20:26
TEDxOilSpill

Carl Safina: The oil spill's unseen culprits, victims

カール・サフィナ: 原油流出事故の見えざる容疑者と被害者

Filmed:

メキシコ湾の原油流出事故は理解しがたいものですが、わかっていることは悪いことだということです。カール・サフィナは血の沸き立つような反対尋問の中で、真実を掘り下げていきます。その影響はメキシコ湾にとどまるものではありません。また、多くの「解決策」が状況を悪化させていると論じます。

- Ecologist, writer
Carl Safina's writing explores the scientific, moral and social dimensions of our relationship with nature. Full bio

これは昔からよく知っている海です
00:16
This is the ocean as I used to know it.
この湾には何度も行っていたので
00:19
And I find that
00:21
since I've been in the Gulf a couple of times,
とてもショックを受けました
00:23
I really kind of am traumatized
00:25
because whenever I look at the ocean now,
なぜかというと
海のいたる所に
なぜかというと
海のいたる所に
00:28
no matter where I am,
原油がそのまま残されていて
00:30
even where I know
00:32
none of the oil has gone,
00:34
I sort of see slicks,
その光沢が見えているからです
00:36
and I'm finding that I'm very much
これには唖然とさせられました
00:38
haunted by it.
今日お話ししたいのは
原油流出のことだけでなく
00:41
But what I want to talk to you about today
00:43
is a lot of things that try
00:45
to put all of this in context,
その正体や原因について
簡単に説明したいと思います
00:47
not just about the oil eruption,
00:50
but what it means and why it has happened.
00:53
First, just a little bit about me.
まずは自己紹介から
子供の頃から釣りが好きで
釣りに行っていたんですが
00:55
I'm basically just a guy that likes to go fishing
00:57
ever since I was a little kid,
00:59
and because I did,
沿岸の自然が好きになり
海鳥を研究するようになりました
01:01
I wound up studying sea birds
01:03
to try to stay in the coastal habitats that I so loved.
現在 主に海洋変動に関する
本を書いています
01:06
And now I mainly write books
01:08
about how the ocean is changing,
01:10
and the ocean is certainly changing very rapidly.
海の急激な変化は
以前から観察されています
01:13
Now we saw this kind of graphic earlier on,
01:16
that we really live on a hard marble
私達が住む地球というのは
01:19
that has just a slight
水で濡らした
硬い大理石のようなものです
01:21
bit of wetness to it.
01:23
It's like you dipped a marble in water.
大気も同じようなものです
01:25
And the same thing with the atmosphere:
大気を全部かき集めて
丸めたとすると
01:27
If you took all the atmosphere
大気を全部かき集めて
丸めたとすると
01:29
and rolled it up in a ball,
右のような
気体の球ができます
01:31
you would get that little sphere of gas on the right.
私達が住んでいるのは
きわめて壊れやすく小さな
01:33
So we live on
私達が住んでいるのは
きわめて壊れやすく小さな
01:35
the most fragile, little soap bubble you can imagine,
神聖なシャボン玉です
01:38
a very sacred soap bubble,
非常に影響を受けやすいのです
01:40
but one that is very, very easy to affect.
01:43
And all the burning of oil and coal and gas,
石油 石炭 ガソリンなどを
燃やすことによって
石油 石炭 ガソリンなどを
燃やすことによって
01:46
all the fossil fuels,
大気は大きく変化し
CO2レベルも上がり続けています
01:48
have changed the atmosphere greatly.
01:50
Carbon dioxide level has gone up and up and up.
私達が気温を上げているのです
01:53
We're warming the climate.
よって原油流出事故は
01:56
So the blowout in the Gulf
01:58
is just a little piece
人間社会に必要である
エネルギーに関する問題の
02:00
of a much larger problem that we have
02:03
with the energy that we use to run civilization.
ほんの一部にすぎません
温暖化の他に
02:06
Beyond warming,
海が酸性になるという
問題があります
02:08
we have the problem of the oceans getting more acidified --
すでに動物への影響が観測されています
02:11
and already measurably so,
02:13
and already affecting animals.
現在 研究室では
02:16
Now in the laboratory,
例えば貝を
通常の海水のpH 8.1ではなく
02:18
if you take a clam and you put it in the pH
例えば貝を
通常の海水のpH 8.1ではなく
02:20
that is -- not 8.1,
02:22
which is the normal pH of seawater --
pH 7.5の水に入れると
02:24
but 7.5,
02:26
it dissolves in about three days.
