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TEDxEast

Ellen Gustafson: Obesity + hunger = 1 global food issue

肥満+飢餓=1つの共通の食問題

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慈善活動的FEED bagのエレン・グスタファソンによると飢餓と肥満は1枚のコインの両面である。TEDxEastで彼女は農作、食のあり方を30年間で見直す、30年プロジェクトを始動します。これにより拡大する2つの問題の裏に潜む食の不平等を解消します。

- Social entrepreneur
Co-founder of FEED and creator of The 30 Project, Ellen Gustafson is trying to change the way the world eats. Full bio

I'm Ellen, and I'm totally obsessed with food.
エレンです 私は食べ物が大好きです
00:16
But I didn't start out obsessed with food.
初めからそれに引かれたのではありません
00:19
I started out obsessed with global security policy
世界の安全保障政策から始めました
00:21
because I lived in New York during 9/11, and it was obviously a very relevant thing.
9/11当時ニューヨーク在住で強く影響されたからです
00:23
And I got from global security policy to food
そこから食に行きついた理由は
00:26
because I realized when I'm hungry, I'm really pissed off,
私は空腹時のイライラに気付いたからでした
00:28
and I'm assuming that the rest of the world is too.
そこで他の人も同様だと推測しました
00:31
Especially if you're hungry and your kids are hungry
自分に加え自分の子供も
00:33
and your neighbor's kids are hungry and your whole neighborhood is hungry,
近所の子供 近所の人全体が空腹なら
00:35
you're pretty angry.
更に腹立たしいことでしょう
00:37
And actually, lo and behold, it looks pretty much like
実際驚いたことに飢餓を抱える
00:39
the areas of the world that are hungry
地域というのは 同時に治安も
00:41
are also the areas of the world that are pretty insecure.
よくないことが多いのです
00:43
So I took a job at the United Nations World Food Programme
そこで食の問題を通じて安全保障問題に
00:45
as a way to try to address these security issues
働きかける手段として 私は
00:47
through food security issues.
国連世界食糧計画に参加しました
00:49
And while I was there, I came across
そこで働いていた間 彼らの計画で
00:51
what I think is the most brilliant of their programs.
1番素敵だと思うものに出会いました
00:53
It's called School Feeding, and it's a really simple idea
それは学校食糧支援と呼ばれ 世界中で
00:55
to sort of get in the middle of the cycle of poverty and hunger
拡大を続ける飢餓と貧困の循環に割って入り
00:57
that continues for a lot of people around the world, and stop it.
それを食い止める分かり易い計画です
01:00
By giving kids a free school meal, it gets them into school,
無料で給食を配ることで児童が学校に来ます
01:02
which is obviously education, the first step out of poverty,
教育は貧困を脱する手掛かりになり
01:05
but it also gives them the micronutrients and the macronutrients they need
その上児童は精神や肉体的発育に必要な
01:08
to really develop both mentally and physically.
主要栄養素やビタミンを給食で摂取できます
01:10
While I was working at the U.N., I met this girl. Her name is Lauren Bush.
国連ではローレン ブッシュに出会いました
01:13
And she had this really awesome idea
彼女はFEED bagという名のバッグを
01:16
to sell the bag called the "Feed Bag" --
売るという素晴しい考えを持っていました
01:18
which is really beautifully ironic because you can strap on the Feed Bag.
飼料袋から食費を得るという皮肉なものです
01:20
But each bag we'd sell would provide
しかしバッグを1つ売るごとに
01:23
a year's worth of school meals for one kid.
1人の児童に1年分給食を支給できるのです
01:25
It's so simple, and we thought, you know, okay,
単純な話です 私達は考えました
01:28
it costs between 20 and 50 bucks
1年の給食供給のコストは
01:30
to provide school feeding for a year.
大体20~50ドルだから
01:32
We could sell these bags and raise a ton of money
このバッグ販売を通じ巨額の資金をあげ
01:34
and a ton of awareness for the World Food Programme.
世界食糧計画も大きく広める事もできるのに
01:36
But of course, you know at the U.N., sometimes things move slowly,
ご存知の通り国連の対応は時に遅く
01:38
and they basically said no.
基本的に「だめ」と言われました
01:40
And we thought, God, this is such a good idea and it's going to raise so much money.
多額の資金をあげる素晴しい案なのにです
01:42
So we said screw it, we'll just start our own company, which we did three years ago.
何くそと思い3年前会社を立ち上げました
01:45
So that was kind of my first dream, was to start this company called FEED,
このFEEDの創立が私の第1の夢でした
01:48
and here's a screenshot of our website.
これがウェブサイトの画像です
01:51
We did this bag for Haiti, and we launched it just a month after the earthquake
