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TEDMED 2009

Aimee Mullins: The opportunity of adversity

エイミー・マリンズ: 逆境から生まれる機会

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類義語辞典が示す“disabled” (不能にする)の類義語は「役に立たない」「足を切断された」などという言葉ですが、草分け的存在のエイミー・マリンズが、この言葉の新しい定義づけをします。このような連想されがちな言葉をものともせず、マリンズは逆境がいかに人間の潜在能力の門戸を開くのか、脛骨が無い状態で生まれた彼女自身の事例を交えながら語ります。

- Athlete and actor
A record-breaker at the Paralympic Games in 1996, Aimee Mullins has built a career as a model, actor and advocate for women, sports and the next generation of prosthetics. Full bio

I'd like to share with you a discovery that I made a few months ago
数ヶ月前に雑誌の記事を執筆していたときに
00:17
while writing an article for Italian Wired.
発見したことをお話しします
00:22
I always keep my thesaurus handy whenever I'm writing anything,
いつも類義語辞典を そばに置いておくのですが
00:25
but I'd already finished editing the piece,
その時は執筆も終わっていて
00:28
and I realized that I had never once in my life
「不能にする」 - disabled - の類義語を
00:31
looked up the word "disabled" to see what I'd find.
一度も調べたことがないと気が付きました
00:34
Let me read you the entry.
見出し項目を読んでみます
00:38
"Disabled, adjective: crippled, helpless, useless, wrecked,
Disabled― 形容詞 「不具の」「無力な」「役に立たない」「体をこわした」
00:41
stalled, maimed, wounded, mangled, lame, mutilated,
「立ち往生した」「傷ついた」「負傷した」「めった切りにされた」「足が不自由な」「手足を切断された」
00:49
run-down, worn-out, weakened, impotent, castrated, paralyzed, handicapped,
「健康を害した」「疲れ果てた」「弱まった」「体力がない」「去勢された」「麻痺した」「障害を持った」
00:56
senile, decrepit, laid-up, done-up, done-for, done-in
「ボケた」「老いぼれの」「働けなくなった」「終わった」「やられた」「疲れ果てた」
01:06
cracked-up, counted-out;
「くじけた」「除外された」
01:12
see also hurt, useless and weak.
参照: 「傷ついた」「役に立たない」「弱い」
01:16
Antonyms, healthy, strong, capable."
対義語: 「健康な」「強い」「能力がある」
01:20
I was reading this list out loud to a friend and at first was laughing,
私は友達に読み上げながら 最初は笑っていました
01:26
it was so ludicrous,
馬鹿げてるんだもの
01:30
but I'd just gotten past "mangled," and my voice broke,
でも「めった切りにされた」と読んだ後 私は涙声になり
01:32
and I had to stop and collect myself
言葉がもたらした攻撃からの
01:37
from the emotional shock and impact that the assault from these words unleashed.
感情的ショックと衝撃で 心を落ち着かせる時間が必要でした
01:40
You know, of course, this is my raggedy old thesaurus
クタクタになった類義語辞典だから
01:50
so I'm thinking this must be an ancient print date, right?
一昔前のものに違いないと思いましたが
01:53
But, in fact, the print date was the early 1980s,
’80年代初期に出版されたものでした
01:56
when I would have been starting primary school
私が小学生になった頃です
02:01
and forming an understanding of myself outside the family unit
家から外へ出て 他の子どもとの接点も増え
02:03
and as related to the other kids and the world around me.
自分自身を理解し始める時期です
02:07
And, needless to say, thank God I wasn't using a thesaurus back then.
当時 類義語辞典を開かなかったのが幸いです
02:10
I mean, from this entry, it would seem that I was born into a world
この見出しだけを見たら 私のような人間は
02:15
that perceived someone like me
期待できるものは
02:21
to have nothing positive whatsoever going for them,
何もない世界に誕生してしまった感じがします
02:23
when in fact, today I'm celebrated for the opportunities and adventures
でも実際のところ 人生がもたらしたチャンスや冒険によって
02:28
my life has procured.
