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TEDMED 2009

Eric Mead: The magic of the placebo

エリック・ミード「プラシーボマジック」

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砂糖の錠剤、偽の注射など、偽薬(プラシーボ)は想像以上に実際に効果を発揮することが研究で明らかになっています。TEDMEDでマジシャンのエリック・ミードはあなたが本物ではないと認識している時でさえ、効果があるかの様な反応を見せることを証明してみせます。(注意: この公演は注射器や血に拒絶反応を示す方には好ましくない内容を含んでいます。)

- Magician
Eric Mead is a prolific magician, mentalist and comedian who worked his way up from doing magic on the street to appearing at exclusive events around the world. Full bio

For some time I have been interested in
私は偽薬の心理的効果について
00:18
the placebo effect,
興味を持ってきました
00:20
which might seem like an odd thing
偽物だと思われているものが
00:22
for a magician to be interested in,
なぜか本物になるという共通点を
00:24
unless you think of it in the terms that I do,
考慮しなければ
00:26
which is, "Something fake
マジシャンである私が
00:28
is believed in enough by somebody
こんな事に興味を抱くのは
00:32
that it becomes something real."
おかしいと思われるかもしれません
00:34
In other words, sugar pills
これはいわゆる 砂糖の錠剤が
00:36
have a measurable effect in certain kinds of studies,
ある研究ではかなりの効果を上げるという
00:38
the placebo effect,
プラシーボ効果の事です
00:41
just because the person thinks
理由は単に当人が
00:43
that what's happening to them is a pharmaceutical
薬か何かが効いていると
00:46
or some sort of a --
信じ込むからです
00:48
for pain management, for example,
鎮痛効果を例にとると
00:51
if they believe it enough there is a measurable effect in the body
患者が十分効果があると信じている時
00:53
called the placebo effect.
プラシーボ効果とよばれる成果が体内で現れます
00:55
Something fake becomes
その人の認識が
00:57
something real
偽物を
00:59
because of someone's perception of it.
本物にしてしまうのです
01:01
In order for us to understand each other,
ここで理解を深めるため
01:04
I want to start by showing you a rudimentary,
基礎的でとても簡単なマジックを
01:06
very simple magic trick.
お見せしたいと思います
01:08
And I'm going to show you how it works. This is a trick
これは1950年代から
01:10
that's been in every children's magic book since at least the 1950s.
あらゆる子供のマジック本に載っているトリックです
01:12
I learned it myself from Cub Scout Magic in the 1970s.
私自身これを1970年代にボーイスカウトで学びました
01:16
I'll do it for you, and then I'll explain it.
まずお見せして その後種明かしをしましょう
01:20
And then I'll explain why I explained it.
そしてなぜ種明かしをしたのか説明します
01:22
So, here's what happens.
では見て下さい 何が起こるでしょう
01:25
The knife, which you can examine; my hand, which you could examine.
ナイフと私の手 調べて頂いても結構ですよ
01:27
I'm just going to hold the knife in my fist like this.
私は単純にナイフをこの様に握りますから
01:29
I'll get my sleeve back.
袖から何か出てきたり 入ったりしないように
01:32
And to make sure nothing goes up or down my sleeve
袖をまくりましょうか
01:34
I'm just going to squeeze my wrist right here.
ここで手首を握ります
01:36
That way you can see that at no time
御覧のように何かが行き来することは
01:39
can anything travel, as long as I'm squeezing there
絶対ありません
01:41
nothing can go up or down my sleeve.
袖からは何も行き来できません
01:43
And the object of this is quite simple.
種はとても単純です
01:46
I'm going to open my hand,
手を開きます すると
01:48
and hopefully, if all is well,
成功していれば体から発する
01:51
my pure animal magnetism will hold the knife.
天然磁気がナイフを固定するはずです
01:54
In fact it's held so tightly in place
実際とてもしっかりと
01:57
that I can shake it,
固定されていてこの様に
01:59
and the knife does not come off.
ゆすっても離れませんね
02:01
Nothing goes up or down my sleeve,
袖もとからは何も出ていません トリックはなしです
02:04
no trickery. And you can examine everything.
全て調べていただいても大丈夫です
02:06
Ta-da!
ジャーン!
02:09
(Applause)
(拍手)
02:11
So, this is a trick that I often teach to young children
これが私がマジックに興味のある
02:13
that are interested in magic, because you can learn
小さな子供達によく教えるトリックです
02:16
a great deal about deception by studying
なぜなら 方法はとても単純ですが