貝は3日以内に溶解します
ウニの幼生の場合
02:29
If you take a sea urchin larva
pH 8.1からpH 7.7に移動させると
02:31
from 8.1,
02:33
put it in a pH of 7.7 --
大きく崩れはしませんが
変形して死んでしまいます
02:35
not a huge change --
02:37
it becomes deformed and dies.
すでに ある地域では
商業用のカキの幼生が
02:40
And already, commercial oyster larvae
02:43
are dying at large scales
広範囲で死滅しています
02:45
in some places.
サンゴ礁の成長に遅れがみられる
地域もあります
02:47
Coral reefs are growing slower
サンゴ礁の成長に遅れがみられる
地域もあります
02:49
in some places because of this problem.
02:51
So this really matters.
大きな問題なのです
02:53
Now, let's take a little tour
湾を少し
ぐるっと周ってみましょう
02:55
around the Gulf a little bit.
02:57
One of the things that really impresses me about the people in the Gulf:
湾に住む人達には
感銘を受けました
03:00
They are really, really aquatic people.
彼らはまさに
海の人だからです
03:03
And they can handle water.
水をうまく活用し
頻繁にくるハリケーンや
水をうまく活用し
頻繁にくるハリケーンや
03:05
They can handle a hurricane that comes and goes.
洪水への対策も心得ています
03:07
When the water goes down, they know what to do.
しかし水以外のことで
水中の生息環境が変わると
03:10
But when it's something other than water,
03:12
and their water habitat changes,
03:14
they don't have many options.
彼らに
多くの選択肢はありません
03:16
In fact, those entire communities
コミュニティー全体を見ても
03:18
really don't have many options.
水にかわるものはないのです
03:20
They don't have another thing they can do.
ホテルで働こうと思っても無理です
03:23
They can't go and work
03:25
in the local hotel business
ホテル自体がないのですから
03:27
because there isn't one in their community.
湾の周囲には
多くの原油が見えます
03:31
If you go to the Gulf and you look around,
03:33
you do see a lot of oil.
03:35
You see a lot of oil on the ocean.
海の上や 岸辺にも見られます
03:37
You see a lot of oil on the shoreline.
流出現場に行くと
信じがたい光景が
03:40
If you go to the site of the blowout,
03:42
it looks pretty unbelievable.
まるで車のオイル受けを
ひっくり返したかのようです
03:44
It looks like you just emptied the oil pan in your car,
03:47
and you just dumped it in the ocean.
03:49
And one of the really most incredible things, I think,
一番信じられないのは
03:52
is that there's nobody out there
原油を回収しようとする人が
誰もいないことです
03:54
trying to collect it
03:56
at the site where it is densest.
03:59
Parts of the ocean there
ここの海一帯が
悲惨な状態になっています
04:01
look just absolutely apocalyptic.
岸沿いを進んでいると
そこら中に原油が見られ
04:05
You go in along the shore,
04:07
you can find it everywhere.
04:09
It's really messy.
めちゃくちゃな状態です
04:11
If you go to the places where it's just arriving,
アラバマの東海岸に行くと
04:13
like the eastern part of the Gulf, in Alabama,
浜辺を掃除している人達がいます
04:16
there's still people using the beach
04:18
while there are people cleaning up the beach.
04:20
And they have a very strange way of cleaning up the beach.
掃除方法が変わっています
200 Lのビニール袋に
砂を5 kgしか入れず
04:23
They're not allowed to put more than 10 pounds of sand
200 Lのビニール袋に
砂を5 kgしか入れず
04:25
in a 50-gallon plastic bag.
ビニール袋は何千とあります
04:27
They have thousands and thousands of plastic bags.
何をしたいのかわかりません
04:29
I don't know what they're going to do with all that stuff.
一方で 今でも
浜辺を利用する人達もいます
04:31
Meanwhile, there are still people trying to use the beach.
04:33
They don't see the little, tiny sign
水から離れろという看板はなく
子供たちが海に入って 石油まみれ
04:35
that says: "Stay out of the water."
04:37
Their kids are in the water; they're getting tar
服もサンダルもめちゃくちゃです
04:39
all over their clothes and their sandals. It's a mess.
