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TEDGlobal 2009

Alain de Botton: A kinder, gentler philosophy of success

アラン・ド・ボトン:親切で、優しい成功哲学

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アラン・ド・ボトンが成功と失敗の発想を分析します – そしてこの2つの判断の原因となる条件を問題視します。 成功や失敗は勝ち得たものなのか? 彼は、俗物精神を乗り越え越えて、真実の喜びを仕事で見つけるために、雄弁で、気のきいた論証します。

- Philosopher
Through his witty and literate books -- and his new School of Life -- Alain de Botton helps others find fulfillment in the everyday. Full bio

For me they normally happen, these career crises,
私にとって これらのキャリア悲観は
00:12
often, actually, on a Sunday evening,
日曜日の夕方に 太陽が沈もうとしている
00:15
just as the sun is starting to set,
ちょうどその時によく起こります
00:17
and the gap between my hopes for myself,
私が成りたい自分と 現実の
00:19
and the reality of my life, start to diverge so painfully
痛いほどのギャップを憂い
00:22
that I normally end up weeping into a pillow.
涙で枕をぬらします
00:26
I'm mentioning all this,
私がこんなことを話すのは
00:29
I'm mentioning all this because I think this is not merely a personal problem.
これが 単に私個人の問題ではないと 思うからです
00:31
You may think I'm wrong in this,
貴方は間違っていると思うかもしれませんが
00:34
but I think that we live in an age when our lives are regularly
私達は 経歴の転機によって人生が
00:36
punctuated by career crises,
区切られる時代に生きています
00:38
by moments when what we thought we knew,
自分の人生や経歴について
00:40
about our lives, about our careers,
知っていると思った途端に
00:42
comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality.
恐ろしい現実に出くわします
00:44
It's perhaps easier now than ever before to make a good living.
今までに無い程簡単に豊かな生活が出来るのに
00:48
It's perhaps harder than ever before
落ち着いて キャリアの不安から開放されるのは
00:51
to stay calm, to be free of career anxiety.
前より難しくなりました
00:54
I want to look now, if I may,
経歴に不安を覚える
00:57
at some of the reasons why
理由について
00:59
we might be feeling anxiety about our careers.
考えてみようと思います
01:01
Why we might be victims of these career crises,
キャリア悲観の犠牲となって
01:04
as we're weeping softly into our pillows.
涙で枕を濡らすのはなぜか
01:06
One of the reasons why we might be suffering
苦悩の理由の一つは
01:10
is that we are surrounded by snobs.
私達が俗物に取り囲まれているからです
01:13
In a way, I've got some bad news,
さて、外国からオックスフォードに来る人にとって
01:15
particularly to anybody who's come to Oxford from abroad.
悪いニュースがあります
01:18
There is a real problem with snobbery.
そこに俗物精神の本当の問題があります
01:21
Because sometimes people from outside the U.K.
外国からきた人は よく
01:23
imagine that snobbery is a distinctively U.K. phenomenon
俗物主義は 田舎の邸宅や称号に固執した
01:25
fixated on country houses and titles.
イギリス特有の現象だと思いますが
01:27
The bad news is that's not true.
それは間違いです
01:30
Snobbery is a global phenomenon.
俗物精神は 地球規模の現象です
01:32
We are a global organization. This is a global phenomenon.
我々はグローバルな組織で これはグローバルな現象です
01:34
It exists. What is a snob?
俗物とは何でしょう?
01:36
A snob is anybody who takes a small part of you
それはあなたの一部のみを取り上げ
01:38
and uses that to come to a complete vision of who you are.
あたかも それが貴方の全てであるように見る人です
01:41
That is snobbery.
それが俗物精神です
01:44
The dominant kind of snobbery
今日支配的な俗物主義は
01:46
that exists nowadays is job snobbery.
経歴を鼻にかけることです
01:48
You encounter it within minutes at a party,
パーティに行くと 一分以内に
01:50
when you get asked that famous iconic question
21世紀で最も代表的な質問をされます
01:52
of the early 21st century, "What do you do?"
「ご職業は?」と
01:55
And according to how you answer that question,
その質問にどう答えるかによって
01:58
people are either incredibly delighted to see you,
相手は貴方に会えた事を大そう喜ぶか
02:00
or look at their watch and make their excuses.
または 時計を見て言い訳をします
02:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:04
Now, the opposite of a snob is your mother.