02:18
this very -- even though it's a very simple trick methodologically.
騙しの大きな効果を学ぶことができるからです
02:20
Probably many of you in the room know this trick.
多分会場の多くの皆さんがこのトリックをご存じでしょう
02:23
What happens is this.
種はこうです
02:25
I hold the knife in my hand.
手にナイフを握ります
02:27
I say I'm going to grab hold of my wrist
ここで袖から何かいかさまが
02:29
to make sure nothing goes up or down my sleeve,
出来ないよう 手首を握るといいましたね
02:31
that is a lie.
これが嘘だったのです
02:33
The reason I'm holding onto my wrist
手首を握っている事が
02:35
is because that's actually the secret
実はこのマジックの
02:37
of the illusion.
種なのです
02:39
In a moment when my hand moves from facing you
私の手が皆さんの方から
02:41
to being away from you,
反対向きに変わる瞬間
02:43
this finger right here, my index finger is just going to shift
ここの人差し指がこの場所から
02:45
from where it is, to a position
この様に指さすような形に
02:47
pointing out like this.
なる位置へと移動します
02:50
Nice one.
なかなかいいでしょ
02:52
Someone who didn't have a childhood is out there.
子ども時代にマジックで遊ばなかったようですね
02:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:57
So, it goes like this, from here, right.
では腕をこの様に握って
02:59
And as I move around my finger shifts.
向きを反転させながら指を動かしてみましょう
03:01
And we could talk about why this is deceptive,
なぜ下からのぞく指は3本だと気付かず
03:03
why you don't notice there are only three fingers down here,
だまされたのか考えてみましょう
03:05
because the mind, and the way it processes information,
理由は頭の中では指を1本2本3本と
03:08
it doesn't count, one, two, three. It groups them.
数えずに グループとして捉えているからです
03:10
But that's not really what this is about. Right? And then I open my hand up.
でもそれだけじゃありませんね?次に手を開きます
03:13
Obviously it's clinging there, not by animal magnetism,
無論ナイフは磁気で張り付いているのではなく
03:15
but by chicanery,
インチキな人差し指が
03:19
my index finger being there.
裏側から抑えています
03:21
And then when I close my finger, same thing,
次に指を閉じるときも同じです
03:24
as I move back, this motion
元の向きに戻る際 人差し指を
03:26
kind of covers the moving back of my finger.
戻すところを見えないようにします
03:28
I take this hand away. You give the knife out.
そして手を離します 次にナイフをとります
03:30
There is a trick you can do for your friends and neighbors. Thanks.
これで友達や隣人の前でマジックができますね ありがとう
03:32
Now, (Laughter)
さて(笑)
03:36
what does that have to do with the placebo effect?
これがプラシーボ効果と何の関係があるのでしょう?
03:38
I read a study a year or so ago
一年前くらいに読んだ研究報告が
03:41
that really blew my mind wide open.
本当に私の中に新風を吹き込んでくれました
03:44
I'm not a doctor or a researcher, so this, to me,
私は医者でも研究者でもありませんから
03:47
was an astonishing thing.
これには本当に驚きました
03:49
It turns out that if you administer
アスピリンのような形の白い錠剤の
03:51
a placebo in the form of a white pill,
偽薬を投薬してみると 実際には
03:53
that's like aspirin shaped --
それはただの白くて丸い錠剤なんですが
03:55
it's just a round white pill -- it has some certain measurable effect.
目に見える効果を上げることが明らかになっています
03:58
But if you change the form that you give the placebo in,
しかしもし偽薬の形を変えてみると
04:01
like you make a smaller pill,
例えば小さくしてみて
04:04
and color it blue, and stamp a letter into it,
青色にして 小さなスタンプを押すと
04:06
it is actually measurably more effective.
実際 より大きな効果をあげているのです
04:09
Even though neither one of these things
もちろんその二つともただの砂糖の錠剤であり
04:12
has any pharmaceutical -- they're sugar pills.
薬学的成分は何も含んでいないんですよ
04:14
But a white pill is not as good as a blue pill.
しかし白い錠剤は青い錠剤ほど効果をあげません
04:17
What? (Laughter) That really flipped me out.
なんですって?(笑)本当に驚きました
04:21
Turns out though, that that's not even where it stops.
でもまだ終わりじゃないんです
04:24
If you have capsules,
もしカプセルを投与すれば
04:26
they're more effective than tablets in any form.
どんな錠剤よりも効果的だそうです
04:29
A colored capsule, that's yellow on one end and red on the other