このバッグ販売をハイチの地震発生1ヶ月後
01:53
to provide school meals for kids in Haiti.
子供たちへの学校給食提供の為始めました
01:56
So FEED's doing great. We've so far provided 55 million meals
FEEDは順調に機能しており 55万5千の
01:58
to kids around the world
バッグ販売により 世界中の子供たちに
02:01
by selling now 550,000 bags, a ton of bags, a lot of bags.
今までに5500万食を提供してきました
02:03
All this time you're -- when you think about hunger,
飢餓を考えると 食べることを考えてしまい
02:06
it's a hard thing to think about, because what we think about is eating.
真に飢餓の事を考えることは難しいことです
02:09
I think about eating a lot, and I really love it.
私の頭も食べることで一杯ですし 大好きです
02:11
And the thing that's a little strange about international hunger
国際的飢餓には少し奇妙な点があり
02:13
and talking about international issues
国際問題を討論することは しばしば
02:16
is that most people kind of want to know: "What are you doing in America?"
米国で何がされるのかに興味がいきます
02:18
"What are you doing for America's kids?"
米国の子供達の為に何をしている?
02:21
There's definitely hunger in America:
米国にも間違いなく飢餓はあります
02:23
49 million people and almost 16.7 million children.
4900万の大人と1670万の子供
02:25
I mean that's pretty dramatic for our own country.
米国にとってとても大きな問題ですね
02:27
Hunger definitely means something a little bit different in America than it does internationally,
米国内外で飢餓の意味は大きく違いますが
02:30
but it's incredibly important to address hunger in our own country.
米国内の飢餓に取り組む事もとても重要です
02:33
But obviously the bigger problem that we all know about
しかしご存知の通り より深刻な問題は
02:36
is obesity, and it's dramatic.
肥満で こちらは劇的です
02:39
The other thing that's dramatic is that both hunger and obesity
飢餓と肥満はここ30年で激化してきた
02:41
have really risen in the last 30 years.
ということも注目すべきです
02:43
Unfortunately, obesity's not only an American problem.
不幸に肥満は米国だけの問題ではありません
02:46
It's actually been spreading all around the world
事実世界中に広まってきています
02:48
and mainly through our kind of food systems that we're exporting.
主に米国の食システムの流布に起因しており
02:50
The numbers are pretty crazy.
その数は膨大です
02:53
There's a billion people obese or overweight
地球には10億以上の肥満患者と
02:55
and a billion people hungry.
10億以上の飢餓に苦しむ人がいます
02:57
So those seem like two bifurcated problems,
この問題は2つに枝分かれしている様ですが
02:59
but I kind of started to think about, you know,
私は肥満と飢餓の関連性は
03:01
what is obesity and hunger? What are both those things about?
何であるか考えてみました
03:03
Well, they're both about food.
両方とも食に関係しています
03:06
And when you think about food,
食について考えるとき
03:08
the underpinning of food in both cases
両者の根底にあるのは
03:10
is potentially problematic agriculture.
おそらく問題のある農業なのです
03:12
And agriculture is where food comes from.
農業は食料供給源です
03:15
Well, agriculture in America's very interesting.
米国の農業はとても興味深く
03:17
It's very consolidated,
極めて統合化されています
03:19
and the foods that are produced lead to the foods that we eat.
そこで生産される食物を私達が食べるのです
03:21
Well, the foods that are produced are, more or less, corn, soy and wheat.
生産物の大抵はトウモロコシ 小麦 大豆で
03:24
And as you can see, that's three-quarters of the food that we're eating for the most part:
それが私達の食べる75%の食料となる
03:26
processed foods and fast foods.
ファーストフードと加工食品なのです
03:29
Unfortunately, in our agricultural system,
不運にもこの農業システムは
03:31
we haven't done a good job in the last three decades
ここ30年間世界に技術発信する
03:33
of exporting those technologies around the world.
という意味ではうまく機能していません
03:35
So African agriculture, which is the place of most hunger in the world,
世界最大の飢餓を抱えるアフリカの農業は
03:38
has actually fallen precipitously
飢餓が深刻化するにつれて
03:41
as hunger has risen.
劇的に衰退してきました
03:43
So somehow we're not making the connect
つまり私達は世界中の人々に
03:45
between exporting a good agricultural system
食料供給に適した農作システムの
03:47
that will help feed people all around the world.
輸出と関連付けがなされていません
03:49
Who is farming them? That's what I was wondering.
誰が農業をしているのでしょう?と思いました
03:51
So I went and stood on a big grain bin in the Midwest,