俗物の反対は 母親です
02:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:08
Not necessarily your mother, or indeed mine,
あなたの母親や 私の母親と言うわけではなく
02:10
but, as it were, the ideal mother,
理想的な母親像で、
02:13
somebody who doesn't care about your achievements.
貴方の業績を気にしない人の事です
02:15
But unfortunately, most people are not our mothers.
でも 残念なことに 殆んどの人は 私達の母親ではありません
02:17
Most people make a strict correlation between how much time,
殆んどの人は "時間"と
02:19
and if you like, love -- not romantic love,
ロマンチックとは限らない一般的な"愛"や
02:22
though that may be something --
'敬意"の間に厳格な相互関係を築き
02:24
but love in general, respect,
相手の社会階級の位置で
02:26
they are willing to accord us, that will be strictly defined
慎重に定義された
02:28
by our position in the social hierarchy.
時間のみを割きます
02:31
And that's a lot of the reason why we care so much about our careers
だから 私達は経歴を気に掛けるのです
02:33
and indeed start caring so much about material goods.
そして 身の回りの物質に気を配ります
02:36
You know, we're often told that we live in very materialistic times,
私達は しごく物質的な時代を生きており
02:40
that we're all greedy people.
貪欲だと言われます
02:43
I don't think we are particularly materialistic.
私は そうは思わず
02:45
I think we live in a society
物質を得るという事が
02:47
which has simply pegged certain emotional rewards
ある種の感情的な報酬に結びついた
02:49
to the acquisition of material goods.
社会に生きているのだと思います
02:51
It's not the material goods we want. It's the rewards we want.
私達が欲しいのは 物質でなく 報酬なのです
02:54
And that's a new way of looking at luxury goods.
これは 贅沢品への新しい見方を提供します
02:57
The next time you see somebody driving a Ferrari
もし フェラーリに乗っている人を見かけたら
02:59
don't think, "This is somebody who is greedy."
「貪欲な人だ」などど思わず
03:01
Think, "This is somebody who is incredibly vulnerable and in need of love."
「すごく傷つきやすく 愛に飢えた人だ」と思ってください
03:03
In other words -- (Laughter)
言い換えると -- (笑)
03:06
feel sympathy, rather than contempt.
軽蔑でなく 同情してあげて下さい
03:11
There are other reasons --
他にも理由があります --
03:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:15
there are other reasons why it's perhaps harder now
心を落ち着かせるのが
03:16
to feel calm than ever before.
今までに無い程難しい理由は他にあります
03:18
One of these, and it's paradoxical because it's linked to something that's rather nice,
逆説的ですが 一つは 私達の自分のキャリアに対する
03:20
is the hope we all have for our careers.
期待に関係しています
03:23
Never before have expectations been so high
人類がその生涯で成し遂げられることへの
03:26
about what human beings can achieve with their lifespan.
期待は 今までになく高く
03:28
We're told, from many sources, that anyone can achieve anything.
誰でも 何でも出来ると聞かされ
03:31
We've done away with the caste system.
カースト制が無くなり
03:34
We are now in a system where anyone can rise
自分が望むだけ昇れる
03:36
to any position they please.
制度の中にいます
03:38
And it's a beautiful idea.
これは素晴らしい発想です
03:40
Along with that is a kind of spirit of equality. We're all basically equal.
私達は基本的に平等だという平等精神:
03:42
There are no strictly defined
厳格に定められた
03:46
kind of hierarchies.
階級もありません
03:48
There is one really big problem with this,
ここに 大きな問題があるのです
03:50
and that problem is envy.
それは妬みです
03:52
Envy, it's a real taboo to mention envy,
嫉妬 羨望を口にするのはタブーですが
03:54
but if there is one dominant emotion in modern society, that is envy.
現代社会を支配する感情があるとすれば、それは妬みです
03:57
And it's linked to the spirit of equality. Let me explain.
そして それが平等精神に繋がるのです 説明しましょう
04:00
I think it would be very unusual for anyone here, or anyone watching,
ここにいる人 またこれを見ている人で
04:04
to be envious of the Queen of England.
英国女王を嫉妬する人はいないでしょう
04:07
Even though she is much richer than any of you are.
彼女は大変なお金持ちで
04:09
And she's got a very large house.
すごく大きな家に住んでいるのにです
04:12
The reason why we don't envy her is because she's too weird.
