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TEDGlobal 2011

Paul Bloom: The origins of pleasure

ポール・ブルーム:喜びの根源

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なぜ私たちは贋作より原画を好むのか?人間は本質主義であり、私たちの感じ方はその物の歴史についての思い込みによって変わる。しかもそれはただの錯覚としてではなく、喜び(そして痛み)といった生理的なレベルで変わるのである。心理学者のポール・ブルームがそう論じます。

- Psychologist
Paul Bloom explores some of the most puzzling aspects of human nature, including pleasure, religion, and morality. Full bio

I'm going to talk today
今日は日常の喜びについて
00:15
about the pleasures of everyday life.
話したいと思います
00:17
But I want to begin with a story
でも異常で残忍な
00:19
of an unusual and terrible man.
男の話から始めます
00:21
This is Hermann Goering.
これはヘルマン・ゲーリングです
00:23
Goering was Hitler's second in command in World War II,
第二次世界大戦中ヒットラーの右腕で
00:25
his designated successor.
後継者とされていました
00:28
And like Hitler,
そしてヒットラーのように
00:30
Goering fancied himself a collector of art.
彼も美術品のコレクターでした
00:32
He went through Europe, through World War II,
大戦中ヨーロッパ中で
00:34
stealing, extorting and occasionally buying
様々な絵画を盗んだり巻き上げたり
00:36
various paintings for his collection.
たまに買ったりしていました
00:39
And what he really wanted was something by Vermeer.
彼が切実に欲しかったのはフェルメールの作品でした
00:41
Hitler had two of them, and he didn't have any.
ヒットラーは2作持っていたのに彼は持っていませんでした
00:44
So he finally found an art dealer,
とうとう見つけた画商は
00:47
a Dutch art dealer named Han van Meegeren,
ハン・ファン・メーヘレンというオランダ人で
00:49
who sold him a wonderful Vermeer
素晴らしいフェルメールの作品を
00:52
for the cost of what would now be 10 million dollars.
今のお金に換算すると1千万ドルの値で売りました
00:54
And it was his favorite artwork ever.
これはゲーリングの一番大切な絵となりました
00:57
World War II came to an end,
第二次大戦は終わり
01:00
and Goering was captured, tried at Nuremberg
彼は逮捕され ニュルンベルクで裁判を受け
01:02
and ultimately sentenced to death.
最終的に死刑が宣告されました
01:05
Then the Allied forces went through his collections
連合軍は彼の所蔵品を捜索し
01:08
and found the paintings
絵画を発見して
01:10
and went after the people who sold it to him.
彼に売った画商を追跡しました
01:12
And at some point the Dutch police came into Amsterdam
そうしてオランダ警察がアムステルダムで
01:14
and arrested Van Meegeren.
ハン・メーヘレンを逮捕しました
01:17
Van Meegeren was charged with the crime of treason,
彼は反逆罪で起訴されましたが
01:19
which is itself punishable by death.
これも死刑となり得るものでした
01:22
Six weeks into his prison sentence,
実刑判決から6週間後
01:25
van Meegeren confessed.
彼は自白しましたが
01:27
But he didn't confess to treason.
反逆罪の自白ではありませんでした
01:29
He said, "I did not sell a great masterpiece
「あのナチに素晴らしい巨匠の作品を
01:31
to that Nazi.
売ったりなどしてません
01:34
I painted it myself; I'm a forger."
あれは自分で描いた贋作です」
01:36
Now nobody believed him.
でも誰も信じませんでした
01:39
And he said, "I'll prove it.
それで彼は「証明するから
01:42
Bring me a canvas and some paint,
キャンバスと絵の具をください
01:44
and I will paint a Vermeer much better
あの最低なナチに売ったフェルメールより
01:46
than I sold that disgusting Nazi.
ずっとうまく描いて見せます
01:48
I also need alcohol and morphine, because it's the only way I can work."
あと 酒とモルヒネもないとダメです」と言いました
01:50
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:53
So they brought him in.
それで彼は連れて来られて
01:55
He painted a beautiful Vermeer.
美しいフェルメールを描きました
01:57
And then the charges of treason were dropped.
そして反逆罪の起訴は取り下げられました
02:00
He had a lesser charge of forgery,
それより軽い詐欺罪で
02:03
got a year sentence
1年の判決を受け
02:05
and died a hero to the Dutch people.
オランダ人のヒーローとして生涯を終えました
02:07
There's a lot more to be said about van Meegeren,
ハン・メーヘレンについてはいろいろありますが
02:11
but I want to turn now to Goering,