原油が残っている所に行くと
もっとめちゃくちゃで
04:42
If you go to the place where the oil has been a while,
04:44
it's an even bigger mess.
04:46
And there's basically nobody there anymore,
基本的に誰もいません
数人が利用しているだけです
04:49
a few people trying
04:51
to keep using it.
ノイローゼになる人もいます
04:53
You see people who are really shell-shocked.
04:55
They are very hardworking people.
彼らは働き者で
朝起きたら エンジンスタート
さあ仕事だ という感じです
04:57
All they know about life is they get up in the morning,
04:59
and if their engine starts, they go to work.
彼らは 自然が
沿岸の生態系を通して
05:02
They always felt that they could rely on
与えてくれる安心感に
依存していると感じています
05:05
the assurances that nature brought them
与えてくれる安心感に
依存していると感じています
05:07
through the ecosystem of the Gulf.
05:09
They're finding that their world is really collapsing.
その世界が壊されていると
知ったのです
05:12
And so you can see, literally,
見てください
ショックをあらわす看板
05:15
signs of their shock,
05:20
signs of their outrage,
憤怒をあらわす看板
05:25
signs of their anger,
怒りをあらわす看板
悲しみの看板
05:32
and signs of their grief.
05:35
These are the things that you can see.
これらは目に見えるものです
しかし海の中には
目に見えないものばかりです
05:40
There's a lot you can't see, also,
05:42
underwater.
海の中はどうなっているのでしょう
05:44
What's going on underwater?
05:46
Well, some people say
原油が水中に浸出しているか
意見が分かれます
05:48
there are oil plumes.
05:50
Some people say there are not oil plumes.
マーキー議員によると
05:53
And Congressman Markey asks, you know,
「潜水艦で 原油の有無を
調べられないのだろうか?」
05:56
"Is it going to take a submarine ride
「潜水艦で 原油の有無を
調べられないのだろうか?」
05:59
to see if there are really oil plumes?"
しかし潜水艦は使えませんでした
06:02
But I couldn't take a submarine ride --
前に湾に行ってから
今日までの間
06:04
especially between the time I knew I was coming here and today --
メキシコ湾に原油があるのか
調べる実験をしてみました
06:07
so I had to do
06:09
a little experiment myself
06:11
to see if there was oil in the Gulf of Mexico.
ここがメキシコ湾です
06:13
So this is the Gulf of Mexico,
魚の豊富な輝ける場所
06:16
sparkling place full of fish.
このメキシコ湾に
少しだけ油を流出させました
06:19
I created a little oil spill
06:21
in the Gulf of Mexico.
仮説は裏付けられることになります
06:23
And I learned -- in fact, I confirmed -- the hypothesis
06:25
that oil and water don't mix
油と水は混ざりません
06:28
until you add a dispersant,
でも分散剤を加えると
06:33
and then
混ざり始めます
06:36
they start mixing.
06:38
And you add a little energy
そこに風や波などの
エネルギーを少し加えると
06:40
from the wind and the waves,
06:42
and you get a big mess,
もう大変なことになり
めちゃくちゃです
06:45
a big mess
きれいにすることも
原油を抽出することも不可能です
06:47
that you can't possibly clean,
06:49
you can't touch, you can't extract
そしてなによりも
06:52
and, I think most importantly -- this is what I think --
06:55
you can't see it.
見えないことがやっかいです
わざと隠されているのだと思っています
06:57
I think it's being hidden on purpose.
07:00
Now this is such a catastrophe and such a mess,
これ程の大惨事だと
多くの情報がもれて聞こえてきます
07:03
that lots of stuff is leaking out on the edges of the information stream.
07:06
But as many people have said,
噂通り
事故のもみ消しがあります
07:08
there's a large attempt to suppress what's going on.
07:11
Personally, I think that
私の個人的な考えですが
この分散剤というのは
07:13
the dispersants are
07:15
a major strategy to hide the body,
死体隠ぺいのような
常套手段だと思います
07:18
because we put the murderer
殺人犯の証拠隠しですね
07:20
in charge of the crime scene.
海上に密集した原油は
目で見ることができます
07:22
But you can see it.
海上に密集した原油は
目で見ることができます
07:24
You can see where the oil
07:26
is concentrated at the surface,
そこに一撃を加え
証拠を消しているのでしょう
07:28
and then it is attacked,
07:31
because they don't want the evidence, in my opinion.
