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TEDGlobal 2011

Jessica Green: Are we filtering the wrong microbes?

ジェシカ・グリーン「微生物を正しく取り除くために」

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病院の中では外気を遮断するべきなのでしょうか?生態学者でTEDフェローでもあるジェシカ・グリーンは、機械式の換気は多くの種類の微生物を取り除いているけれど、フィルタリングの方法が間違っていると言います。取り除かれずに病院の中に入ってきた微生物の方が、ずっと病原体になる危険性が高いのです。

- Engineer and biodiversity scientist
Jessica Green wants people to understand the important role microbes play in every facet of our lives: climate change, building ecosystems, human health, even roller derby -- using nontraditional tools like art, animation and film to help people visualize the invisible world. Full bio

Humans in the developed world
先進国の人々は
00:15
spend more than 90 percent of their lives indoors,
人生の9割以上を屋内で過ごし
00:17
where they breathe in and come into contact
目には見えない何兆もの生命体
00:20
with trillions of life forms invisible to the naked eye:
つまり微生物を 吸い込んだり
00:23
microorganisms.
微生物と接触したりしています
00:26
Buildings are complex ecosystems
建物は複雑な生態系を作り
00:28
that are an important source
人体に良いものも 悪いものも
00:30
of microbes that are good for us,
微生物の
00:32
and some that are bad for us.
重要な発生源となります
00:34
What determines the types and distributions
屋内に住む微生物の 種類と分布を
00:36
of microbes indoors?
決定するのは何でしょう?
00:39
Buildings are colonized by airborne microbes
建物に住むのは空気中にいる微生物で
00:41
that enter through windows
窓や換気装置を通って
00:44
and through mechanical ventilation systems.
入ってきます
00:46
And they are brought inside
人間や他の生き物によって
00:49
by humans and other creatures.
中に持ち込まれることもあります
00:51
The fate of microbes indoors
屋内に住む微生物の運命は
00:54
depends on complex interactions
人間および人が作った
00:56
with humans,
建物の環境との
00:58
and with the human-built environment.
複雑な相互作用によって決まります
01:00
And today, architects and biologists
現在では 建築家と生物学者が
01:02
are working together
協力して
01:04
to explore smart building design
人体に良い健康的な建物を作るための
01:06
that will create
スマートなデザインを
01:09
healthy buildings for us.
研究しています
01:11
We spend an extraordinary amount of time
私たちは 非常に長い時間を
01:14
in buildings
厳しくコントロールされた環境にある
01:16
that are extremely controlled environments,
建物の中で過ごします
01:18
like this building here --
このビルのように
01:21
environments that have mechanical ventilation systems
機械式の換気装置を備えていて
01:23
that include filtering,
フィルターや暖房
01:26
heating and air conditioning.
空調といった機能が備わっています
01:28
Given the amount of time that we spend indoors,
屋内で過ごす時間の長さを考えれば
01:30
it's important to understand
これらが健康に与える影響を
01:32
how this affects our health.
理解するのは大切なことです
01:34
At the Biology and the Built Environment Center,
生物学・建築環境センターでは
01:36
we carried out a study in a hospital
ある病院を研究対象として
01:39
where we sampled air
空気を見本採取し
01:42
and pulled the DNA
空中の微生物から
01:44
out of microbes in the air.
DNAを取り出しました
01:46
And we looked at three different types of rooms.
3つの異なる種類の部屋を対象にしました
01:48
We looked at rooms that were mechanically ventilated,
機械式の換気が行われている部屋は
01:51
which are the data points in the blue.
青い点で示されています
01:53
We looked at rooms that were naturally ventilated,
自然換気の部屋では
01:55
where the hospital let us turn off the mechanical ventilation
建物の端で 病院の許可を得て
01:58
in a wing of the building
換気装置のスイッチを切り
02:00
and pry open the windows
窓をこじ開けました
02:02
that were no longer operable,
もう動かなくなっている窓でしたが
02:04
but they made them operable for our study.
研究のために何とか開けてくれました
02:06
And we also sampled the outdoor air.
私たちは 外の空気も採取しました
02:08
If you look at the x-axis of this graph,
表のX軸を見て下さい
02:10
you'll see that what we commonly want to do --
私たちが普段行いたがること -
02:13
which is keeping the outdoors out --
つまり外と遮断すること - は
02:16
we accomplished that with mechanical ventilation.
機械式の換気によって実現できます
02:18
So if you look at the green data points,
緑色の点は
02:21
which is air that's outside,
外の空気を示していますが
02:23
you'll see that there's a large amount of microbial diversity,
たくさんの種類の微生物がいることが
02:25
or variety of microbial types.
わかります
02:28
But if you look at the blue data points,
でも 機械式の換気をしている
02:30
which is mechanically ventilated air,
青い点では
02:32
it's not as diverse.
それほど多様ではありません
02:34
But being less diverse
多様性を欠くということは
02:37
is not necessarily good for our health.
必ずしも健康に良いことではありません
02:39
If you look at the y-axis of this graph,
表のY軸を見て下さい
02:41
you'll see that, in the mechanically ventilated air,
機械で換気された空気では
02:44
you have a higher probability
潜在的な病原菌や細菌と
02:47
of encountering a potential pathogen,
遭遇する可能性が
02:49
or germ,
外にいるよりも
02:51
than if you're outdoors.
高くなります
02:53
So to understand why this was the case,
なぜこうなるのかを解明するために
02:55
we took our data
私たちはデータを
02:58
and put it into an ordination diagram,
順序付けした図に落とし込みました
03:00
which is a statistical map