私は称賛されてきたのです
02:34
So, I immediately went to look up the 2009 online edition,
そこで すぐに2009年オンライン類義語辞典を調べてみました
02:36
expecting to find a revision worth noting.
特筆に値するものを期待していたのです
02:42
Here's the updated version of this entry.
これが最新版です
02:46
Unfortunately, it's not much better.
残念ながら さほど変わりはありませんでした
02:49
I find the last two words under "Near Antonyms," particularly unsettling:
「対義語に近い」とされる二つの言葉には特に違和感を感じました
02:52
"whole" and "wholesome."
“完全な” “健康によい” と定義されていました
02:58
So, it's not just about the words.
これは 言葉だけの問題ではありません
03:02
It's what we believe about people when we name them with these words.
このような言葉が先入観を生み出します
03:05
It's about the values behind the words, and how we construct those values.
言葉の価値観や その価値観がいかに生み出されるかが問題です
03:09
Our language affects our thinking and how we view the world
言葉は 私たちの思考や世界の見方
03:14
and how we view other people.
他者を見る目に影響を与えます
03:18
In fact, many ancient societies, including the Greeks and the Romans,
ギリシャ人やローマ人などの多くの古代社会では
03:21
believed that to utter a curse verbally was so powerful,
口に出して呪う効力を確信していました
03:24
because to say the thing out loud brought it into existence.
口に出すと現実になってしまうからです
03:29
So, what reality do we want to call into existence:
私たちはどんな現実を生み出したいのでしょう
03:35
a person who is limited, or a person who's empowered?
可能性が限られた人間?それとも 力を与えられた人間?
03:40
By casually doing something as simple as naming a person, a child,
一見すると大したことに映らなくても
03:46
we might be putting lids and casting shadows on their power.
子どもが発揮できる本来の力を遮りかねません
03:52
Wouldn't we want to open doors for them instead?
彼らにチャンスを与えてあげたいと思いませんか
03:59
One such person who opened doors for me was my childhood doctor
私に便宜を与えてくれた人の中に
04:03
at the A.I. duPont Institute in Wilmington, Delaware.
子どもの時に通った病院のお医者さんがいます
04:06
His name was Dr. Pizzutillo,
ピッツティロ先生です
04:11
an Italian American, whose name, apparently,
イタリア系の名前が
04:14
was too difficult for most Americans to pronounce,
難しい発音だったので
04:16
so he went by Dr. P.
ピー先生の名で通っていました
04:18
And Dr. P always wore really colorful bow ties
ピー先生はいつもカラフルな蝶ネクタイをして
04:20
and had the very perfect disposition to work with children.
子どもと向き合うには完璧な素質を持っていました
04:24
I loved almost everything about my time spent at this hospital,
この病院で過ごすことが大好きだった私ですが
04:30
with the exception of my physical therapy sessions.
理学療法だけは大嫌いでした
04:35
I had to do what seemed like innumerable repetitions of exercises
何度もやらされた運動がありました
04:39
with these thick, elastic bands -- different colors,
足の筋肉を強化する運動で
04:43
you know -- to help build up my leg muscles,
いろんな色の太いゴムバンドを使うのです
04:47
and I hated these bands more than anything --
このゴムバンドが大嫌いで
04:51
I hated them, had names for them. I hated them.
私は名前をつけて嫌っていました
04:53
And, you know, I was already bargaining, as a five year-old child,
わずか5歳児なのに どうにか逃げ道はないかと
04:56
with Dr. P to try to get out of doing these exercises,
ピー先生と駆け引きをしたほどです
05:00
unsuccessfully, of course.
もちろん上手くはいきませんでした
05:03
And, one day, he came in to my session --
ある日 先生が私の練習を見に来ました
05:05
exhaustive and unforgiving, these sessions --
容赦なく 徹底的にやらされる運動です
05:10
and he said to me, "Wow. Aimee, you are such a strong and powerful little girl,
先生は言いました “わぁ!エイミーはなんて強い子なんだろう
05:14
I think you're going to break one of those bands.
ゴムバンドが切れちゃいそうだ
05:20
When you do break it, I'm going to give you a hundred bucks."