さて
07:34
Okay.
微生物が油を食べれば
07:36
We heard that bacteria eat oil?
ウミガメも食べます
07:38
So do sea turtles.
原油の流出があれば
07:40
When it breaks up,
微生物が分解するまで
長い時間がかかります
07:42
it has a long way to go
07:44
before it gets down to bacteria.
原油をウミガメが食べ
魚はエラから吸収します
07:46
Turtles eat it. It gets in the gills of fish.
そして原油の中を泳がざるを得ません
07:49
These guys have to swim around through it.
今日ここに来る途中
電車の中で信じられない話を聞きました
07:51
I heard the most incredible story today
今日ここに来る途中
電車の中で信じられない話を聞きました
07:54
when I was on the train coming here.
テッド・ウィリアムという作家で
07:57
A writer named Ted Williams called me,
何を見たのか
質問されました
07:59
and he was asking me a couple of questions
08:01
about what I saw,
08:03
because he's writing an article for Audubon magazine.
オーデュボン誌の記事を
書いていたのです
彼は1週間前に
湾に行っていて
08:05
He said that he had been in the Gulf a little while ago --
08:08
like about a week ago --
釣りガイドをしていた男に
08:10
and a guy who had been a recreational fishing guide
事故現場を案内してもらったそうです
08:13
took him out to show him what's going on.
そのガイドは 年中
仕事の予定が空いていました
08:16
That guide's entire calendar year
そのガイドは 年中
仕事の予定が空いていました
08:19
is canceled bookings.
08:21
He has no bookings left.
予約金も返還を求められ
誰も近寄ろうとしません
08:23
Everybody wanted their deposit back. Everybody is fleeing.
何千人という人が
同じような状況です
08:26
That's the story of thousands of people.
しかしそのガイドによると
08:28
But he told Ted
海に出た最後の日に
08:31
that on the last day he went out,
バンドウイルカが
突然ボートの横に現れ
08:33
a bottlenose dolphin
08:35
suddenly appeared next to the boat,
噴気孔から
油をまき散らしていました
08:38
and it was splattering oil
08:40
out its blowhole.
イルカから離れました
08:43
And he moved away
なぜなら最後の釣り
だということもあり
08:45
because it was
08:47
his last fishing trip,
イルカが魚を怖がらせることを
知っていたからです
08:49
and he knew that the dolphins scare fish.
だからイルカから離れ
08:51
So he moved away from it,
数分後振り返ると
08:53
turned around a few minutes later,
またボートのすぐ側まで来ていました
08:55
it was right next to the side of the boat again.
30年の釣りのなかで イルカの
こんな行動は初めて見たそうです
08:57
He said that in 30 years of fishing
08:59
he had never seen a dolphin do that.
そして これはまるで―
09:01
And he felt that --
09:04
he felt that it was
09:06
coming to ask for help. Sorry.
助けてくれと
言っているように感じたそうです
エクソンバルディーズ号
原油流出事故では
09:12
Now, in the Exxon Valdez spill,
シャチの30%近くが
09:15
about 30 percent of the killer whales
数ヶ月で死にました
09:17
died in the first few months.
個体数は回復していません
09:20
Their numbers have never recovered.
個体数の回復率は
ばらつくでしょう
09:22
So the recovery rate of all this stuff
09:24
is going to be variable.
時間がかかるものもあれば
09:26
It's going to take longer for some things.
早く回復するだろう
というものもあります
09:29
And some things, I think, will probably
09:31
come back a little faster.
メキシコ湾には重要な役割があります
09:33
The other thing about the Gulf that is important
1年のある時期に
多くの動物がこの湾に集まります
09:36
is that there are a lot of animals
09:38
that concentrate in the Gulf
09:40
at certain parts of the year.
そのためメキシコ湾は
重要な水源で
09:43
So the Gulf is a really important piece of water --
大西洋の等量の水より
重要だといえます
09:45
more important than a similar volume
09:48
of water in the open Atlantic Ocean.
09:51
These tuna swim the entire ocean.
マグロは世界の海を渡ります
湾の水流に乗り ヨーロッパまで
09:53
They get in the Gulf Stream. They go all the way to Europe.
