アジア系」「太平洋諸島系」その他だと思う
01:36
A lot of people, when they hear the word "sexual orientation"
「性的指向」と聞けばそれは
01:40
think it means gay, lesbian, bisexual.
「同性愛者」「両性愛者」の事だと思う
01:42
And a lot of people, when they hear the word "gender,"
「ジェンダー」と聞けば
01:45
think it means women. In each case,
それは女性の事
01:47
the dominant group doesn't get paid attention to.
誰も支配層の事は気にしない
01:49
Right? As if white people don't have some sort of racial identity
人種的なアイデンティティや
01:51
or belong to some racial category or construct,
カテゴリー 概念等白人にはなく
01:54
as if heterosexual people don't have a sexual orientation,
異性愛者に性的指向はなく
01:58
as if men don't have a gender.
男性にジェンダーはないようだ
02:01
This is one of the ways that dominant systems maintain
こうして支配のシステムは
02:03
and reproduce themselves, which is to say
維持・再生産されるつまり―
02:06
the dominant group is rarely challenged to even think about its dominance,
安定した支配層は自分の優位に無自覚
02:08
because that's one of the key characteristics
権力と特権の特徴とは
02:11
of power and privilege, the ability to go unexamined,
考察の対象にならないという点
02:13
lacking introspection, in fact being rendered invisible
内省する事のない不可視の存在である事
02:16
in large measure in the discourse
私達が抱える主な問題は
02:20
about issues that are primarily about us.
大体がそうなのです
02:22
And this is amazing how this works
DVや性暴力でも
02:25
in domestic and sexual violence,
見事なほどに
02:27
how men have been largely erased from so much
男性について語られる事は
02:28
of the conversation about a subject
ほぼありません
02:31
that is centrally about men.
問題の中心は男性なのに
02:32
And I'm going to illustrate what I'm talking about
これから古いやり方で
02:35
by using the old tech.
説明します
02:37
I'm old school on some fundamental regards.
基本的な所では古い人間なので
02:38
I work with -- I make films -- and I work with high tech,
映画作りではハイテクを使います
02:41
but I'm still old school as an educator,
教師としては旧式です
02:44
and I want to share with you this exercise
このエクササイズで分かるのは
02:46
that illustrates on the sentence structure level
文構造のレベルで
02:49
how the way that we think,
私たちの考え方
02:52
literally the way that we use language,
言葉の選び方が
02:54
conspires to keep our attention off of men.
いかに男性を無視するか
02:56
This is about domestic violence in particular,
エクササイズのテーマはDV
02:59
but you can plug in other analogues.
でも 他の問題にもあてはめられます
03:01
This comes from the work of the feminist linguist Julia Penelope.
言語学者 ペネロープ氏の研究成果です
03:04
It starts with a very basic English sentence:
非常に基本的な文があります
03:07
"John beat Mary."
「ジョンがメアリーを殴った」
03:09
That's a good English sentence.
問題ない英語です
03:13
John is the subject. Beat is the verb.
「ジョン」は主語「殴った」は動詞
03:14
Mary is the object. Good sentence.
「メアリー」は目的語
03:16
Now we're going to move to the second sentence,
次の文に進みましょう
03:18
which says the same thing in the passive voice.
同じ事を受動態で言っています
03:20
"Mary was beaten by John."
「メアリーはジョンに殴られた」という文です こうすると―
03:23
And now a whole lot has happened in one sentence.
文はがらりと変わります
03:29
We've gone from "John beat Mary"
「ジョンは殴った」から
03:32
to "Mary was beaten by John."
「メアリーは殴られた」へ
03:34
We've shifted our focus in one sentence from John to Mary,
焦点がジョンからメアリーになった
03:36
and you can see John is very close to the end of the sentence,
ジョンは文末に近づいて
03:39
well, close to dropping off the map of our psychic plain.
私達の頭から消えそうです
03:42
The third sentence, John is dropped,
三番目の文で彼は消えます
03:45
and we have, "Mary was beaten,"
その文は「メアリーは殴られた」
03:47
and now it's all about Mary.