そこで中西部の穀物保管所を訪れました
03:54
and that really didn't help me understand farming,
農業への理解は特に促されませんでしたが
03:56
but I think it's a really cool picture.
素晴しい写真を撮れたと思います
03:58
And you know, the reality is that
それで実際かなり率直に言わせてもらうと
04:00
between farmers in America,
これは米国の農業者だけですが
04:02
who actually, quite frankly, when I spend time in the Midwest,
私が中西部で過ごしたときには
04:04
are pretty large in general.
皆おおむね太っていたのが現実です
04:06
And their farms are also large.
農場自体も巨大なものです
04:08
But farmers in the rest of the world
しかし他の国の農業従事者たちは
04:10
are actually quite skinny, and that's because they're starving.
空腹の為とてもやせ細っています 世界で最も
04:12
Most hungry people in the world are subsistence farmers.
空腹を抱えているのは自給自足農業者なんです
04:15
And most of those people are women --
そしてそのほとんどが女性なんです
04:17
which is a totally other topic that I won't get on right now,
これは全く別の話なので今回は言及しませんが
04:19
but I'd love to do the feminist thing at some point.
いつか男女同権問題にも取り組みたいです
04:21
I think it's really interesting
この様に農業を2つの観点から
04:23
to look at agriculture from these two sides.
眺めることはとても興味深いものです
04:25
There's this large, consolidated farming
これ程巨大な統合農場があり
04:27
that's led to what we eat in America,
そこで米国の食料が生産されています
04:29
and it's really been since around 1980,
この様な統合が始まり
04:31
after the oil crisis,
米国の小さな農場が消えたのは
04:33
when, you know, mass consolidation,
オイルショック以降で
04:35
mass exodus of small farmers in this country.
正に1980年代からです
04:37
And then in the same time period,
そしてこの同じ期間私達は
04:39
you know, we've kind of left Africa's farmers to do their own thing.
米国農業従事者には自由にさせてきました
04:41
Unfortunately, what is farmed ends up as what we eat.
不幸にも生産される物が私達の食料となります
04:44
And in America, a lot of what we eat
米国では私達の食料の多くが
04:47
has led to obesity and has led to a real change
肥満を引き起こし ここ30年で
04:49
in sort of what our diet is in the last 30 years.
食生活を大きく変えてきました
04:52
It's crazy.
狂っています
04:55
A fifth of kids under two drinks soda.
2歳未満の子供の20%がソーダを飲んでいます
04:57
Hello. You don't put soda in bottles.
哺乳瓶にソーダは普通入れないでしょう
04:59
But people do because it's so cheap,
でも多くの人は入れています 安いからです
05:01
and so our whole food system in the last 30 years
このようにここ30年で私達の食生活は
05:03
has really shifted.
まるっきり変わってしまいました
05:05
I think, you know, it's not just in our own country,
これは米国だけの問題ではありません
05:07
but really we're exporting the system around the world,
同食システムを世界中に輸出しているからです
05:09
and when you look at the data of least developed countries --
後進国のデータを見てみると
05:12
especially in cities, which are growing really rapidly --
特に急激成長する都市部では
05:15
people are eating American processed foods.
米国加工食品が消費されています
05:18
And in one generation,
すると1代にして
05:20
they're going from hunger,
飢餓が健康に与える害から
05:22
and all of the detrimental health effects of hunger,
肥満の問題へと移行し
05:24
to obesity and things like diabetes
糖尿病や心臓病といった
05:26
and heart disease in one generation.
問題にとって代わられるのです
05:28
So the problematic food system
この問題を抱えた食のシステムは
05:30
is affecting both hunger and obesity.
飢餓と肥満両方に影響しています
05:32
Not to beat a dead horse,
もう言うまでもありませんが
05:34
but this is a global food system
世界中で10億を超える肥満 飢餓を抱える
05:36
where there's a billion people hungry and billion people obese.
世界規模の食システムの問題なのです
05:38
I think that's the only way to look at it.
これが唯一の見解だと思います
05:41
And instead of taking these two things as
この2つの事象を別個に枝分かれした
05:43
bifurcated problems that are very separate,
問題と捉えるのではなく 1体系として
05:45
it's really important to look at them as one system.
捉えることが重要なのです
05:47
We get a lot of our food from all around the world,
私達は食の多くを世界中から仕入れてます
05:50
and people from all around the world are importing our food system,
そして世界は米国の食システムを輸入しています
05:52
so it's incredibly relevant to start a new way of looking at it.
新たな見方に大きな意味があるわけです
05:55
The thing is, I've learned --
私は皆さんの様に高度な技術に
05:57
and the technology people that are here, which I'm totally not one of them --