色つきのカプセル 片方が黄色でもう片方が赤色
04:31
is better than a white capsule.
これは白いカプセルよりも効果的なのです
04:34
Dosage has something to do with this.
服用量も影響しているみたいです
04:36
One pill twice a day
1日に2錠では
04:38
is not as good at three pills --
1日に3錠程の効果はない...
04:40
I don't remember the statistic now. Sorry.
失礼 統計をあまり覚えていません
04:43
But the point is ...
しかし重要なのは...(笑)
04:45
(Laughter) ... these dosages have something to do with it.
...服用量も影響を与えるということです
04:47
And the form has something to do with it.
そしてその形も何か影響を与えるようです
04:49
And if you want the ultimate in placebo,
もし最高の効果を望むなら
04:51
you've go to the needle.
針が一番です
04:54
Right? A syringe with some inert --
注射器になんでもいいので
04:57
a couple CCs of some inert something,
なんの作用もない液体数CCを入れて
04:59
and you inject this into a patient ...
患者に打ちます...患者の頭の中では
05:01
Well this is such a powerful image in their mind,
点滴はとても効果があると認識されているので
05:03
it's so much stronger than the white pill.
白い錠剤に比べると絶大な効果を生み出します
05:05
It's a really, this graph, well I'll show it to you
グラフをみせましょう
05:07
some other time when we have slides.
今度スライドがある時に
05:10
The point is
ポイントは白い錠剤よりも
05:12
the white pill is not as good as the blue pill
青い錠剤 錠剤よりもカプセル
05:14
is not as good as the capsule is not as good as the needle.
なにより注射器の方が効き目があるという事です
05:17
And none of it has any real pharmaceutical quality,
そしてどれも実際 薬剤などは含んでいません
05:20
it's only your belief that makes it real
患者の認知のみが偽物を本物に変えて
05:23
in your body and makes a stronger effect.
効果を作り出しているのです
05:27
I wanted to see if I could take that idea
私はこれを応用してマジックに
05:30
and apply it to a magic trick.
生かせないかと考えました
05:32
And take something that is obviously a fake trick
そこで明らかに偽のトリックを
05:34
and make it seem real.
本物にしてみましょう
05:38
And we know from that study
この研究からリアル感を追求する時
05:43
that when you want reality, you go to the needle.
針に行きつくということが分かりました
05:46
This is a seven-inch hatpin. It's very, very sharp,
この針は18cmあります とてもとても鋭いですよ
05:50
and I'm going to just sterilize it a tiny bit.
これをまず少し殺菌しましょう
05:54
This is really my flesh. This is not
これは本当に私の手です
06:01
Damian's special-grown flesh.
偽物じゃありませんよ
06:03
That's my skin right there. This is not a Hollywood special effect.
これは私の体で ハリウッドの特殊効果でもありません
06:05
I'm going to pierce my skin
腕を指し針を反対側まで
06:10
and run this needle through to the other side.
貫通させます
06:12
If you're queasy -- (Laughs)
吐き気を催しやすかったり--(笑)
06:14
if you faint easily -- I was doing this for some friends
すぐ気を失う方は目を・・・実はこれを昨夜
06:17
in the hotel room last night, and some people that I didn't know,
ホテルの部屋で友達と何人か知らない人の前でやったんですが
06:19
and one woman almost passed out.
女性が一人気を失いかけていました
06:22
So, I suggest if you get queasy easy
なのでもし気持ち悪くなってしまう方は
06:24
that you look away for about the next 30 --
これから30秒ほど目をそらして--
06:27
in fact, you know what, I'll do the first bad part behind it.
最初の怖い一部は隠してやりましょう
06:29
You'll get to see, you can look away too if you'd like to.
見えてしまいますが いやでしたら目をそらしてくださいね
06:31
So, here is what happens, right here,
では始めましょう ここの
06:35
the beginning of my flesh
腕の下の方を
06:37
at the lower part of my arm I just make
スタート地点にして
06:39
a little pierce.
ここから貫通させましょう
06:41
I'm sorry, man. Am I freaking you out?
申し訳ないです 怖がらせていませんかね?
06:43
OK, and then just through my skin a tiny bit,
それでは皮の下を少しだけ破って
06:45
and then out the other side like this.
反対側まで貫通させてみましょう
06:49
Now, essentially we're in the same position we were in
基本的に 我々がやっていることは先ほどの
06:52
with the knife trick.
ナイフのトリックと同じことです
06:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:58
Sort of.
ある意味ではね
07:02
But you can't count my fingers right now can you?
でも今は指を数えることができないでしょ?