主題はメアリーのみ
03:50
We're not even thinking about John. It's totally focused on Mary.
ジョンの事は考えもしない
03:52
Over the past generation, the term we've used
昔は「殴られた」ではなく
03:55
synonymous with "beaten" is "battered,"
「ぶちのめされた」と言った
03:56
so we have "Mary was battered."
だから こう言える「メアリーがぶちのめされた」
03:58
And the final sentence in this sequence,
これまでのものに続く
04:03
flowing from the others, is,
最後の文とは
04:05
"Mary is a battered woman."
「メアリーはぶちのめされる女だ」
04:07
So now Mary's very identity -- Mary is a battered woman --
「ぶちのめされる女である」という彼女のアイデンティティは
04:09
is what was done to her by John in the first instance.
最初の文でジョンにされた事です
04:16
But we've demonstrated that John has long ago left the conversation.
そして 彼は話題から消えて久しい
04:19
Now, those of us who work in the domestic and sexual violence
DVや性暴力に関する仕事だと
04:22
field know that victim-blaming is pervasive in this realm,
被害者を責める傾向があると分かる
04:25
which is to say, blaming the person to whom something was done
何かをした人ではなくされた人を
04:28
rather than the person who did it.
責めるという事です
04:31
And we say things like, why do these women go out with these men?
「何であんな男と出歩くんだ?」
04:32
Why are they attracted to these men?
「何であんな男がいい?」
04:34
Why do they keep going back? What was she wearing at that party?
「何で出て行かない?」「何を着てた?」
04:35
What a stupid thing to do. Why was she drinking
「ホテルの部屋で
04:38
with that group of guys in that hotel room?
男たちと飲むなんて何てバカだ」
04:40
This is victim blaming, and there are numerous reasons for it,
被害者を責める理由はいろいろですが
04:43
but one of them is that our whole cognitive structure
1つには人間の認識構造は
04:46
is set up to blame victims. This is all unconscious.
疑問を抱くよう できている為
04:48
Our whole cognitive structure is set up to ask questions
無意識に問うのです
04:51
about women and women's choices and what they're doing,
女性の事 彼女の選択何をしていたか
04:52
thinking, and wearing.
何を考え何を着ていたかを
04:55
And I'm not going to shout down people who ask questions
「やめろ」とは言いません
04:57
about women, okay? It's a legitimate thing to ask.
女性の事を訊いても合法ですから
04:59
But's let's be clear: Asking questions about Mary
でも はっきりさせましょう
05:01
is not going to get us anywhere in terms of preventing violence.
それでは暴力は防止できない
05:04
We have to ask a different set of questions.
違う質問をしなければ
05:06
You can see where I'm going with this, right?
もう お分かりですね
05:09
The questions are not about Mary. They're about John.
メアリーではなくジョンについてです
05:10
The questions include things like, why does John beat Mary?
なぜ ジョンはメアリーを殴るのか?
05:14
Why is domestic violence still a big problem
なぜ DVは未だに
05:17
in the United States and all over the world?
世界中で深刻な問題なのか?
05:19
What's going on? Why do so many men abuse,
何が起きてる?なぜ 男性は
05:21
physically, emotionally, verbally, and other ways,
身体 感情 言葉 その他の面で―
05:22
the women and girls, and the men and boys,
女性や他の男性を虐待する?
05:25
that they claim to love? What's going on with men?
愛する人をなぜ?男性に一体何が?
05:27
Why do so many adult men sexually abuse little girls and little boys?
なぜ 多くの成人男性が子どもに性的虐待を?
05:30
Why is that a common problem in our society
なぜ 米国そして世界中で
05:34
and all over the world today?
それが共通の問題に?
05:35
Why do we hear over and over again
教会やサッカークラブ
05:37
about new scandals erupting in major institutions
ボーイスカウト等大きな団体で
05:39
like the Catholic Church or the Penn State football program
スキャンダルが次々
05:43
or the Boy Scouts of America, on and on and on?