産卵するときは
内陸にまでやって来ます
09:55
When it comes time to spawn, they come inside,
2匹に標識をつけて
産卵場所がわかるようにしました
09:57
and these two tuna that were tagged,
09:59
you can see them on the spawning grounds
10:02
very much right in the area of the slick.
なめらかな場所を選んでいます
今年の産卵時期は 多分
悲惨なことになるでしょう
10:04
They're probably having, at the very least,
10:07
a catastrophic spawning season this year.
親魚が汚れた水を
避けてくれることを願います
10:10
I'm hoping that maybe the adults
10:12
are avoiding that dirty water.
通常 濁った水には
入ろうとしませんが
10:14
They don't usually like to go into water
10:16
that is very cloudy anyway.
非常に運動神経の良い魚なので
10:18
But these are really high-performance
10:20
athletic animals.
何がエラに影響を与えるか
わかりませんし
10:22
I don't know what this kind of stuff will do in their gills.
親魚への影響は わからないのです
10:25
I don't know if it'll affect the adults.
だとしても 卵や稚魚には
確実に影響があると思っています
10:27
If it's not, it's certainly affecting
だとしても 卵や稚魚には
確実に影響があると思っています
10:29
their eggs and larvae, I would certainly think.
下がり続けている
このグラフをご覧ください
10:31
But if you look at that graph that goes down and down and down,
私達が 数十年に渡って
乱獲してきた結果です
10:34
that's what we've done to this species
10:36
through overfishing over many decades.
原油の流出により
壊滅的な被害となった一方で
10:39
So while the oil spill,
10:41
the leak, the eruption,
10:43
is a catastrophe,
心に留めておきたいことは
10:45
I think it's important to keep in mind
私達は長期間にわたり 海に
多大な影響を与えてきたということです
10:47
that we've done a lot to affect what's in the ocean
10:49
for a very, very long time.
私達が何か始めると
良いことではなく
10:51
It's not like we're starting with something
10:53
that's been okay.
多くのストレスと問題が
つきまとってきます
10:55
We're starting with something that's had a lot of stresses
10:57
and a lot of problems to begin with.
鳥を見てみると
10:59
If you look around at the birds,
1年のある時期に
多くの鳥が湾に集まり
11:01
there are a lot of birds in the Gulf
11:03
that concentrate in the Gulf at certain times of the year,
やがて飛び立っていきます
11:06
but then leave.
鳥たちの生息域はずっと広範なのです
11:08
And they populate much larger areas.
例えば
11:11
So for instance,
この写真の鳥は
ほとんどが渡り鳥で
11:13
most of the birds in this picture are migratory birds.
11:16
They were all on the Gulf in May,
原油が流れてきた5月に
この湾に来たというわけです
11:18
while oil was starting to come ashore in certain places.
左下に キョウジョシギと ミツユビシギがいます
11:22
Down on the lower left there
11:24
are Ruddy Turnstones and Sanderlings.
11:26
They breed in the high arctic,
北極で子育てをし
南アメリカの南部で冬を過ごします
11:28
and they winter down in southern South America.
メキシコ湾に集まり
やがて北極各地に飛び立ちます
11:30
But they concentrate in the Gulf
11:32
and then fan out all across the arctic.
グリーンランドで繁殖する鳥も
メキシコ湾で見かけました
11:35
I saw birds that breed in Greenland
11:37
in the Gulf,
よって これは半球規模の問題なのです
11:40
so this is a hemispheric issue.
経済的影響も 少なくとも
米国全土で見られ
11:43
The economic effects
11:45
go at least nationally in many ways.
生物学的には
半球規模の影響があります
11:48
The biological effects are certainly hemispheric.
11:53
I think that this is one of the most
これは全く予想だにしなかった
唖然とする例の一つです
11:55
absolutely mind-boggling
11:58
examples of total unpreparedness
12:00
that I can even think of.
日本軍が真珠湾を爆撃した時でさえ
12:02
Even when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor,
撃ち返すことはしました
12:05
at least they shot back.
12:07
And we just seem to be
でも今の私達は
何をすべきかわからないでいます
12:09
unable to figure out what to do.
12:11
There was nothing ready,
何もできていないのは
現在の対策を見れば明らかです
12:15
and, you know, as we can see
12:17
by what they're doing.
今やっている主な方法は
ブームと分散剤です
12:19
Mainly what they're doing is booms and dispersants.