精通してはいませんが 学んだことは
05:59
but apparently, it really takes 30 years
明らかにマウス インターネット
06:02
for a lot of technologies to become really endemic to us,
ウインドウズなどの技術が私達に普及するまで
06:04
like the mouse and the Internet and Windows.
事実30年もかかるということです
06:07
You know, there's 30-year cycles.
つまり30年サイクル(循環)があるんです
06:09
I think 2010 can be a really interesting year
2010年は面白くなるかもしれませんね
06:11
because it is the end of the 30-year cycle,
30年サイクルの終わりの年だからです
06:13
and it's the birthday of the global food system.
世界の食システムの誕生日でもあります
06:15
So that's the first birthday I want to talk about.
だからまずこの誕生日について話します
06:17
You know, I think if we really think that
以下のことがここ30年間で起こったことだと
06:19
this is something that's happened in the last 30 years, there's hope in that.
考えたら 望みはあると思います
06:21
It's the thirtieth anniversary of GMO crops
品種改良作物 BigGulp チキンマックナゲット
06:24
and the Big Gulp, Chicken McNuggets, high fructose corn syrup,
異性化糖 米国内の農業危機に加えて
06:26
the farm crisis in America
国際的に農業に対する対応変化の
06:29
and the change in how we've addressed agriculture internationally.
30周年記念になります つまりこのように
06:31
So there's a lot of reasons to take this 30-year time period
この30年を新たな食システム創出期と
06:34
as sort of the creation of this new food system.
捉えるに十分な理由があるのです
06:36
I'm not the only one who's obsessed with this whole 30-year thing.
この30年に拘るのは私だけではなく
06:39
The icons like Michael Pollan
マイケル ポーランそしてTED Prize Wishで
06:42
and Jamie Oliver in his TED Prize wish
ジェイミーオリバーも言及していましたが
06:44
both addressed this last three-decade time period
この30年が大きく食システムの変革に
06:46
as incredibly relevant for food system change.
意味を成したのです
06:49
Well, I really care about 1980
1980年は私にも重要です なぜなら
06:52
because it's also the thirtieth anniversary of me this year.
今年で私も30歳になるからです
06:54
And so in my lifetime,
そして私が生まれて今までの間に
06:57
a lot of what's happened in the world --
世界中ではたくさんのことが起こりました
07:00
and being a person obsessed with food --
食に関心のある私からみると
07:02
a lot of this has really changed.
多くの事が大きく変わってきています
07:04
So my second dream is that I think
そこで私の第2の夢は
07:06
we can look to the next 30 years
私達が次の30年を食のシステムを
07:08
as a time to change the food system again.
再び改変する時と捉えるようになることで
07:10
And we know what's happened in the past,
私達は過去に起こった事を認識しており
07:12
so if we start now, and we look at technologies
今すぐ始め 食のシステムに対して
07:14
and improvements to the food system long term,
技術や改良を長い目で視野に入れれば
07:16
we might be able to recreate the food system
食のシステムを作り直せるかもしれません
07:18
so when I give my next talk and I'm 60 years old,
私が60歳になって次お話しする時には
07:20
I'll be able to say that it's been a success.
成功だったと言えるようになってるでしょう
07:22
So I'm announcing today the start of a new organization,
今日はFEED foundationの新たな基金でもある
07:25
or a new fund within the FEED Foundation, called the 30 Project.
新組織 30 Projectの幕開けを発表します
07:27
And the 30 Project is really focused
30 Projectはまさにそのような
07:30
on these long-term ideas
食システムを変える長期的アイデアに
07:32
for food system change.
着目するものです
07:34
And I think by aligning international advocates that are addressing hunger
世界の飢餓対策に取り組む者と
07:36
and domestic advocates that are addressing obesity,
国内の肥満対策に取り組む者を提携させて
07:39
we might actually look for long-term solutions
誰にとってもより良い食のシステムを創る
07:41
that will make the food system better for everyone.
長期的解決策が見い出せたらと思います
07:44
We all tend to think that these systems are quite different,
私達は2つのシステムは全く違うと思いがちで
07:46
and people argue whether or not organic can feed the world,
有機農業で世界の食料供給が可能か議論します
07:48
but if we take a 30-year view,
しかし30年という期間で見れば
07:51
there's more hope in collaborative ideas.
共同案にも希望が持てます
07:53
So I'm hoping that by connecting really disparate organizations
ONEキャンペーンやスローフードといった
07:55
like the ONE campaign and Slow Food,
現在共通点のあまりない団体を
07:58
which don't seem right now to have much in common,
連携させることで皆の食を改善する
08:00