私達が彼女を羨まないのは 彼女が違いすぎるからです
04:15
She's simply too strange.
彼女はとても特殊なので
04:19
We can't relate to her. She speaks in a funny way.
共感を持てません 彼女は変わった話し方をし
04:21
She comes from an odd place.
変わった場所から来ています
04:23
So we can't relate to her. And when you can't relate to somebody, you don't envy them.
私達は彼女との接点が見出せず 関連が見出せないので 妬みもありません
04:25
The closer two people are, in age, in background,
二人の年齢や 状況 身の回りなど
04:29
in the process of identification, the more there is a danger of envy --
近ければ近いほど 妬みを招く恐れがあります
04:32
which is incidentally why none of you should ever go to a school reunion --
だから学校の同窓会など行かないことです
04:35
because there is no stronger reference point
なぜなら 学校の同級生ほど
04:38
than people one was at school with.
確かな基準点は無いからです
04:41
But the problem, generally, of modern society, is that it turns the whole world
現代社会の問題は 全世界を学校に摩り替えてしまうことです
04:43
into a school. Everybody is wearing jeans, everybody is the same.
皆がジーンズを穿いて 同じだけど
04:46
And yet, they're not.
実は 同じではない
04:48
So there is a spirit of equality, combined with deep inequalities.
平等精神と 深い不平等が入り混じっています
04:50
Which makes for a very -- can make for a very stressful situation.
とても ストレスの溜まる状況です
04:53
It's probably as unlikely that you would nowadays
今 貴方が ビル・ゲイツのように
04:56
become as rich and famous as Bill Gates,
お金持ちで有名になることは
04:58
as it was unlikely in the 17th century
17世紀に貴方がフランス上流階級の階級を
05:00
that you would accede to the ranks of the French aristocracy.
継承するのと同じくらい無理なことでしょう
05:02
But the point is, it doesn't feel that way.
要点は その気になるかどうかです
05:05
It's made to feel, by magazines and other media outlets,
雑誌やマスコミに煽られると
05:07
that if you've got energy, a few bright ideas about technology,
精力や テクノロジー それに少しの名案があれば
05:10
a garage, you too could start a major thing.
ガレージで 大きなことが始められるような気になります
05:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:17
And the consequences of this problem make themselves felt in bookshops.
これは まるで私達を本屋にいるような気分にさせます
05:18
When you go to a large bookshop and look at the self-help sections,
私は たまに 大きな本屋に行って
05:21
as I sometimes do,
自己啓発の部門を見ますが
05:24
if you analyze self-help books that are produced
世界中で発行されている自己啓発の本を分析すると
05:26
in the world today, there are basically two kinds.
基本的に2種類に分類されます
05:28
The first kind tells you, "You can do it! You can make it! Anything is possible!"
最初のは「貴方には出来る!不可能はない!」
05:30
And the other kind tells you how to cope
そして、他の種類は よく言えば「自尊心の低い人」
05:33
with what we politely call "low self-esteem,"
悪く言えば「自分を最低と思っている人」への
05:36
or impolitely call "feeling very bad about yourself."
対処方
05:39
There is a real correlationship,
「貴方は何でも出来る」と
05:41
a real correlation between a society that tells people that they can do anything
励ます社会と 自尊心の低さには
05:43
and the existence of low self-esteem.
相関関係があります
05:47
So that's another way in which something that is quite positive
これは 何か肯定的なものには
05:49
can have a nasty kickback.
ひどい反作用がある例です
05:51
There is another reason why we might be feeling more anxious,
私達が 今まで以上に職業や 地位を気にするのは
05:53
about our careers, about our status in the world today, than ever before.
他にも理由があります
05:56
And it is, again, linked to something nice,
これも 肯定的なものと結びついています
06:00
and that nice thing is called meritocracy.
それは実力社会と呼ばれ
06:02
Everybody, all politicians on Left and Right,
右や左の政治家や だれもが
06:05
agree that meritocracy is a great thing,
実力主義は素晴らしく
06:07
and we should all be trying to make our societies really, really meritocratic.
私達は本当の実力社会を築くべきだと同調します
06:09
In other words, what is a meritocratic society?
実力社会とは何でしょう?
06:13
A meritocratic society is one in which
実力社会とは 貴方に 才能や
06:17
if you've got talent and energy and skill,
精力 技能があれば 何の障害もなく
06:19
you will get to the top. Nothing should hold you back.