ブームは広い範囲には
展開できないので
12:21
The booms are absolutely not made for open water.
原油が多くたまっている箇所を
囲うこともできません
12:24
They don't even attempt to corral
原油が多くたまっている箇所を
囲うこともできません
12:27
the oil where it is most concentrated.
沿岸近くに ボートが2艘
右のボートは通称「釣りバカ」
12:30
They get near shore. Look at these two boats.
12:32
That one on the right is called Fishing Fool.
良い名前ですね
12:35
And I think, you know, that's a great name
湾の何千平方マイルも広がる
海上の原油を
12:37
for boats that think that they're going to do anything
12:40
to make a dent in this by dragging a boom between them
ブームで囲おうと
躍起になっているんですから
12:43
when there are literally hundreds of thousands
12:45
of square miles in the Gulf right now
12:47
with oil at the surface.
分散剤によって 原油は
ブームの下を通ることができます
12:49
The dispersants make the oil go right under the booms.
12:52
The booms are only about
ブームの直径は
たったの30 cm程です
12:54
13 inches in diameter.
こんなバカげたことありません
12:57
So it's just absolutely crazy.
何百というエビ漁船を雇い
13:00
Here are shrimp boats employed.
網ではなく ブームを引張ることが
彼らの仕事となります
13:02
There are hundreds of shrimp boats employed to drag booms instead of nets.
13:05
Here they are working.
原油まみれの海水が
ブームの後方へ移動しています
13:07
You can see easily
13:09
that all the oily water just goes over the back of the boom.
実はかき混ぜているのです
13:12
All they're doing is stirring it.
ばがげています
13:15
It's just ridiculous.
何百マイルもの沿岸が
ブームだらけになると
13:17
Also, for all the shoreline that has booms --
何百マイルもの沿岸が
ブームだらけになると
13:20
hundreds and hundreds of miles of shoreline --
13:22
all of the shoreline that has booms,
隣の沿岸にはブームが一つもないので
13:24
there's adjacent shoreline that doesn't have any booms.
原油や汚れた水が
簡単に入ってこれます
13:27
There is ample opportunity
13:29
for oil and dirty water to get in behind them.
下の写真は
13:32
And that lower photo, that's a bird colony that has been boomed.
鳥のコロニーが囲われています
コロニーを守ろうとしているんです
13:35
Everybody's trying to protect
13:38
the bird colonies there.
鳥類学者としていいますが
13:40
Well, as an ornithologist,
鳥は飛びます
13:43
I can tell you that birds fly, and that --
(笑)
13:46
(Laughter)
コロニーを囲っても
意味がありません
13:50
and that booming a bird colony
13:53
doesn't do it; it doesn't do it.
鳥たちはエサをとるため
海に潜らないといけません
13:56
These birds make a living by diving into the water.
14:00
In fact,
鳥たちが第一に
しなければいけないのが
14:03
really what I think they should do, if anything --
巣を守ることです
14:06
they're trying so hard to protect those nests --
巣がすべて壊されてしまえば
14:09
actually, if they destroyed every single nest
鳥は離れていくでしょう
14:12
some of the birds would leave,
今回は そうなった方がましだったでしょう
14:14
and that would be better for them this year.
鳥の洗浄について言うと
14:17
As far as cleaning them,
鳥をきれいにする人を
非難するわけではありませんが
14:20
I don't mean to cast any aspersion
14:23
on people cleaning birds.
14:25
It's really, really important
思いやりを示すことが
本当に大切です
14:27
that we express our compassion.
人間が持っている
一番大切なものが思いやりですから
14:29
I think that's the most important thing that people have,
14:31
is compassion.
こういったイメージを持ち
それを表現することが大切です
14:33
It's really important to get those images
14:35
and to show it.
しかし 鳥たちは
どこに放されるというのでしょう
14:37
But really, where are those birds going to get released to?
まるで燃えるビルから連れ出し
14:40
It's like taking somebody out of a burning building,
煙の吸入をケアした後
14:42
treating them for smoke inhalation
再びビルの中に戻すようなものです
原油はまだ流出しています
14:44
and sending them back into the building, because the oil is still gushing.
14:48
I refuse to acknowledge this
これを事故として
認めるわけにはいきません
14:50
as anything like an accident.
これは重過失によって招かれた事態です
14:53
I think that this is the result of gross negligence.