07:04
So, let me show them to you. That's one, two
見てみましょうか 1本 2本
07:07
three, four, five.
3本 4本 5本
07:09
Yes, well...
そうですね...
07:12
I know what people think when they see this.
何を考えているかわかりますよ
07:15
They go, "Well, he's certainly not dumb enough
「数分のエンターテインメントの為に
07:17
to stab himself through the skin to entertain us for a few minutes.
自分の腕を刺すなんてことはしないだろう」ってね
07:19
So, let me give you a little peek.
では少しだけ見てみましょうか
07:22
How's that look out there? Pretty good.
どう見えますか?上手くいきました
07:25
(Laughs)
(笑)
07:27
Yeah, I know. (Laughs)
分かってますよ(笑)
07:30
And the people in the back go, "OK, I didn't really see that."
後方の席の方々は「よく見えなかったな」って言ってるでしょう
07:33
People in the satellite room are starting to move in now.
中継室にいる方はスクリーンに近付いているでしょう
07:35
Let me give you good close look at this.
もう少しよく見てみましょうか
07:38
That really is my skin. That is not a Hollywood special effect.
これは本当に私の腕です ハリウッドの特殊効果ではないです
07:40
That's my flesh, and I can twist that around.
私の体ですから少し揺することもできます
07:43
I'm sorry. If you're getting queasy, look away,
すいません 気分が悪くなりだしたら目をそらして
07:46
don't look at the thing.
見ないでください
07:48
People in the back or people on video years from now watching this
後方の皆さんや後にビデオでこれを見る人は
07:50
will go, "Well yeah, that looks kind of neat
「そうだな なんか上手に出来てるみたいだけど
07:52
in some sort of effect there, but if it were real he would be --
もし本当に腕を貫通しているなら出血するだろう」
07:55
see there's a hole there and a hole there, if it were real he would be bleeding.
と言っているでしょうね こことここに穴があるんですよ
07:58
Well let me work up some blood for you.
では少し出血させてみましょうか
08:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:04
Yes, there it is.
ほら出てきた
08:09
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:11
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:27
Normally now, I would take the needle out.
普段ならここで針を抜いて
08:30
I would clean off my arm, and I would show you that there are no wounds.
腕をふき 穴がない事をお見せするんですが
08:33
But I think in this context
この状況下では
08:36
and with the idea of taking something fake
何か偽りのものを本物に
08:39
and making it into something real,
変えるというアイデアと一緒に
08:41
I'm just going to leave it there,
とっておきましょう
08:44
and walk off the stage.
そしてステージから去りましょう
08:46
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:48
I will be seeing you several times over the next few days.
明日 明後日も皆さんにお会いできるので
08:50
I hope you're looking forward to that. Thank you very much.
楽しみにしていただけると幸いです ありがとうございました
08:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:56
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:58

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About the speaker:

Eric Mead - Magician
Eric Mead is a prolific magician, mentalist and comedian who worked his way up from doing magic on the street to appearing at exclusive events around the world.

Why you should listen

As a child, Eric Mead says that he had a typical interest in magic. However, by the time he was a teenager, his interest had grown to a full-fledged obsession -- he was getting paid to do birthday parties and banquets in his hometown. He began street performing in 1985 and four years later was offered a job as “Magic Bartender” at the Tower Comedy/Magic Bar owned by John Denver. Working at the bar, as well as private parties and comedy clubs, he became well-known in the industry and went on to perform one of the most memorable pieces in The Aristocrats.

Mead is also known as the author of Tangled Web, a collection of magic and mentalism taken from his personal repertoire.

More profile about the speaker
Eric Mead | Speaker | TED.com