出てくるのは一体なぜなのか
05:45
And then local communities all over the country
地方でも 国全体でも
05:48
and all over the world, right? We hear about it all the time.
常にその話題を耳にします
05:50
The sexual abuse of children.
子供への性的虐待です
05:53
What's going on with men? Why do so many men rape women
男性に何が?なぜ 多くの男性が
05:55
in our society and around the world?
世界中で女性を暴行する?
05:58
Why do so many men rape other men?
あるいは他の男性を?
06:00
What is going on with men?
男性に一体何が?
06:02
And then what is the role of the various institutions
米国のいろいろな慣習がどのようにして
06:03
in our society that are helping to produce abusive men
虐待する男性を大流行ばりに
06:07
at pandemic rates?
作り出すのか
06:10
Because this isn't about individual perpetrators.
犯罪者個人ではなく
06:11
That's a naive way to understanding what is a much deeper
より根の深い社会制度の問題を
06:13
and more systematic social problem.
理解する道です
06:16
You know, the perpetrators aren't these
彼らは怪物とは違う
06:17
monsters who crawl out of the swamp
沼から這い出て
06:19
and come into town and do their nasty business
町に行き 悪事を行い
06:21
and then retreat into the darkness.
また暗闇に帰るのではない
06:24
That's a very naive notion, right?
「怪物だ」なんて甘すぎる考えです
06:26
Perpetrators are much more normal than that,
彼らはもっと普通で
06:28
and everyday than that.
平凡な人間です
06:30
So the question is, what are we doing here
問題は 米国含め世界中での
06:32
in our society and in the world?
人の行いです
06:35
What are the roles of various institutions
いかにして様々な慣習が
06:36
in helping to produce abusive men?
虐待する男性を作り出すか
06:38
What's the role of religious belief systems,
宗教の信念体系
06:40
the sports culture, the pornography culture,
スポーツ ポルノ 家族構造
06:42
the family structure, economics, and how that intersects,
経済等がいかに交わるか
06:45
and race and ethnicity and how that intersects?
人種や民族は?
06:47
How does all this work?
どんな仕組みなのか
06:49
And then, once we start making those kinds of connections
それらの要素を組み合わせ
06:51
and asking those important and big questions,
重大な問題に目をやれば
06:54
then we can talk about how we can be transformative,
どうすれば変われるのかを語れる
06:57
in other words, how can we do something differently?
やり方を変え
06:59
How can we change the practices?
しきたりを変え
07:01
How can we change the socialization of boys
現状を引き起こす―
07:03
and the definitions of manhood that lead to these current outcomes?
少年の社会化や「男らしさ」を変えるには?
07:05
These are the kind of questions that we need
疑問に思わねばならない事
07:09
to be asking and the kind of work that we need to be doing,
やるべき事は多い
07:11
but if we're endlessly focused on what women are doing
いつまでも女性の行動や
07:13
and thinking in relationships or elsewhere,
対人関係にこだわっていては
07:16
we're not going to get to that piece.
そこにはたどり着けない
07:19
Now, I understand that a lot of women
今まで多くの女性が
07:21
who have been trying to speaking out about these issues,
これらの問題について
07:23
today and yesterday and for years and years,
発言しようとしそのせいで
07:25
often get shouted down for their efforts.
黙らされてきた
07:28
They get called nasty names like "male-basher"
そして不快なあだ名をつけられた
07:30
and "man-hater,"
「男性叩き」「男嫌い」
07:33
and the disgusting and offensive "feminazi." Right?
汚らわしく 攻撃的な「フェミナチ」に至るまで
07:34
And you know what all this is about?
この現象は何か?
07:41
It's called kill the messenger.
「使者殺し」です
07:43
It's because the women who are standing up
女性が立ち上がり
07:44
and speaking out for themselves and for other women
自分 他の女性 男性 少年の為
07:46
as well as for men and boys, it's a statement to them
発言すれば 彼女らはこう言われる
07:48
to sit down and shut up, keep the current system in place,
「座って黙れ今の制度を続けるんだ」
07:52
because we don't like it when people rock the boat.