we can talk about holistic, long-term, systemic solutions
総合的で全体に効果のある
08:02
that will improve food for everyone.
長期解決策の話ができたらと思っています
08:05
Some ideas I've had is like, look,
私が考えていたのは例えば現実問題として
08:07
the reality is -- kids in the South Bronx need apples and carrots
南ブロンクスの子供はボツワナの子供同様
08:09
and so do kids in Botswana.
リンゴやニンジンを必要としてます
08:12
And how are we going to get those kids those nutritious foods?
どう彼らに栄養ある食品を提供するんでしょう?
08:14
Another thing that's become incredibly global is production of meat and fish.
肉と魚の生産も世界的問題となっています
08:17
Understanding how to produce protein
環境と人間に優しい方法での
08:20
in a way that's healthy for the environment and healthy for people
たんぱく質の生産法を理解することは
08:22
will be incredibly important to address things like climate change
気候変動や石油化学肥料の使用といった
08:25
and how we use petrochemical fertilizers.
問題に取り組む上で非常に重要です
08:28
And you know, these are really relevant topics
これらは非常に意味のある長期的課題であり
08:31
that are long term
アフリカの小さな農家の人々と
08:33
and important for both people in Africa who are small farmers
アメリカの農業者や消費者である人々の
08:35
and people in America who are farmers and eaters.
両者にとって重要な問題です
08:38
And I also think that thinking about processed foods in a new way,
また加工品に対する新たな見解として
08:41
where we actually price the negative externalities
石油化学製品 肥料の流失物といった
08:44
like petrochemicals and like fertilizer runoff
マイナスな事象をポテトチップの値段に
08:47
into the price of a bag of chips.
上乗せしてしまうことも考えています
08:50
Well, if that bag of chips then becomes
1袋のポテトチップがりんご1個よりも
08:52
inherently more expensive than an apple,
高値になったら 食の選択における
08:54
then maybe it's time for a different sense
人々の責任が異なる方向に
08:56
of personal responsibility in food choice
向かうことになるでしょう
08:58
because the choices are actually choices
75%の食品の原料はトウモロコシ 大豆 麦
09:00
instead of three-quarters of the products being made just from corn, soy and wheat.
ではなく 選択に意味が出てくるからです
09:02
The 30Project.org is launched,
30Project.orgは発足され手始めに
09:05
and I've gathered a coalition of a few organizations to start.
いくつかの団体と連携関係を結びました
09:07
And it'll be growing over the next few months.
今後数カ月間に更に拡大していきます
09:10
But I really hope that you will all think of ways that you can
しかし皆さんには長いスパンで見て
09:13
look long term at things like the food system
食システムに変化を起こす方法を
09:15
and make change.
考えてもらえればと思います
09:17
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:19
Translated by Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewed by Sawa Horibe

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About the speaker:

Ellen Gustafson - Social entrepreneur
Co-founder of FEED and creator of The 30 Project, Ellen Gustafson is trying to change the way the world eats.

Why you should listen

Ellen Gustafson co-founded FEED Projects in 2007, creating an immensely popular bag whose profits are donated to the UN World Food Program (WFP). As a former employee of the WFP, she supported their mission to provide school lunches in developing countries so that children could receive both the nutrition and education they need. FEED has also created special bags and a new fund to address the crisis in Haiti, helping the children they once fed at school to rebuild their schools.

At TEDxEast in May 2010, Gustafson launched The 30 Project -- an effort to address the world’s hunger and obesity problems as a holistic global food issue. In her new venture, she hopes to stimulate a movement that will change our food and agricultural systems over the next 30 years so that healthy, balanced meals are available to all. Before her efforts to fix the world’s food issues, Gustafson’s primary concern was international security. She wrote and edited pieces on international terrorism for ABC and was a research associate at the Council on Foreign Relations.

More profile about the speaker
Ellen Gustafson | Speaker | TED.com