ゲーリングの話に戻ります
02:14
who's pictured here being interrogated at Nuremberg.
ニュルンベルクで尋問されている写真です
02:16
Now Goering was, by all accounts, a terrible man.
ゲーリングはすべての面で残忍で
02:19
Even for a Nazi, he was a terrible man.
ナチの基準でも残忍な男でした
02:21
His American interrogators described him
アメリカ人の尋問者たちは彼のことを
02:24
as an amicable psychopath.
友好的な異常者だと言っています
02:27
But you could feel sympathy
でも大切にしていた絵画が
02:29
for the reaction he had
本当は偽物だったと
02:31
when he was told that his favorite painting
聞かされた時の彼の反応には
02:33
was actually a forgery.
同情できるほどでした
02:35
According to his biographer,
彼の伝記作家によると
02:37
"He looked as if for the first time
「この世の悪を生まれて初めて
02:39
he had discovered there was evil in the world."
目にしたかのようだった」
02:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:43
And he killed himself soon afterwards.
そのあとまもなく彼は自殺しました
02:46
He had discovered after all
最後に彼は
02:49
that the painting he thought was this
これだと思っていた絵画が
02:51
was actually that.
実はこれだったとわかったのです
02:53
It looked the same,
同じように見えますが
02:56
but it had a different origin, it was a different artwork.
由来が異なり 違う芸術作品でした
02:58
It wasn't just him who was in for a shock.
他の人々もショックを受けました
03:00
Once van Meegeren was on trial, he couldn't stop talking.
裁判でハン・メーヘレンは黙っていられなくなり
03:02
And he boasted about all the great masterpieces
自分が他の芸術家を装って
03:05
that he himself had painted
描いた素晴らしい名画の数々を
03:07
that were attributed to other artists.
自慢しました
03:09
In particular, "The Supper at Emmaus"
特に「エマオの晩餐」は
03:11
which was viewed as Vermeer's finest masterpiece, his best work --
フェルメールの最高傑作と言われており
03:13
people would come [from] all over the world to see it --
世界中から人々が見に来ていましたが
03:16
was actually a forgery.
実は贋作だったのです
03:19
It was not that painting, but that painting.
これではなく これだったのです
03:21
And when that was discovered,
それが判明したとき
03:23
it lost all its value and was taken away from the museum.
この絵の価値はなくなり美術館から運び出されました
03:25
Why does this matter?
なぜそうなるのか?
03:28
I'm a psychologists -- why do origins matter so much?
なぜ由来がこんなに重要なのか?
03:30
Why do we respond so much
どこからきたのかという知識に
03:33
to our knowledge of where something comes from?
どうしてこれほど影響を受けるのか?
03:35
Well there's an answer that many people would give.
多くの人が考える答えがあります
03:38
Many sociologists like Veblen and Wolfe
ベブレンやウルフなどの社会学者なら
03:40
would argue that the reason why we take origins so seriously
由来が重要視されるのは 私たちが俗物で
03:43
is because we're snobs, because we're focused on status.
ステータスに固執しているからだと言うでしょう
03:46
Among other things,
いろいろある中でも
03:49
if you want to show off how rich you are, how powerful you are,
金と権力を誇示したかったら
03:51
it's always better to own an original than a forgery
偽造品より希少な本物を
03:53
because there's always going to be fewer originals than forgeries.
所有するほうがいいに決まっています
03:55
I don't doubt that that plays some role,
ある程度はそうだと思いますが
03:59
but what I want to convince you of today
今日皆さんに伝えたいのは
04:01
is that there's something else going on.
他の要素があることです
04:03
I want to convince you
人は生まれつきある程度
04:05
that humans are, to some extent, natural born essentialists.
本質主義だということです
04:07
What I mean by this
どういうことかと言うと
04:10
is we don't just respond to things as we see them,
私たちは見たり感じたり聞こえる
04:12
or feel them, or hear them.
そのままに反応しないのです
04:14
Rather, our response is conditioned on our beliefs,
私たちの反応はそれが実際何であるか
04:16
about what they really are, what they came from,
どこからきたのか また何で作られていて
04:19
what they're made of, what their hidden nature is.