人は波風を立てて
07:55
We don't like it when people challenge our power.
権力に挑む者を嫌う
07:57
You'd better sit down and shut up, basically.
基本的には黙って座った方がいい
07:59
And thank goodness that women haven't done that.
幸い 女性はそうしなかった
08:02
Thank goodness that we live in a world
幸い 世界では
08:04
where there's so much women's leadership that can counteract that.
多くの女性リーダーが立ち向かっている
08:05
But one of the powerful roles that men can play in this work
男性にできる重大な事とは
08:09
is that we can say some things
女性が言えない事を
08:11
that sometimes women can't say,
言う事ができる事
08:13
or, better yet, we can be heard saying some things
女性が言えば無視されても
08:15
that women often can't be heard saying.
男性が言えば 人は聞く
08:17
Now, I appreciate that that's a problem. It's sexism.
それは性差別主義という問題ですが
08:19
But it's the truth. And so one of the things that I say to men,
実際 あります私達はいつも―
08:22
and my colleagues and I always say this,
男性にこう言う
08:24
is we need more men who have the courage and the strength
「もっと多くの男性が
08:26
to start standing up and saying some of this stuff,
立ち上がり 発言し
08:28
and standing with women and not against them
女性に寄り添わなければ」
08:31
and pretending that somehow this is
「男対女の戦いだと
08:33
a battle between the sexes and other kinds of nonsense.
馬鹿を言って対抗するのではなく」
08:35
We live in the world together.
共に生きるのだから
08:37
And by the way, one of the things that really bothers me
ところで本当に頭が痛いのが―
08:39
about some of the rhetoric against feminists and others
女性の暴力被害やレイプに反対する
08:41
who have built the battered women's
運動を行ってきた
08:44
and rape crisis movements around the world
フェミニスト等がどういう訳か
08:45
is that somehow, like I said, that they're anti-male.
反男性的と言われる事です
08:48
What about all the boys who are profoundly affected
大人の男に自分や母親 妹や姉が―
08:50
in a negative way by what some adult man is doing
酷い目に遭わされ
08:53
against their mother, themselves, their sisters?
悪影響を受ける少年はどうなります?
08:55
What about all those boys?
数に入らないのですか?
08:58
What about all the young men and boys
大人の男の暴力に
09:01
who have been traumatized by adult men's violence?
心の傷を負った少年や若者は?
09:02
You know what? The same system that produces
同じシステムが
09:04
men who abuse women produces men who abuse other men.
男性を虐待する男性も産むのです
09:06
And if we want to talk about male victims,
男性被害者について
09:09
let's talk about male victims.
話しましょう
09:10
Most male victims of violence are the victims of other men's violence.
男性の暴力被害の大半で加害者は男性です
09:12
So that's something that both women and men have in common.
男女共通して言えるのは
09:16
We are both victims of men's violence.
加害者は男性だという事
09:18
So we have it in our direct self-interest,
私の知る男性の大半に
09:20
not to mention the fact that most men that I know
家族 友人等大事な女性がいますが
09:22
have women and girls that we care deeply about,
彼女たちだけでなく
09:25
in our families and our friendship circles and every other way.
男性に直接関わってくるわけです
09:27
So there's so many reasons why we need men to speak out.
男性が発言すべき理由は多い
09:31
It seems obvious saying it out loud. Doesn't it?
それは明らかですそうでしょう?
09:34
Now, the nature of the work that I do and my colleagues do
スポーツ 米軍 学校で私と仲間達が
09:37
in the sports culture and the U.S. military, in schools,
行なっているのはジェンダー・バイオレンスの―
09:41
we pioneered this approach called the bystander approach
防止に向けて開発した
09:45
to gender violence prevention.
「傍観者アプローチ」です
09:47
And I just want to give you the highlights of the bystander approach,
大事な部分をお話しします
09:49
because it's a big thematic shift,
テーマを大幅に転換する試みだからです
09:51
although there's lots of particulars,
様々な例がありますが
09:55
but the heart of it is, instead of seeing men as perpetrators
核となるのは男性が加害者
09:57
and women as victims,
女性が被害者
10:00
or women as perpetrators, men as victims,
または女性が加害者で男性が被害者 と
10:02
or any combination in there.