(拍手)
14:56
(Applause)
BPだけではありません
15:01
Not just B.P.
BPが ずさんで無謀な
操業をしたのは
15:03
B.P. operated
BPが ずさんで無謀な
操業をしたのは
15:05
very sloppily and very recklessly
それができたからです
15:08
because they could.
私達を守る立場である政府の
完全な監督責任だとして
15:10
And they were allowed to do so
15:12
because of the absolute failure of oversight
15:15
of the government that's supposed to be
許されてしまっています
15:18
our government, protecting us.
米国では ほとんどの商船に
この看板が見られます
15:23
It turns out that --
15:25
you see this sign on almost every commercial vessel in the United States --
原油が数ガロン流出すれば
15:28
you know, if you spilled a couple of gallons of oil,
大変なことになります
15:30
you would be in big trouble.
誰のために法律が作られ
そして誰が法の外にいるのか
15:32
And you have to really wonder
誰のために法律が作られ
そして誰が法の外にいるのか
15:34
who are the laws made for,
考える必要があります
15:37
and who has gotten above the laws.
将来私達にできることがあります
15:40
Now there are things that we can do in the future.
必要だけど
手に入れられなかった装置です
15:42
We could have the kinds of equipment that we would really need.
石油を求め メキシコ湾の海底に
30,000個の穴を作れば
15:45
It would not take an awful lot
15:47
to anticipate
15:49
that after making 30,000 holes
その内の一つから石油が出てきても
なんら驚くことではありません
15:51
in the sea floor of the Gulf of Mexico looking for oil,
15:54
oil might start coming out of one of them.
15:56
And you'd have some idea of what to do.
これこそ私達が
しなければいけないことです
15:59
That's certainly one of the things we need to do.
16:02
But I think we have to understand where this leak
実際どこから流出が始まったか
理解する必要があります
16:04
really started from.
「政府は公共の利益を守る
私達の味方なんだ」という考えが
16:07
It really started from the destruction
16:09
of the idea that the government is there
破綻するところから始まっています
16:12
because it's our government, meant to protect
16:15
the larger public interest.
原油の流出や 銀行救済
住宅ローン危機などは
16:21
So I think that the oil blowout,
16:23
the bank bailout,
16:25
the mortgage crisis and all these things
同じ原因で起こる症状に
違いありません
16:28
are absolutely symptoms of
16:31
the same cause.
一部の悪い人間から
守ってくれる警察は
16:33
We still seem to understand
16:35
that at least we need the police to protect us
16:38
from a few bad people.
最低限必要だと
私達は理解しています
きっぷを切られたり
少々うっとうしい所があっても
16:41
And even though the police can be a little annoying at times --
16:43
giving us tickets and stuff like that --
16:45
nobody says that we should just get rid of them.
警察は廃止すべきだ
なんて言う人はいません
この30年間 政府全体において
16:48
But in the entire rest of government right now
規制撤廃の動きがありました
16:51
and for the last at least 30 years,
規制撤廃の動きがありました
16:53
there has been a culture of deregulation
これを主導したのは
私達を守る立場の人達で
16:56
that is caused directly
16:58
by the people who
裏で政府を買収していました
17:00
we need to be protected from,
17:02
buying the government out from under us.
(拍手)
17:05
(Applause)
これが今でも問題となっています
17:15
Now this has been a problem for a very, very long time.
17:18
You can see that
米国の創建時には
企業は違法でした
17:21
corporations were illegal at the founding of America,
トーマス・ジェファソンでさえ
17:23
and even Thomas Jefferson complained
すでに米国の法律を無視していると
不満をもらしました
17:26
that they were already
すでに米国の法律を無視していると
不満をもらしました
17:29
bidding defiance to the laws of our country.
自分は保守派だと言う人がいますが
17:33
Okay, people who say
17:35
they're conservative,
本当に保守派の愛国者になりたければ
17:37
if they really wanted to be
17:39
really conservative and really patriotic,
企業に向かって
地獄に落ちろというでしょう
17:41
they would tell these corporations
17:43
to go to hell.
これが真の保守派です
17:45
That's what it would really mean to be conservative.
そこで私達が本当にすべきことは
17:49
So what we really need to do
17:51
is regain the idea
我々の利益を守るのは政府だ
という考えを取り戻し
17:53
that it's our government
17:55
safeguarding our interests
この国の失われた連帯感と
共通の利害を取り戻すことです
17:57
and regain a sense of unity
17:59
and common cause in our country
18:01
that really has been lost.