もし切れたら100ドルあげよう”
05:23
Now, of course, this was a simple ploy on Dr. P's part
もちろん これは運動を促すための
05:26
to get me to do the exercises I didn't want to do
ピー先生のやり方でしたが
05:30
before the prospect of being the richest five-year-old in the second floor ward,
その病棟にいる子どもの中で一番リッチになれる可能性以前に
05:33
but what he effectively did for me was reshape an awful daily occurrence
先生は 毎日やらされる嫌な運動を 期待してしまう別の経験へと
05:38
into a new and promising experience for me.
効果的に変えてしまったのです
05:46
And I have to wonder today to what extent his vision
先生の洞察力や 幼い私を強い子だと言った先生の言葉は
05:50
and his declaration of me as a strong and powerful little girl
どのくらい私自身の考え方を形成したのかと
05:54
shaped my own view of myself
思わずにはいられません
06:00
as an inherently strong, powerful and athletic person well into the future.
将来 本質的に強い運動家になる という考え方です
06:02
This is an example of how adults in positions of power
これは それだけのパワーをもった大人が
06:08
can ignite the power of a child.
いかに子どもの力を啓発できるかを示しています
06:11
But, in the previous instances of those thesaurus entries,
でも 先ほどの類義語辞典の件では
06:15
our language isn't allowing us to evolve into the reality that we would all want,
私たちが使う言葉は 切実に望む現実へ進むことを阻止していて
06:19
the possibility of an individual to see themselves as capable.
個人が 自らの有能さを見る可能性を消しています
06:26
Our language hasn't caught up with the changes in our society,
私たちが使う言葉は 社会の変化に追いついていません
06:32
many of which have been brought about by technology.
テクノロジーにより可能となった変化が多い中
06:37
Certainly, from a medical standpoint,
医療的観点から述べると
06:40
my legs, laser surgery for vision impairment,
私の足や視覚障害のためのレーザー手術
06:42
titanium knees and hip replacements for aging bodies
人工膝関節や人工股関節などは
06:48
that are allowing people to more fully engage with their abilities,
人間本来の力に近づくことを可能にし
06:51
and move beyond the limits that nature has imposed on them --
元々の体力の限界を超えた行動をも可能にするのです
06:54
not to mention social networking platforms
ソーシャルネットワーキングはもちろんのこと
07:00
allow people to self-identify, to claim their own descriptions of themselves,
自ら名乗りを上げ 自己描写ができることで
07:03
so they can go align with global groups of their own choosing.
自分に合った人たちと世界各地から接点をもてます
07:08
So, perhaps technology is revealing more clearly to us now
もしかしたら テクノロジーが明確に示しているのは
07:13
what has always been a truth:
誰もが社会に貢献できる―
07:17
that everyone has something rare and powerful to offer our society,
稀でパワフルなものを持っていて
07:20
and that the human ability to adapt is our greatest asset.
適応する人間の力とは 我々の最高の強みだということかもしれません
07:28
The human ability to adapt, it's an interesting thing,
適応する人間の力 とは興味深いものです
07:33
because people have continually wanted to talk to me about overcoming adversity,
逆境の克服をテーマに私と話したがる人は常にいました
07:36
and I'm going to make an admission:
ここで打ち明けてしまいますが
07:42
This phrase never sat right with me,
逆境の克服という表現は
07:45
and I always felt uneasy trying to answer people's questions about it,
違和感があって いつも居心地悪く感じていました
07:47
and I think I'm starting to figure out why.
その理由が わかり始めたのです
07:51
Implicit in this phrase of "overcoming adversity"
逆境を乗り越える という表現が意図するのは
07:55
is the idea that success, or happiness,
努力を必要とする体験の向こうに
07:59
is about emerging on the other side of a challenging experience
成功や幸せが現れるという考えです
08:03
unscathed or unmarked by the experience,
その体験から傷を負うこともなく 変わることもなく
08:06
as if my successes in life have come about from an ability
まるで 義足での生活 または私の不能さとして見られているものに
08:11
to sidestep or circumnavigate the presumed pitfalls of a life with prosthetics,
存在するであろう落とし穴を回避する力から
08:15
or what other people perceive as my disability.