考えるのをやめる事
10:05
I'm using the gender binary. I know there's more
「男」「女」と言いましたが
10:07
than men and women, there's more than male and female.
男女以外のジェンダーもある
10:08
And there are women who are perpetrators,
女性が加害者で
10:11
and of course there are men who are victims.
男性が被害を受ける事も
10:12
There's a whole spectrum.
何でもあり得る
10:15
But instead of seeing it in the binary fashion,
二分法で物を見るのをやめ
10:16
we focus on all of us as what we call bystanders,
全ての人を傍観者とみなします
10:18
and a bystander is defined as anybody who is not
傍観者とはある状況下で
10:21
a perpetrator or a victim in a given situation,
加害者でも被害者でもない人です
10:24
so in other words friends, teammates, colleagues,
友人 チームメイト 同僚
10:27
coworkers, family members, those of us
仕事仲間 家族―
10:30
who are not directly involved in a dyad of abuse,
虐待の被害と加害に直接 関係がない
10:32
but we are embedded in social, family, work, school,
でも 社会 家庭 学校等の一員として
10:35
and other peer culture relationships with people
虐待の関係者らしい人と
10:38
who might be in that situation. What do we do?
関わりがあったらどうする?
10:41
How do we speak up? How do we challenge our friends?
いかに声を上げ友人に挑み
10:43
How do we support our friends? But how do we not
手を差し伸べる?どうすれば―
10:45
remain silent in the face of abuse?
虐待に直面し黙らずにいられる?
10:47
Now, when it comes to men and male culture,
男性文化では目標は―
10:50
the goal is to get men who are not abusive
虐待しない男を連れて来て
10:52
to challenge men who are.
する男と対決させる
10:55
And when I say abusive, I don't mean just
虐待すると言っても女性を―
10:56
men who are beating women.
殴る男だけじゃない
10:58
We're not just saying a man whose friend
友人が恋人を虐待していたら
10:59
is abusing his girlfriend needs to stop the guy
その場で止めねばならない
11:03
at the moment of attack.
それだけではない
11:06
That's a naive way of creating a social change.
これで社会を変えようというのは甘い
11:07
It's along a continuum, we're trying to get men
そうなる前から 男性がお互いに
11:11
to interrupt each other.
口を挟むようにさせたい
11:14
So, for example, if you're a guy and you're in a group of guys
例えばあなたは男性で
11:15
playing poker, talking, hanging out, no women present,
男だけで遊び 話し 出かける
11:18
and another guy says something sexist or degrading
すると 別の男が性差別的 
あるいは―
11:21
or harassing about women,
女性を貶めるような事を言う
11:24
instead of laughing along or pretending you didn't hear it,
一緒に笑う?
聞こえないふりをする?
11:27
we need men to say, "Hey, that's not funny.
代わりに言ってほしい
11:30
You know, that could be my sister you're talking about,
「笑えないね
妹の事を思うとさ」
11:32
and could you joke about something else?
「違う冗談言えない?」
11:34
Or could you talk about something else?
「他の事 話すとかさ」
11:36
I don't appreciate that kind of talk."
「こういうのダメなんだ」
11:37
Just like if you're a white person and another white person
あなたが白人で
別の白人が―
11:39
makes a racist comment, you'd hope, I hope,
人種差別的発言をしたら
11:42
that white people would interrupt that racist enactment
仲間の白人による差別発言を
別の白人に
11:44
by a fellow white person.
遮ってほしいと思う
11:48
Just like with heterosexism, if you're a heterosexual person
あなたが異性愛者で
11:49
and you yourself don't enact harassing or abusive behaviors
様々な性的指向を持つ人に
対し
11:51
towards people of varying sexual orientations,
自分は嫌がらせをしないが
11:55
if you don't say something in the face of other heterosexual people doing that,
している異性愛者に
何も言わないなら
11:57
then, in a sense, isn't your silence
ある意味
その沈黙は
12:00
a form of consent and complicity?