トップに立てる社会です
06:21
It's a beautiful idea. The problem is
素晴らしい発想です 問題は
06:23
if you really believe in a society
もし 実力のある者が
06:26
where those who merit to get to the top, get to the top,
頂点に立てる社会というものを信じているならば
06:28
you'll also, by implication, and in a far more nasty way,
それは 暗に
06:31
believe in a society where those who deserve to get to the bottom
実力のない人は 下にいて 這い上がれない社会を
06:34
also get to the bottom and stay there.
信じているということです
06:37
In other words, your position in life comes to seem not accidental,
これは 人生での地位が 偶然ではなく
06:40
but merited and deserved.
実力で獲た物 と言え
06:43
And that makes failure seem much more crushing.
だから 失敗がとても痛烈なのです
06:45
You know, in the Middle Ages, in England,
中世のイギリスで
06:48
when you met a very poor person,
貧乏な人は
06:50
that person would be described as an "unfortunate" --
「不幸な人」と呼ばれました
06:52
literally, somebody who had not been blessed by fortune, an unfortunate.
言葉どおり 運に恵まれなかった人たちです
06:55
Nowadays, particularly in the United States,
現代では 特に米国では
06:59
if you meet someone at the bottom of society,
社会の底辺にいる人は
07:01
they may unkindly be described as a "loser."
「敗者」と呼ばれます
07:03
There is a real difference between an unfortunate and a loser,
不幸と敗者には大きな違いがありますす
07:06
and that shows 400 years of evolution in society
これは400年にわたる社会の進化と
07:09
and our belief in who is responsible for our lives.
人生の責任起因の進化です
07:12
It's no longer the gods, it's us. We're in the driving seat.
それはもはや神ではなく 私達自身なのです。
07:15
That's exhilarating if you're doing well,
うまく行っているときは爽快ですが
07:18
and very crushing if you're not.
そうじゃないと痛烈で
07:20
It leads, in the worst cases, in the analysis of a sociologist
エミール・デュルケームなど社会学者の分析によると
07:22
like Emil Durkheim, it leads to increased rates of suicide.
最悪 自殺者の率が増えるそうです
07:25
There are more suicides in developed individualistic countries
先進国の個人主義の国では その他の国に比べて
07:29
than in any other part of the world.
自殺者が増えています
07:32
And some of the reason for that is that people take what happens
その理由は 人々が出来事の責任を
07:34
to them extremely personally.
全て自分のせいだと思うからです
07:36
They own their success. But they also own their failure.
成功の理由は自分にあり 失敗もまた自分にある
07:38
Is there any relief from some of these pressures
これらの重圧から
07:42
that I've just been outlining?
逃れる方法はあるでしょうか?
07:44
I think there is. I just want to turn to a few of them.
あると思います 少し紹介しましょう
07:46
Let's take meritocracy.
実力主義を取り上げると
07:48
This idea that everybody deserves to get where they get to,
誰もが 行き着くところに行くという発想
07:50
I think it's a crazy idea, completely crazy.
これは 馬鹿げた発想です
07:53
I will support any politician of Left and Right,
政治家の右・左関係なく この実力主義の半分でも
07:56
with any halfway decent meritocratic idea.
ましな発想を提案すれば 私は支持します
07:58
I am a meritocrat in that sense.
私は実力主義ですが
08:00
But I think it's insane to believe that we will ever
純粋な実力社会を築こうなんて
08:02
make a society that is genuinely meritocratic. It's an impossible dream.
馬鹿げた発想です 不可能な夢です
08:04
The idea that we will make a society
皆が 正当に評価され
08:08
where literally everybody is graded,
良い者から上 悪いのは下、
08:10
the good at the top, and the bad at the bottom,
という社会を築くなんて
08:12
and it's exactly done as it should be, is impossible.
不可能です
08:14
There are simply too many random factors:
無作為の要因があまりにも多いからです
08:16
accidents, accidents of birth,
事故 出生事故
08:18
accidents of things dropping on people's heads, illnesses, etc.
頭の上に物が落ちてくるような事故 病気 等
08:20
We will never get to grade them,
それらに評価はつけられません
08:23
never get to grade people as they should.
人を正当に評価するなど出来ようもありません
08:25
I'm drawn to a lovely quote by St. Augustine in "The City of God,"
アウグスティヌス聖人の「神の国」に面白い引用があります
08:27
where he says, "It's a sin to judge any man by his post."