人生における成功が生まれたような見方
08:20
But, in fact, we are changed. We are marked, of course, by a challenge,
でも実際には挑戦するからこそ私たちは変わるのです
08:23
whether physically, emotionally or both.
肉体的にも感情的にも変わります
08:29
And I'm going to suggest that this is a good thing.
私は好ましいことだと思っています
08:32
Adversity isn't an obstacle that we need to get around
逆境とは生活をしていく上で
08:35
in order to resume living our life.
回避しなくてはいけない障害ではなく
08:39
It's part of our life.
生活の一部なのです
08:42
And I tend to think of it like my shadow.
私は影のように考えています
08:45
Sometimes I see a lot of it, sometimes there's very little,
くっきり見えたり ほとんど見えなかったり…
08:48
but it's always with me.
でも 必ずそばにいる
08:51
And, certainly, I'm not trying to diminish the impact, the weight, of a person's struggle.
私は辛苦に伴う圧迫感や負担を消そうとしているのではありません
08:53
There is adversity and challenge in life,
人生には逆境がつきもので
09:00
and it's all very real and relative to every single person,
大変であり 相対的なものです
09:03
but the question isn't whether or not you're going to meet adversity,
大切なのは 逆境と出会うかどうかではなく
09:06
but how you're going to meet it.
いかに逆境と出会うか ということ
09:10
So, our responsibility is not simply shielding those we care for from adversity,
ですから私たちは 大切な人を逆境から かばうのではなく
09:13
but preparing them to meet it well.
うまく遭遇できるよう準備してあげなくてはいけません
09:20
And we do a disservice to our kids
自らの適応力がないと子どもが感じるのは
09:23
when we make them feel that they're not equipped to adapt.
私たち大人の行為が裏目に出ているのです
09:27
There's an important difference and distinction
大切な違いは 客観的に見た
09:34
between the objective medical fact of my being an amputee
私には足がない という医療的事実と
09:37
and the subjective societal opinion of whether or not I'm disabled.
私が障害者なのかどうか という主観的に見た社会的意見の差です
09:42
And, truthfully, the only real and consistent disability I've had to confront
私が向き合ってきた唯一の障害とは
09:48
is the world ever thinking that I could be described by those definitions.
先ほどのような定義で私を表現する世界です
09:53
In our desire to protect those we care about
大切にしたい人たちに
09:59
by giving them the cold, hard truth about their medical prognosis,
客観的で辛い予後を知らせるとき
10:02
or, indeed, a prognosis on the expected quality of their life,
または 病気と向き合う生活を伝えるとき
10:06
we have to make sure that we don't put the first brick in a wall
誰かを不能にしてしまう壁をつくり出さないように
10:10
that will actually disable someone.
注意しなくてはいけません
10:14
Perhaps the existing model of only looking at what is broken in you
もしかしたら 問題の原因と処置の仕方しか見ない―
10:19
and how do we fix it, serves to be more disabling to the individual
現在のやり方は 病状以上の
10:24
than the pathology itself.
障害をもたらしているかもしれません
10:28
By not treating the wholeness of a person,
人を不完全とみなして
10:31
by not acknowledging their potency,
彼らの潜在能力に気づかないと
10:36
we are creating another ill on top of whatever natural struggle they might have.
生まれつき持ち合わせた苦悩に さらなる問題をつくり上げてしまいます
10:38
We are effectively grading someone's worth to our community.
私たちは 人の価値に等級をつけているのです
10:45
So we need to see through the pathology
病状にとらわれずに
10:51
and into the range of human capability.
人間の可能性を見抜かなくてはいけません
10:54
And, most importantly, there's a partnership
一番大切なのは 表向きの欠陥と
11:00
between those perceived deficiencies
私たちが併せ持つ最大の創造力には
11:04
and our greatest creative ability.
関係性があるということです
11:06
So it's not about devaluing, or negating, these more trying times
ですから このような苦難を避けたり
11:09
as something we want to avoid or sweep under the rug,
隠したいものとして否定するのではなく
11:14
but instead to find those opportunities wrapped in the adversity.