微生物の集団が
03:02
that tells you something
どのように関連しているのかを
03:04
about how related the microbial communities are
示してくれる
03:06
in the different samples.
統計地図のことです
03:08
The data points that are closer together
近い位置にある点は
03:10
have microbial communities that are more similar
遠いところにある点よりも
03:12
than data points that are far apart.
微生物の集団が似通っています
03:15
And the first things that you can see from this graph
この表からわかるのは
03:17
is, if you look at the blue data points,
機械で換気された空気を示す
03:19
which are the mechanically ventilated air,
青い点は
03:21
they're not simply a subset of the green data points,
緑の点 つまり外気とは
03:24
which are the outdoor air.
特徴が異なるということです
03:27
What we've found is that mechanically ventilated air
私たちは 機械で換気された空気が
03:29
looks like humans.
人間と似ていることに気づきました
03:32
It has microbes on it
人間の皮膚や口
03:34
that are commonly associated with our skin
それに唾液によく見られる
03:36
and with our mouth, our spit.
微生物がいたのです
03:39
And this is because
人間は常に
03:41
we're all constantly shedding microbes.
微生物を撒き散らしています
03:43
So all of you right now
今この瞬間にも あなた方は
03:45
are sharing your microbes with one another.
微生物を互いに交換し合っています
03:47
And when you're outdoors,
外にいる時には
03:49
that type of air has microbes
空気には 植物の葉や土で
03:51
that are commonly associated with plant leaves and with dirt.
よく見られる微生物が含まれます
03:53
Why does this matter?
どうしてこれが大事なのかというと
03:56
It matters because the health care industry
医療業界は
03:58
is the second most energy intensive industry
アメリカで2番目にエネルギー消費が多い
04:00
in the United States.
産業だからです
04:03
Hospitals use two and a half times
病院は オフィスビルの
04:05
the amount of energy as office buildings.
2.5倍のエネルギーを使います
04:07
And the model that we're working with
そして病院や
04:10
in hospitals,
その他 数多くの建物で
04:12
and also with many, many different buildings,
採用されているモデルは
04:14
is to keep the outdoors out.
外気を遮断することなのです
04:16
And this model
このモデルは
04:18
may not necessarily be the best for our health.
必ずしも 健康に最も良いとは言えません
04:20
And given the extraordinary amount
大量の
04:23
of nosocomial infections,
院内感染が起きていることを
04:25
or hospital-acquired infections,
考えると
04:27
this is a clue that it's a good time
今の慣習を
04:30
to reconsider our current practices.
見直すべき時なのかもしれません
04:32
So just as we manage national parks,
人間が国立公園を管理し
04:35
where we promote the growth of some species
ある種の生き物の成長を促進しつつ
04:38
and we inhibit the growth of others,
別の種の成長を妨げているように
04:40
we're working towards thinking about buildings
私たちは 建物についても
04:43
using an ecosystem framework
生態系というフレームワークを使い
04:46
where we can promote the kinds of microbes
屋内に入れておきたい微生物を
04:48
that we want to have indoors.
意図的に増やすようにと考えています
04:51
I've heard somebody say
「元気は胃腸から」という
04:55
that you're as healthy as your gut.
言葉があるように
04:57
And for this reason, many people eat probiotic yogurt
体に良い微生物の入ったヨーグルトを食べて
04:59
so they can promote a healthy gut flora.
腸内環境を整えようとする人が大勢います
05:02
And what we ultimately want to do
私たちが最終的に目指しているのは
05:05
is to be able to use this concept
この考えを応用して
05:07
to promote a healthy group
体に良い微生物を
05:10
of microorganisms inside.
建物の中に取り込むことです
05:12
Thank you.
ありがとう
05:14
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:16
Translated by Wataru Narita
Reviewed by Hidetoshi Yamauchi

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About the speaker:

Jessica Green - Engineer and biodiversity scientist
Jessica Green wants people to understand the important role microbes play in every facet of our lives: climate change, building ecosystems, human health, even roller derby -- using nontraditional tools like art, animation and film to help people visualize the invisible world.

Why you should listen

Jessica Green, a TED2010 Fellow and TED2011 Senior Fellow, is an engineer and ecologist who specializes in biodiversity theory and microbial systems. As a professor at both the University of Oregon and the Santa Fe Institute, she is the founding director of the innovative Biology and the Built Environment (BioBE) Center that bridges biology and architecture.

Green envisions a future with genomic-driven approaches to architectural design that promote sustainability, human health and well-being. She is spearheading efforts to model buildings as complex ecosystems that house trillions of diverse microorganisms interacting with each other, with humans, and with their environment. This framework uses next-generation sequencing technology to characterize the “built environment microbiome” and will offer site-specific design solutions to minimize the spread of infectious disease and maximize building energy efficiency.

More profile about the speaker
Jessica Green | Speaker | TED.com