彼はこう言っています「地位で人を判断するのは罪である」
08:30
In modern English that would mean
現代英語で言い換えると
08:34
it's a sin to come to any view of who you should talk to
誰と会話をするかをビジネスカードで判断するのは
08:36
dependent on their business card.
罪である
08:38
It's not the post that should count.
地位なんて どうでもいいのです
08:40
According to St. Augustine,
アウグスティヌス聖人によると
08:42
it's only God who can really put everybody in their place.
誰がどこに納まるかは神のみが知り
08:44
And he's going to do that on the Day of Judgment
神は天使が舞い トランペットが響き 天が開く
08:46
with angels and trumpets, and the skies will open.
審判の日にそれを決める
08:48
Insane idea, if you're a secularist person, like me.
私のような世俗主義にとっては ばかばかしい発想です
08:50
But something very valuable in that idea, nevertheless.
それでも大変価値のあるものがその発想にあります
08:53
In other words, hold your horses when you're coming to judge people.
人を判断するのはちょっと待て という事です
08:55
You don't necessarily know what someone's true value is.
誰かの本当の価値なんて 知る必要はありません
08:59
That is an unknown part of them.
それは 知らざれる部分なのです
09:02
And we shouldn't behave as though it is known.
だから 私達はそれをまるで知っているように振舞うべきではありません
09:04
There is another source of solace and comfort for all this.
これらを慰める癒しの情報源は他にもあります
09:07
When we think about failing in life, when we think about failure,
人生に失敗したとか 失敗について考える時
09:10
one of the reasons why we fear failing is not just
私達が恐れるのは 収入面や
09:13
a loss of income, a loss of status.
地位を無くすからだけではなく
09:15
What we fear is the judgment and ridicule of others. And it exists.
他人の判断や嘲笑を私達は恐れるのです。
09:17
You know, the number one organ of ridicule
さて 最大の嘲笑の機関
09:21
nowadays, is the newspaper.
現代のそれは 新聞です
09:23
And if you open the newspaper any day of the week,
週の何曜日だろうと 新聞を開けば
09:25
it's full of people who've messed up their lives.
人生を台無しにした人でいっぱいです
09:27
They've slept with the wrong person. They've taken the wrong substance.
悪い人と関係を持った 悪い薬物を取った
09:29
They've passed the wrong piece of legislation. Whatever it is.
悪い法案を通した それが何は関係なく
09:32
And then are fit for ridicule.
嘲笑に値する
09:34
In other words, they have failed. And they are described as "losers."
言い換えれば 彼らは失敗した だから「敗北者」だ
09:37
Now is there any alternative to this?
さて これに替わる手段はあるのでしょうか?
09:40
I think the Western tradition shows us one glorious alternative,
西洋文明が素晴らしい代替を提供してくれます
09:42
and that is tragedy.
それは悲劇です
09:44
Tragic art, as it developed in the theaters of ancient Greece,
紀元前5世紀 古代ギリシャ劇場で発展した悲劇的芸術は
09:47
in the fifth century B.C., was essentially an art form
本質的にどうやって人が失敗するかを
09:50
devoted to tracing how people fail,
熱心に追求した芸術形式です
09:52
and also according them a level of sympathy,
そして それに伴う同情は
09:55
which ordinary life would not necessarily accord them.
普通の人生には伴いません
09:59
I remember a few years ago, I was thinking about all this,
数年前に このテーマで
10:03
and I went to see "The Sunday Sport,"
「サンデー・スポーツ」新聞のデスクに会いに行きました
10:04
a tabloid newspaper that I don't recommend you to start reading
--タブロイド(ゴシップ紙)で
10:06
if you're not familiar with it already.
読むことは あまりお勧めしませんが --
10:09
I went to talk to them
ある西洋芸術の悲劇について
10:11
about certain of the great tragedies of Western art.
彼らと話しました
10:13
I wanted to see how they would seize the bare bones
日曜の午後のニュースデスクで
10:16
of certain stories if they came in as a news item
彼らがニュースになる物語の骨組みを
10:18
at the news desk on a Saturday afternoon.
どう掴むのか見たかったのです
10:21
So I told them about Othello. They had not heard of it but were fascinated by it.
私はオセロについて語り 彼らは物語は知らなかったけど 大変面白がり
10:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:26
And I asked them to write the headline for the story of Othello.