逆境に埋まっているチャンスを見つけることです
11:18
So maybe the idea I want to put out there is
私が言いたいのは
11:24
not so much overcoming adversity
逆境の克服というよりも
11:26
as it is opening ourselves up to it,
むしろ逆境に対して 自分自身の可能性を開き
11:31
embracing it,
その可能性を利用して
11:35
grappling with it,
取っ組み合いをしながら
11:38
to use a wrestling term,
格闘し
11:40
maybe even dancing with it.
時には一緒に踊る という考えです
11:42
And, perhaps, if we see adversity as natural, consistent and useful,
もしも 逆境が生まれつきのもの 調和したもの 役立つものだとわかれば
11:46
we're less burdened by the presence of it.
その存在はそれほど気にならないでしょう
11:54
This year we celebrate the 200th birthday of Charles Darwin,
今年はチャールズ・ダーウィンの生誕200年です
11:57
and it was 150 years ago, when writing about evolution,
進化論は150年前に書かれました
12:00
that Darwin illustrated, I think, a truth about the human character.
ダーウィンは人間の特徴に関する真実を表現したと思います
12:04
To paraphrase: It's not the strongest of the species that survives,
意訳してみると 人間は生き残れる一番強い種ではなく
12:09
nor is it the most intelligent that survives;
一番賢い種でもない
12:13
it is the one that is most adaptable to change.
変化に対して一番適応できる種である
12:16
Conflict is the genesis of creation.
葛藤は創造の起源である
12:21
From Darwin's work, amongst others, we can recognize that
ダーウィンのような科学者たちの功績から言えるのは
12:26
the human ability to survive and flourish
人間が生き残りをかけ 繁栄する力は
12:29
is driven by the struggle of the human spirit through conflict
葛藤から変容へと 苦労しながら突き進む人間の精神によって
12:34
into transformation.
動かされています
12:39
So, again, transformation, adaptation, is our greatest human skill.
変容と適応とは 人間の偉大なる手腕なのです
12:41
And, perhaps, until we're tested, we don't know what we're made of.
本当のところ 私たちの実体とは試されるまでわからないのではないでしょうか
12:48
Maybe that's what adversity gives us:
逆境が私たちに
12:54
a sense of self, a sense of our own power.
自我や自己能力を教えてくれるのではないでしょうか
12:56
So, we can give ourselves a gift.
自分自身へ贈るプレゼントです
13:00
We can re-imagine adversity as something more than just tough times.
逆境は ただの辛い時ではなく それ以上のものとして心に描けます
13:03
Maybe we can see it as change.
変化としても 見てとれるでしょう
13:10
Adversity is just change that we haven't adapted ourselves to yet.
逆境は まだ私たちが順応しきれていない変化に過ぎません
13:13
I think the greatest adversity that we've created for ourselves
私たちが作り上げた最大の逆境とは
13:19
is this idea of normalcy.
正常という考えだと思います
13:22
Now, who's normal?
正常な人とは誰のことでしょう
13:24
There's no normal.
正常なんか ありません
13:27
There's common, there's typical. There's no normal,
並みや典型的はあっても 正常はないのです
13:29
and would you want to meet that poor, beige person if they existed?
属性を持たないような人に魅力を感じますか?
13:32
(Laughter)
(会場: 笑い声)
13:35
I don't think so.
感じませんよね
13:37
If we can change this paradigm from one of achieving normalcy
もしも この「正常に近づく」典型を 「可能性」または「潜在能力」
13:39
to one of possibility -- or potency, to be even a little bit more dangerous --
あるいは もう少し危険なものに変えられれば
13:44
we can release the power of so many more children,
多くの子どもたちの力を引き出すことができ
13:49
and invite them to engage their rare and valuable abilities with the community.
彼らの稀で価値ある力を見出せるのです
13:52
Anthropologists tell us that the one thing
人類学者は 我々人間が
14:00
we as humans have always required of our community members
常に仲間へ要求してきた唯一の事柄は
14:03
is to be of use, to be able to contribute.