希望の光が見え
私達は少し目を覚ましつつあります
18:04
I think there are signs of hope.
18:06
We seem to be waking up a little bit.
グラス・スティーガル法―
18:08
The Glass-Steagall Act --
これは不況や 銀行の破綻
救済が必要な状態などが
18:10
which was really to protect us from the kind of thing
18:12
that caused the recession to happen,
起こるのを防ぐ法律です
18:14
and the bank meltdown
18:16
and all that stuff that required the bailouts --
1933年に施行されましたが
18:18
that was put in effect in 1933,
組織的に崩されてしまいました
18:20
was systematically destroyed.
現在 こういったものを
復元しようという雰囲気があります
18:23
Now there's a mood to put some of that stuff
18:25
back in place,
しかしロビー活動家たちはすでに
18:27
but the lobbyists are already there
法案が可決した後
規制緩和をしようとしています
18:29
trying to weaken the regulations
18:31
after the legislation has just passed.
だから戦いは続いています
18:34
So it's a continued fight.
今が歴史的瞬間です
18:36
It's a historic moment right now.
湾での原油流出という大惨事を招くか
18:38
We're either going to have an absolutely
湾での原油流出という大惨事を招くか
18:40
unmitigated catastrophe
18:42
of this oil leak in the Gulf,
多くの人が気付いている決断をし
抜け出すかのどちらかです
18:44
or we will make the moment we need out of this,
18:46
as many people have noted today.
18:48
There's certainly a common theme
抜け出す決断をするには
共通のテーマがあります
18:50
about needing to make the moment out of this.
以前にも海洋掘削のときに経験があります
18:52
We've been through this before
18:54
with other ways of offshore drilling.
初め 海上油田の名前は「クジラ」で
18:56
The first offshore wells were called whales.
掘削機の名前は「モリ」でした
18:59
The first offshore drills were called harpoons.
当時 海のクジラの数が減少していました
19:02
We emptied the ocean of the whales at that time.
19:05
Now are we stuck with this?
19:07
Ever since we lived in caves,
私達が洞窟に住んでいた時から
エネルギーが欲しいときは
19:09
every time we wanted any energy,
火で何かを燃やします
今もやっていることは同じです
19:11
we lit something on fire, and that is still what we're doing.
今でもエネルギーが欲しいとき
何かを燃やしています
19:14
We're still lighting something on fire
19:16
every time we want energy.
クリーンなエネルギーは高価で
使えないと言われます
19:19
And people say
19:21
we can't have clean energy
19:23
because it's too expensive.
誰が高価だと言っているのでしょう?
19:26
Who says it's too expensive?
石油を売っている人達です
19:28
People who sell us fossil fuels.
前にここに来た時も
19:30
We've been here before with energy,
エネルギーを切り替えれば
経済が耐えられないと言われました
19:33
and people saying the economy
19:35
cannot withstand a switch,
安価なエネルギーは奴隷です
19:37
because the cheapest energy was slavery.
エネルギーとはモラルの問題なのです
19:40
Energy is always a moral issue.
19:43
It's an issue that is moral right now.
19:45
It's a matter of right and wrong.
善か悪かの問題でもあります
ありがとうございました
19:47
Thank you very much.
Translated by Hidehito Sumitomo
Reviewed by Yoshinari Fukuzawa

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About the Speaker:

Carl Safina - Ecologist, writer
Carl Safina's writing explores the scientific, moral and social dimensions of our relationship with nature.

Why you should listen

Carl Safina explores how the ocean is changing and what those changes mean for wildlife and for people.

Safina is author of seven books, including Song for the Blue Ocean, which was a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, Eye of the Albatross, Voyage of the Turtle and The View From Lazy Point. Safina is founding president of The Safina Center at Stony Brook University, where he also co-chairs the University's Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science. A winner of the 2012 Orion Award and a MacArthur Prize, among others, his work has been featured in outlets such as The New York Times, National Geographic, CNN.com and The Huffington Post, and he hosts “Saving the Ocean” on PBS.

 

His latest book, Beyond Words: What Animals Think And Feel, explores the inner lives of animals.

More profile about the speaker
Carl Safina | Speaker | TED.com