私はオセロ物語の見出しを書いてくれるよう頼みました
10:27
They came up with "Love-Crazed Immigrant Kills Senator's Daughter"
彼らは「愛に狂った移民 上院議員の娘を殺害」
10:30
splashed across the headline.
という見出しを書きました
10:33
I gave them the plotline of Madame Bovary.
私がボヴァリー婦人のあらすじを渡すと
10:35
Again, a book they were enchanted to discover.
彼らは恍惚としてそれに読み入り
10:37
And they wrote "Shopaholic Adulteress Swallows Arsenic After Credit Fraud."
「買物中毒の姦婦、借金地獄に砒素を飲む」と書きました
10:39
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:44
And then my favorite.
私のお気に入りは
10:45
They really do have a kind of genius all of their own, these guys.
--彼らは ある種の天才です--
10:47
My favorite is Sophocles' Oedipus the King:
私のお気に入りはソフォクレスの「オイディプース王」です
10:49
"Sex With Mum Was Blinding"
「ママとのセックスに盲目となり」
10:51
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:54
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:57
In a way, if you like, at one end of the spectrum of sympathy,
同情のスペクトルの一方に
10:59
you've got the tabloid newspaper.
タブロイド紙があり
11:02
At the other end of the spectrum you've got tragedy and tragic art,
そしてもう一方に 悲劇や悲劇芸術があります
11:04
and I suppose I'm arguing that we should learn a little bit
私達は悲劇芸術で何が起こっているのか
11:07
about what's happening in tragic art.
学ぶべきだと思います
11:09
It would be insane to call Hamlet a loser.
ハムレットを敗者と呼ぶのは見当はずれです
11:11
He is not a loser, though he has lost.
彼は敗者ではなく 自分を見失ったのです
11:14
And I think that is the message of tragedy to us,
これは悲劇の私達へのメッセージで
11:17
and why it's so very, very important, I think.
大変重要なことです
11:19
The other thing about modern society
現代社会において
11:22
and why it causes this anxiety
不安の原因になっているのは
11:24
is that we have nothing at its center that is non-human.
非人類がその中心に居ないことです
11:26
We are the first society to be living in a world
私達は 世界中で初めて
11:29
where we don't worship anything other than ourselves.
自分達以外は崇拝しない社会に生きています
11:31
We think very highly of ourselves, and so we should.
私達は自分をとても高く評価し その価値があります
11:34
We've put people on the moon. We've done all sorts of extraordinary things.
人を月に送り 素晴らしいことを沢山やり遂げました
11:36
And so we tend to worship ourselves.
だから私達自身を崇拝しがちです
11:39
Our heroes are human heroes.
私達のヒーローは人間です
11:41
That's a very new situation.
これはとても新しい状況で
11:43
Most other societies have had, right at their center,
他の社会では殆んど 中心に
11:45
the worship of something transcendent: a god,
神 精霊 自然の力 宇宙といった
11:47
a spirit, a natural force, the universe,
卓越した崇拝の対象がありました
11:49
whatever it is, something else that is being worshiped.
何であろうと 人以外の何かが崇拝対象でした
11:51
We've slightly lost the habit of doing that,
そういう習慣は消えつつあります
11:54
which is, I think, why we're particularly drawn to nature.
これが 私達を自然に引き寄せる理由でしょう
11:56
Not for the sake of our health, though it's often presented that way,
健康の為とよく言われますが 違います
11:58
but because it's an escape from the human anthill.
人類のアリ塚から抜け出す為です
12:01
It's an escape from our own competition,
競争や 劇から
12:05
and our own dramas.
抜け出すためです
12:07
And that's why we enjoy looking at glaciers and oceans,
だから私達は 氷河や大洋を見て喜び、
12:09
and contemplating the Earth from outside its perimeters, etc.
地球の周辺の外に思いを馳せるのです
12:11
We like to feel in contact with something that is non-human,
非人類とコンタクトを感じるのが私達は好きです
12:15
and that is so deeply important to us.
それは とても重要なことです
12:19
What I think I've been talking about really is success and failure.
成功と失敗について話をしてきて
12:23
And one of the interesting things about success
興味深いのは 成功について
12:26
is that we think we know what it means.