役に立ち 貢献できることだと言っています
14:06
There's evidence that Neanderthals, 60,000 years ago,
ネアンデルタール人は6万年前に
14:10
carried their elderly and those with serious physical injury,
長老や負傷者たちを担いだ証拠があります
14:14
and perhaps it's because the life experience of survival of these people
おそらく 苦難を生き抜いた彼らの人生経験が 社会へ貢献する役割があることを
14:20
proved of value to the community.
証明したのでしょう
14:26
They didn't view these people as broken and useless;
彼らは 怪我をした役立たず とは見られずに
14:28
they were seen as rare and valuable.
数少ない価値ある人 として見られていました
14:33
A few years ago, I was in a food market in the town where I grew up
数年前 私は子供時代を過ごした―
14:36
in that red zone in northeastern Pennsylvania,
ペンシルバニア北東の共和党寄りの町にある食料品店で
14:39
and I was standing over a bushel of tomatoes.
トマトを見ていました
14:43
It was summertime: I had shorts on.
夏だったので短パン姿だったのですが
14:45
I hear this guy, his voice behind me say, "Well, if it isn't Aimee Mullins."
背後から “エイミー・マリンズじゃないか” と声がしました
14:47
And I turn around, and it's this older man. I have no idea who he is.
振り返ると高齢の男性が立っていて 彼が誰なのかわからず
14:52
And I said, "I'm sorry, sir, have we met? I don't remember meeting you."
“すみません 以前にお会いした事が?見覚えがないもので” と言うと
14:56
He said, "Well, you wouldn't remember meeting me.
“無理はないさ
15:02
I mean, when we met I was delivering you from your mother's womb."
君が生まれるとき 私がお産をさせていたんだよ”
15:04
(Laughter)
(会場: 笑い声)
15:07
Oh, that guy.
あら あの方ね
15:09
And, but of course, actually, it did click.
ピンと来ました
15:12
This man was Dr. Kean,
彼はキーン先生でした
15:14
a man that I had only known about through my mother's stories of that day,
私が生まれた日のことは母から聞いていました
15:17
because, of course, typical fashion, I arrived late for my birthday by two weeks.
私は出産予定日を2週間遅れて生まれてきたので
15:21
And so my mother's prenatal physician had gone on vacation,
担当の産婦人科医は休暇に出てしまい
15:27
so the man who delivered me was a complete stranger to my parents.
結局 お産に立ち会ったのは初対面の医師だったのです
15:31
And, because I was born without the fibula bones,
私は生まれつき腓骨が無く
15:36
and had feet turned in, and a few toes in this foot and a few toes in that,
足は内側に曲がり 指も足に入り込み
15:39
he had to be the bearer -- this stranger had to be the bearer of bad news.
初対面である先生が この事実を両親に伝えなくてはいけませんでした
15:42
He said to me, "I had to give this prognosis to your parents
先生曰く “君が将来歩くことはできず
15:47
that you would never walk,
他の子どものように
15:51
and you would never have the kind of mobility that other kids have
動き回るのは無理 つきっきりの生活になると
15:53
or any kind of life of independence,
両親に伝えなくちゃいけなかった
15:57
and you've been making liar out of me ever since."
なのに 君は僕を嘘つきにしてくれたね”
15:59
(Laughter)
(会場: 笑い声)
16:01
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:03
The extraordinary thing is that he said he had saved
感激したのは 私が子どものとき 新聞に出ると
16:09
newspaper clippings throughout my whole childhood,
先生は切りぬきを取っておいたそうです
16:13
whether winning a second grade spelling bee,
2年生のスペリング競争で勝ったもの
16:16
marching with the Girl Scouts, you know, the Halloween parade,
ガールスカウトの行進やハロウィンパレード
16:18
winning my college scholarship, or any of my sports victories,
大学の奨学金獲得やスポーツ競技での優勝など
16:21
and he was using it, and integrating it into teaching resident students,
先生はその記事を使って研修医師を教えたり ハーネマン医療大学や
16:26
med students from Hahnemann Medical School and Hershey Medical School.
ハーシー医療大学の学生を教えていました
16:32
And he called this part of the course the X Factor,
そして先生は講義のこの部分を
16:37
the potential of the human will.