同意し 加担するのと
同じでは?
12:02
Well, the bystander approach is trying to give people tools
傍観者アプローチでは
人々に
12:04
to interrupt that process and to speak up
このプロセスを断ち
声を上げ
12:06
and to create a peer culture climate
対等な文化を作らせる
12:09
where the abusive behavior will be seen as unacceptable,
そこでは
人を傷つける行動は
12:11
not just because it's illegal, but because it's wrong
法に反するだけでなく
間違っていて
12:13
and unacceptable in the peer culture.
受け入れられないのです
12:17
And if we can get to the place where men
もし 性差別的な男性が
12:19
who act out in sexist ways will lose status,
地位を失うようになれば?
12:21
young men and boys who act out in sexist
女性に対し
性差別的で
12:23
and harassing ways towards girls and women,
他の男の子や男性にも
12:25
as well as towards other boys and men,
態度の悪い少年や若者が
12:27
will lose status as a result of it, guess what?
そのせいで立場を失う
ようになれば?
12:29
We'll see a radical diminution of the abuse.
虐待は格段に減るでしょう
12:32
Because the typical perpetrator is not sick and twisted.
加害者は病気や
天邪鬼ではない
12:35
He's a normal guy in every other way. Isn't he?
虐待する以外は普通なんです
12:37
Now, among the many great things that Martin Luther King
キング牧師が短い生涯で残した
12:40
said in his short life was,
名言の一つが―
12:44
"In the end, what will hurt the most
「結局一番傷つくのは
12:45
is not the words of our enemies
敵の言う事ではなく
12:47
but the silence of our friends."
友の沈黙である」
12:49
In the end, what will hurt the most is not the words
その通り 一番傷つくのは
12:50
of our enemies but the silence of our friends.
敵の言葉でなく 友の沈黙です
12:53
There's been an awful lot of silence in male culture
女性や子供への男性の暴力
12:55
about this ongoing tragedy of men's violence
この現在進行形の悲劇に対し
12:57
against women and children, hasn't there?
男性文化は沈黙してきた
13:00
There's been an awful lot of silence.
何も発言しなかった
13:02
And all I'm saying is that we need to break that silence,
この沈黙を破らねばなりません
13:03
and we need more men to do that.
それももっと多くの男性が
13:07
Now, it's easier said than done,
ですが言うほど
簡単ではありません
13:09
because I'm saying it now, but I'm telling you it's not easy
「破らねば」と言いましたが
13:12
in male culture for guys to challenge each other,
男性文化で他の男性への挑戦が‐
13:15
which is one of the reasons why
難しい事もあり
13:18
part of the paradigm shift that has to happen
男性の問題である
だけでなく
13:20
is not just understanding these issues as men's issues,
誰が主導権を握るかの問題だ
という
13:22
but they're also leadership issues for men.
パラダイムの転換が必要です
13:25
Because ultimately, the responsibility for taking a stand
立場をはっきりさせる責任を
13:27
on these issues should not fall on the shoulders
最終的に 幼い男の子や
13:30
of little boys or teenage boys in high school
高校生 大学生には
負わせられない
13:32
or college men. It should be on adult men with power.
力を持った 大人の男性でなければ
13:35
Adult men with power are the ones we need to be holding accountable
問題対策のリーダーとして
13:38
for being leaders on these issues,
責任を持ってもらわねば
13:41
because when somebody speaks up in a peer culture
仲間文化で誰かが声を上げ
13:42
and challenges and interrupts, he or she
仲間に挑み 割って入るとしたら
13:45
is being a leader, really, right?
その人はリーダーでしょう?
13:47
But on a big scale, we need more adult men with power
大局的には
有力な大人の男性がもっと
13:50
to start prioritizing these issues,
優先的に取り組まねば
13:53
and we haven't seen that yet, have we?
しかし 現状は違います
13:55
Now, I was at a dinner a number of years ago,
ずっと昔 米国の陸海空軍
全部を相手に
13:57
and I work extensively with the U.S. military, all the services.