その意味を 私達は 知っていると 思っていることです
12:29
If I said to you that there is somebody behind the screen
もし 私が 舞台裏ですごく成功している人のことを話せば
12:31
who is very very successful, certain ideas would immediately come to mind.
皆さんは すぐにこう思うでしょう
12:33
You would think that person might have made a lot of money,
その人は その分野では有名人で
12:36
achieved renown in some field.
沢山の金を稼いでいるに違いない
12:38
My own theory of success -- and I'm somebody
私の成功における理論は --私は成功にとても興味があり
12:41
who is very interested in success. I really want to be successful.
本当に成功したいと望んでいて
12:43
I'm always thinking, "How could I be more successful?"
いつもこう思っています「どうやったらもっと成功できる?」
12:46
But as I get older, I'm also very nuanced
でも、年を取るにしたがって
12:48
about what that word "success" might mean.
成功の言葉の微妙な意味合い感じるようになりました
12:50
Here's an insight that I've had about success.
成功についての私の洞察はこうです--
12:52
You can't be successful at everything.
全てに成功することはできない
12:54
We hear a lot of talk about work-life balance.
仕事と人生のバランスなんてナンセンスだ
12:57
Nonsense. You can't have it all. You can't.
全て手に入れる事なんて出来ない
12:59
So any vision of success
成功の展望はどれも
13:02
has to admit what it's losing out on,
欠けているもの
13:04
where the element of loss is.
敗北の要素の存在を認めることにある
13:06
I think any wise life will accept,
どんなに賢い人生にも
13:08
as I say, that there is going to be an element where we are not succeeding.
成功しない要素はある
13:11
Thing about a successful life
成功した人生と言うものは
13:14
is, a lot of the time, our ideas
成功した人生を生きると言う私達の発想は
13:16
of what it would mean to live successfully are not our own.
ほとんど 私達自身のものではなく
13:18
They are sucked in from other people:
他人に植え付けられたものだ
13:21
chiefly, if you're a man, your father,
男性は 主に父親から
13:23
and if you're a woman, your mother.
女性は 母親から
13:25
Psychoanalysis has been drumming home this message for about 80 years.
精神学者はこれを80年に渡って警告をしている
13:27
No one is quite listening hard enough, but I very much believe that that's true.
誰もあまり真剣に聞いてませんが これは本当だと思います
13:30
And we also suck in messages
私達はまた テレビの宣伝や
13:33
from everything from the television, to advertising,
マーケティング等の
13:35
to marketing, etc.
すべてのメッセージに影響を受け
13:37
These are hugely powerful forces
これらの力は 非常に大きく力強く
13:39
that define what we want and how we view ourselves.
私達が何を求め 自分達をどう見るのかを押しつけます
13:41
When we're told that banking is a very respectable profession
銀行家がとても信頼される職だと言われれば
13:45
a lot of us want to go into banking.
銀行家になりたい人が増えるでしょう
13:48
When banking is no longer so respectable, we lose interest in banking.
銀行家の信頼が落ちれば 銀行家への興味も薄れます
13:50
We are highly open to suggestion.
私達は とても暗示にかかりやすいのです
13:53
So what I want to argue for is not that we should give up
私は 成功したいと思うのを
13:56
on our ideas of success,
あきらめろとは言いませんが
13:59
but we should make sure that they are our own.
それが 自分の為の成功だと確信すべきだと思います
14:01
We should focus in on our ideas
自分自身の発想に焦点を置き
14:03
and make sure that we own them,
それが自分独自のもので
14:05
that we are truly the authors of our own ambitions.
自分が その夢の発案者であることを確認することです
14:08
Because it's bad enough, not getting what you want,
望むものが得られないのも不幸なことですが
14:10
but it's even worse to have an idea
自分が望んでいると思ったことが
14:12
of what it is you want and find out at the end of a journey,
旅の終わりに来て 本当は違うと気づくのは
14:15
that it isn't, in fact, what you wanted all along.
もっと不幸です
14:18
So I'm going to end it there.
ここで終わりにしますが
14:21
But what I really want to stress is
本当に強調したいのは
14:23
by all means, success, yes.
何とし言っても 成功です
14:26
But let's accept the strangeness of some of our ideas.
でも 私達の発想の奇妙さを受け入れましょう
14:28
Let's probe away at our notions of success.
成功の思い込みを探り出し
14:30
Let's make sure our ideas of success are truly our own.