人間の意思がもつ潜在能力と呼んでいました
16:40
No prognosis can account for how powerful this could be
病気と向き合う生活を左右する潜在能力が
16:43
as a determinant in the quality of someone's life.
どれだけ力を発揮するのか 予測はできません
16:47
And Dr. Kean went on to tell me,
キーン先生は さらにこう言いました
16:51
he said, "In my experience, unless repeatedly told otherwise,
“私の経験から言うと 支えがわずかであっても 繰返し否定的なことを言われなければ
16:54
and even if given a modicum of support,
自ら持ち合わせたものだけになると
17:02
if left to their own devices, a child will achieve."
子どもは やってのけるものだ”
17:06
See, Dr. Kean made that shift in thinking.
キーン先生は 考え方に変化をもたらしました
17:12
He understood that there's a difference between the medical condition
彼は医療的状況とそれをどのようにするかという2つには
17:16
and what someone might do with it.
違いがあることを理解したのです
17:19
And there's been a shift in my thinking over time,
時間が経過するうちに私の考え方にも変化がありました
17:22
in that, if you had asked me at 15 years old,
もしも 15歳の私に
17:25
if I would have traded prosthetics for flesh-and-bone legs,
義足を 本物の足と交換するかと尋ねたら
17:29
I wouldn't have hesitated for a second.
私は少しも躊躇することはなかったでしょう
17:33
I aspired to that kind of normalcy back then.
当時は皆と同じようになりたかったのです
17:36
But if you ask me today, I'm not so sure.
でも今 尋ねられたら わかりません
17:42
And it's because of the experiences I've had with them,
私が経験してきたことを考えてのことです
17:45
not in spite of the experiences I've had with them.
経験したことにも関わらず というのではありません
17:50
And perhaps this shift in me has happened
おそらく 気の持ちように変化が現れた理由は
17:56
because I've been exposed to more people who have opened doors for me
私の可能性を遮った人よりも
17:59
than those who have put lids and cast shadows on me.
門戸を開いてくれた人が多かったからです
18:04
See, all you really need is one person
必要なのは誰か1人
18:11
to show you the epiphany of your own power, and you're off.
可能性の見抜き方が伝授されれば 自分の道が開けます
18:13
If you can hand somebody the key to their own power --
極めて重要な時に 誰かに力を解き放つ鍵を渡し
18:18
the human spirit is so receptive -- if you can do that
門戸を開いてあげるのは
18:23
and open a door for someone at a crucial moment,
人間の心の受容力を考えると
18:25
you are educating them in the best sense.
最高の育て方と言えます
18:28
You're teaching them to open doors for themselves.
自ら門戸を開くことを教えているのです
18:31
In fact, the exact meaning of the word "educate"
「教育する」 - educate - という言葉の語源は
18:36
comes from the root word "educe."
educe という言葉から来ていて
18:42
It means "to bring forth what is within,
内面にあるものを生む
18:44
to bring out potential."
潜在能力を引き出す という意味です
18:48
So again, which potential do we want to bring out?
さあ どんな潜在能力を私たちは引き出したいのでしょう?
18:50
There was a case study done in 1960s Britain,
’60年代に英国で行われた こんな事例研究があります
18:55
when they were moving from grammar schools to comprehensive schools.
当時 中等学校から総合中等学校に編成された時期にあり
18:58
It's called the streaming trials. We call it "tracking" here in the States.
米国の能力別学級編成にあたる試みがありました
19:03
It's separating students from A, B, C, D and so on.
生徒をA B C Dとグループに分け
19:06
And the "A students" get the tougher curriculum, the best teachers, etc.
Aグループのカリキュラムは高水準で 担当教師もトップクラスというものです
19:11
Well, they took, over a three-month period,
3ヶ月間コースの始めに
19:16
D-level students, gave them A's,
Dレベルの生徒は
19:18
told them they were "A's," told them they were bright,
Aレベルの賢い学生だと伝えられていました
19:21
and at the end of this three-month period,
3ヶ月が過ぎると
19:24
they were performing at A-level.