取り組んでいた頃ですが
14:01
And I was at this dinner and this woman said to me --
夕食の席で
ある女性に言われました
14:04
I think she thought she was a little clever -- she said,
自分を賢いと思っていたのか
14:07
"So how long have you been doing sensitivity training
「どれぐらい 海軍に感受性訓練を?」
14:10
with the Marines?"
と訊いてきました
14:13
And I said, "With all due respect,
「失礼ですが
感受性訓練を‐
14:15
I don't do sensitivity training with the Marines.
海軍にするのではなく
海兵隊で‐
14:18
I run a leadership program in the Marine Corps."
リーダーシップを教えてます」
14:20
Now, I know it's a bit pompous, my response,
感じの悪い答え方ですが
14:23
but it's an important distinction, because I don't believe
重要な違いです
必要なのは
14:25
that what we need is sensitivity training.
感受性訓練ではなく
14:28
We need leadership training, because, for example,
リーダーシップの訓練です
14:30
when a professional coach or a manager of a baseball team
スポーツの世界でも
仕事をしますが
14:32
or a football team -- and I work extensively in that realm as well --
プロの野球やサッカーの監督らが
14:35
makes a sexist comment, makes a homophobic statement,
性差別的 同性愛嫌悪的
人種差別的な
14:38
makes a racist comment, there will be discussions
発言をすれば ブログや
14:42
on the sports blogs and in sports talk radio.
ラジオで議論が起こる
14:44
And some people will say, "Well, he needs sensitivity training."
「感受性訓練が必要だ」と
言う人も
14:47
And other people will say, "Well get off it.
「放っておけ」と言う人も
14:49
You know, that's political correctness run amok,
「差別語禁止の行き過ぎだ」
14:50
and he made a stupid statement. Move on."
「馬鹿な発言だが 引きずるな」
14:52
My argument is, he doesn't need sensitivity training.
私の意見では
必要なのは
14:54
He needs leadership training,
リーダーシップの訓練です
14:57
because he's being a bad leader, because in a society
発言者は酷いリーダーだから
14:58
with gender diversity and sexual diversity --
ジェンダーやセクシュアリティ‐
15:01
(Applause) —
(拍手)
15:04
and racial and ethnic diversity, you make
人種 民族が多様な社会で
15:05
those kind of comments, you're failing at your leadership.
その発言?
リーダー失格です
15:07
If we can make this point that I'm making
私が行っているこの主張を
15:09
to powerful men and women in our society
あらゆるレベルの
権威 権力を持つ
15:12
at all levels of institutional authority and power,
有力な男女に皆で主張できれば
15:15
it's going to change, it's going to change
事態は変化します
15:18
the paradigm of people's thinking.
人の考え方は変わります
15:20
You know, for example, I work a lot
例えば私は
15:22
in college and university athletics throughout North America.
北米のあちこちの大学の
スポーツチームと働いている
15:24
We know so much about how to prevent
DVや性暴力を防ぐ方法は
15:28
domestic and sexual violence, right?
良く知られている
15:30
There's no excuse for a college or university
教育プロセスの一環として
15:32
to not have domestic and sexual violence prevention training
全ての選手 コーチ 管理者の為に
15:36
mandated for all student athletes, coaches, administrators,
義務付けられた防止訓練を
15:38
as part of their educational process.
しなくていい理由はない
15:41
We know enough to know that we can easily do that.
簡単にできる事です
15:43
But you know what's missing? The leadership.
でも リーダーシップが足りない
15:46
But it's not the leadership of student athletes.
学生選手ではなく
15:48
It's the leadership of the athletic director,
チームの監督や
15:50
the president of the university, the people in charge
大学の学長等の責任者
15:51
who make decisions about resources
資金 組織内の優先順位を
15:54
and who make decisions about priorities in the institutional settings.
決める人々に
リーダーシップがない
15:56
That's a failure, in most cases, of men's leadership.