成功のアイデアが本当に自分自身のものだと確認しましょう
14:33
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
14:37
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:39
Chris Anderson: That was fascinating. How do you reconcile
クリス・アンダーソン:とても面白かったよ
14:55
this idea of someone being --
でも この誰かが 誰かを
14:57
it being bad to think of someone as a loser
敗者と考えるのは悪という着想と 沢山の人が他人の人生を
15:02
with the idea, that a lot of people like, of seizing control of your life.
コントロールしたがるという着想にどう折り合いをつけるんだい
15:05
And that a society that encourages that
それに 勝者と敗者を存在を
15:09
perhaps has to have some winners and losers.
奨励する社会とは
15:12
Alain de Botton: Yes. I think it's merely the randomness
アラン・ボトン:それは勝ち負けにおける
15:15
of the winning and losing process that I wanted to stress.
工程のランダムさです
15:18
Because the emphasis nowadays is so much
今日では すべてを正当化をすることに
15:20
on the justice of everything,
重点が置かれています
15:22
and politicians always talk about justice.
政治家はいつも正当性を訴えます
15:24
Now I am a firm believer in justice, I just think that it is impossible.
私は正当性を固く信じていますが これは不可能だと思います
15:26
So we should do everything we can,
私達は 出来ること全てを
15:29
we should do everything we can to pursue it.
続けられることをすべてやり続けるべきです
15:31
But at the end of the day we should always remember
でも結局のところ 忘れてはならないのは
15:33
that whoever is facing us, whatever has happened in their lives,
目の前に誰が居ようと 彼らの人生がどうなろうと
15:35
there will be a strong element of the haphazard.
そこには強い偶然の要素があります
15:38
And it's that that I'm trying to leave room for.
ここから先は議論の余地を残しておきたいと思います
15:41
Because otherwise it can get quite claustrophobic.
でないと閉所恐怖症になりかねませんから
15:43
CA: I mean, do you believe that you can combine
クリス・アンダーソン:でも その親切で 優しい
15:45
your kind of kinder, gentler philosophy of work
仕事哲学は経済の成功と
15:47
with a successful economy?
相いれると思いますか?
15:49
Or do you think that you can't?
それとも 無理だと?
15:53
But it doesn't matter that much that we're putting too much emphasis on that?
それでも私達がそれに重点を置くのそんなに重要ではない?
15:55
AB: The nightmare thought
アラン・ボトン:人を恐怖に陥れて
15:57
is that frightening people is the best way to get work out of them,
高い労働力を得るとすれば それは悪夢です
16:00
and that somehow the crueler the environment
そして また もっと悲惨な環境下で
16:04
the more people will rise to the challenge.
多くの人がやる気を起こすこともあります
16:07
You want to think, who would you like as your ideal dad?
理想的な父親像はどうでしょう?
16:09
And your ideal dad is somebody who is tough but gentle.
それはタフでやさしい父親像でしょう
16:13
And it's a very hard line to make.
難しいですね
16:16
We need fathers, as it were, the exemplary father figures in society,
私達の社会は 前のように 模範的な父親像が必要です
16:18
avoiding the two extremes,
一方が権威主義で厳格な人
16:22
which is the authoritarian, disciplinarian, on the one hand,
もう一方は ルーズで規則も何もないという
16:24
and on the other, the lax, no rules option.
両極端でない父親像が
16:28
CA: Alain de Botton.
クリス・アンダーソン:アラン・ド・ボトン
16:32
AB: Thank you very much.
有難うございました
16:34
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:36
Translated by Kayo Mizutani
Reviewed by Akira KAKINOHANA

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About the speaker:

Alain de Botton - Philosopher
Through his witty and literate books -- and his new School of Life -- Alain de Botton helps others find fulfillment in the everyday.

Why you should listen

It started in 1997, when Alain de Botton turned away from writing novels and instead wrote a touching extended essay titled How Proust Can Change Your Life, which became an unlikely blockbuster in the "self-help"category. His subsequent books take on some of the fundamental worries of modern life (am I happy? where exactly do I stand?), informed by his deep reading in philosophy and by a novelist's eye for small, perfect moments. His newest book is The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work.

In 2008, de Botton helped start the School of Life in London, a social enterprise determined to make learning and therapy relevant in today's uptight culture. His goal is (through any of his mediums) to help clients learn "how to live wisely and well."

More profile about the speaker
Alain de Botton | Speaker | TED.com