彼らの成績はAレベルに到達したのです
19:26
And, of course, the heartbreaking, flip side of this study,
もちろん この研究にはやるせない裏があり
19:29
is that they took the "A students" and told them they were "D's."
Aレベルの生徒はDレベルだと伝えられ
19:32
And that's what happened at the end of that three-month period.
中退した生徒を除き 学校に残っていた生徒は
19:37
Those who were still around in school, besides the people who had dropped out.
それが3ヶ月後に現実となってしまいました
19:40
A crucial part of this case study was that the teachers were duped too.
この事例研究の決定的な要素は教師もだまされていたことです
19:46
The teachers didn't know a switch had been made.
教師も そんなすり替えがあったとは知らず
19:55
They were simply told, "These are the 'A-students,' these are the 'D-students.'"
こっちがA そっちがDとだけ伝えられていました
19:57
And that's how they went about teaching them and treating them.
それが生徒の教え方や対応の仕方につながったのです
20:01
So, I think that the only true disability is a crushed spirit,
ここから言えるのは 唯一 本当のハンディキャップと言えるのは 打ちのめされた心だと思います
20:07
a spirit that's been crushed doesn't have hope,
打ちのめされ希望がもてない心
20:16
it doesn't see beauty,
美点を見れず
20:21
it no longer has our natural, childlike curiosity
持ち合わせているはずの子どものような好奇心がなくなり
20:23
and our innate ability to imagine.
生まれつき持っている想像力がなくなった状態
20:29
If instead, we can bolster a human spirit to keep hope,
もしも 私たちが希望を保ち
20:32
to see beauty in themselves and others,
自分自身や他者がもつ美点を見いだし
20:37
to be curious and imaginative,
好奇心と想像力をもつ心に 力を吹き込めれば
20:41
then we are truly using our power well.
私たちは力を真から発揮できるのです
20:44
When a spirit has those qualities, we are able to create new realities
心が そのような特性をもつと 私たちは新しい現実や
20:48
and new ways of being.
新しいあり方を創りだせます
20:54
I'd like to leave you with a poem
最後に詩を朗読します
20:57
by a fourteenth-century Persian poet named Hafiz
14世紀のペルシャの詩人 ハフィスの詩で
20:59
that my friend, Jacques Dembois told me about,
私の友人が教えてくれました
21:03
and the poem is called "The God Who Only Knows Four Words":
“4つの言葉しか知らない神様” という詩です
21:06
"Every child has known God,
“どの子どもも 神様を知っている
21:11
not the God of names,
悪口の神様ではない
21:15
not the God of don'ts,
禁制の神様でもない
21:17
but the God who only knows four words and keeps repeating them,
4つの言葉しか知らない神様だ 神様は繰り返し言う
21:20
saying, 'Come dance with me.
Come dance with me ― 私と共に踊ろうよ”
21:25
Come, dance with me. Come, dance with me.'"
私と共に踊ろうよ
21:32
Thank you.
ありがとう
21:35
(Applause)
(拍手)
21:37
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Hiroaki Nakanishi

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About the speaker:

Aimee Mullins - Athlete and actor
A record-breaker at the Paralympic Games in 1996, Aimee Mullins has built a career as a model, actor and advocate for women, sports and the next generation of prosthetics.

Why you should listen

Aimee Mullins was born without fibular bones, and had both of her legs amputated below the knee when she was an infant. She learned to walk on prosthetics, then to run -- competing at the national and international level as a champion sprinter, and setting world records at the 1996 Paralympics in Atlanta. At Georgetown, where she double-majored in history and diplomacy, she became the first double amputee to compete in NCAA Division 1 track and field.

After school, Mullins did some modeling -- including a legendary runway show for Alexander McQueen -- and then turned to acting, appearing as the Leopard Queen in Matthew Barney's Cremaster Cycle. In 2008 she was the official Ambassador for the Tribeca/ESPN Sports Film Festival.

She's a passionate advocate for a new kind of thinking about prosthetics, and recently mentioned to an interviewer that she's been looking closely at MIT's in-development powered robotic ankle, "which I fully plan on having."

More profile about the speaker
Aimee Mullins | Speaker | TED.com