ほとんどの場合
「リーダー」は男性です
15:59
Look at Penn State. Penn State is the mother
ペンシルバニア州立大では
16:03
of all teachable moments for the bystander approach.
アプローチのお手本が生まれた
16:06
You had so many situations in that realm
有力な立場にある男性達が
16:08
where men in powerful positions failed to act
子供達 この場合 少年達を
守れなかった
16:11
to protect children, in this case, boys.
例は信じ難いほど多い
16:14
It's unbelievable, really. But when you get into it,
足を踏み入れれば分かります
16:17
you realize there are pressures on men.
男性にかけられた圧力が
16:19
There are constraints within peer cultures on men,
男性は
仲間文化で制約を受けるので
16:21
which is why we need to encourage men
その圧力を突き破るよう
16:24
to break through those pressures.
働きかける必要がある
16:26
And one of the ways to do that is to say
例えば こう言う
16:28
there's an awful lot of men who care deeply about these issues.
「大勢の男性が
この問題に懸念を抱く」
16:29
I know this. I work with men,
本当なんです
16:32
and I've been working with tens of thousands,
何万人 何十万人という
16:33
hundreds of thousands of men for many, many decades now.
男性と
何十年も働いていると分かる
16:35
It's scary, when you think about it, how many years.
そんなに経つなんて
ぞっとしますね
16:38
But there's so many men who care deeply about these issues,
懸念を抱いている男性は
大勢いるんです
16:41
but caring deeply is not enough.
ですが「懸念」では足りない
16:45
We need more men with the guts,
もっと多くの―
16:47
with the courage, with the strength, with the moral integrity
根性 勇気 力 モラルを
備えた男性に
16:50
to break our complicit silence and challenge each other
共犯者の沈黙を破り
仲間に挑んでもらわねば
16:53
and stand with women and not against them.
女性の敵でなく 味方として
16:57
By the way, we owe it to women.
これは
女性に果たすべき義務です
16:59
There's no question about it.
疑問の余地はない
17:01
But we also owe it to our sons.
息子達への義務でもある
17:02
We also owe it to young men who are growing up
選んだわけではないのに
17:04
all over the world in situations where they didn't make the choice
「男としてのあり方」を
押し付ける
17:06
to be a man in a culture that tells them
そんな文化で育つ世界中の―
17:09
that manhood is a certain way.
若者達への義務でもある
17:12
They didn't make the choice.
彼らの選択ではない
17:13
We that have a choice have an opportunity
我々大人は選択する事ができる
機会があり
17:14
and a responsibility to them as well.
彼らに対する義務がある
17:18
I hope that, going forward, men and women,
願わくば この動きが前進し
17:20
working together, can begin the change
共に問題に取り組む男女が
17:23
and the transformation that will happen
変化を起こせるように
17:25
so that future generations won't have the level of tragedy
今は毎日起きている悲劇を
17:27
that we deal with on a daily basis.
この先 なくせるように
17:29
I know we can do it. We can do better.
事態の改善は可能なのです
17:31
Thank you very much. (Applause)
ご清聴ありがとうございました
(拍手)
17:33
Translated by Mami Kawade
Reviewed by Suzumi Nakamura

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About the speaker:

Jackson Katz - Anti-sexism educator
Jackson Katz asks a very important question that gets at the root of why sexual abuse, rape and domestic abuse remain a problem: What's going on with men?

Why you should listen

Jackson Katz is an educator, author, filmmaker and cultural theorist who is a pioneer in the fields of gender violence prevention education and media literacy. He is co-founder of Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP), which enlists men in the struggle to prevent men’s violence against women. Celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, MVP has become a widely used sexual and domestic violence prevention initiative in college and professional athletics across North America. Katz and his MVP colleagues have also worked extensively with schools, youth sports associations and community organizations, as well as with all major branches of the U.S. military.

Katz is the creator of popular educational videos including Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity. He is the author of The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help and Leading Men: Presidential Campaigns and the Politics of Manhood. He has also appeared in several documentaries, including Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes and MissRepresentation.

More profile about the speaker
Jackson Katz | Speaker | TED.com