目に見えない性質は何かという自分の信念に
04:22
I want to suggest that this is true,
条件付けされています
04:25
not just for how we think about things,
どう物事を考えるかだけでなく
04:27
but how we react to things.
どう物事に反応するかもです
04:29
So I want to suggest that pleasure is deep --
つまり喜びは奥深いということです
04:31
and that this isn't true
これは高レベルな芸術だけに
04:33
just for higher level pleasures like art,
当てはまることではなく
04:35
but even the most seemingly simple pleasures
最もシンプルに見える喜びも
04:38
are affected by our beliefs about hidden essences.
見えない本質についての信念に左右されるのです
04:41
So take food.
例えば食べ物
04:44
Would you eat this?
これを食べますか?
04:46
Well, a good answer is, "It depends. What is it?"
妥当な答えは「何の肉かにもよるけど」ですね
04:48
Some of you would eat it if it's pork, but not beef.
豚はよくて牛はダメな人もいれば
04:51
Some of you would eat it if it's beef, but not pork.
牛は食べて豚は食べない人もいます
04:53
Few of you would eat it if it's a rat
ネズミや人間だと
04:56
or a human.
食べる人はほとんどいません
04:58
Some of you would eat it only if it's a strangely colored piece of tofu.
変わった色の豆腐だったら食べるという人もいます
05:00
That's not so surprising.
あまり驚くことではありません
05:04
But what's more interesting
でももっと面白いのは
05:06
is how it tastes to you
何だと思って食べているかで
05:08
will depend critically on what you think you're eating.
どんな味がするか決定的に違うということです
05:10
So one demonstration of this was done with young children.
この実証は幼い子供たちを対象に行われました
05:13
How do you make children
子供がニンジンを食べて
05:16
not just be more likely to eat carrots and drink milk,
牛乳を飲むだけでなく それらにもっと
05:18
but to get more pleasure from eating carrots and drinking milk --
喜びを感じてもらい 美味しいと思ってもらうには
05:21
to think they taste better?
どうしたらいいか?
05:24
It's simple, you tell them they're from McDonald's.
簡単です マクドナルドで買ったと言うんです
05:26
They believe McDonald's food is tastier,
マクドナルドの方が美味しいという
05:29
and it leads them to experience it as tastier.
思い込みがこれらを美味しく感じさせるのです
05:31
How do you get adults to really enjoy wine?
大人にワインを楽しんでもらうには?
05:34
It's very simple:
非常に簡単です
05:36
pour it from an expensive bottle.
高価なボトルから注ぎます
05:38
There are now dozens, perhaps hundreds of studies showing
今では何十も何百もの調査により
05:40
that if you believe you're drinking the expensive stuff,
高価なワインだと思い込んでいると
05:43
it tastes better to you.
美味しく感じると示されています
05:45
This was recently done with a neuroscientific twist.
最近 同じ調査が神経科学的にも行われました
05:47
They get people into a fMRI scanner,
被験者をfMRI装置に入れて
05:50
and while they're lying there, through a tube,
寝た状態でチューブから
05:52
they get to sip wine.
ワインを少しずつ飲んでもらいます
05:54
In front of them on a screen is information about the wine.
目の前の画面にはワインの情報があり
05:56
Everybody, of course,
もちろん全員が
05:59
drinks exactly the same wine.
全く同じワインを飲みますが
06:01
But if you believe you're drinking expensive stuff,
高価なものを飲んでいると思うと
06:03
parts of the brain associated with pleasure and reward
喜びと報酬に関連する脳の部分が
06:06
light up like a Christmas tree.
ピカピカ光ります
06:09
It's not just that you say it's more pleasurable, you say you like it more,
もっと楽しめるとかこの方が好きと言うだけでなく
06:11
you really experience it in a different way.
本当に違った体験をするのです
06:14
Or take sex.
セックスもそうです
06:17
These are stimuli I've used in some of my studies.
これらは研究で要因として使った写真です
06:20
And if you simply show people these pictures,
これらの写真を人々に普通に見せると
06:23
they'll say these are fairly attractive people.
なかなか魅力的だと言います
06:26
But how attractive you find them,
でもどのくらい魅力的に感じるか
06:28
how sexually or romantically moved you are by them,
性的またはロマンス的に感じるかは
06:31
rests critically on who you think you're looking at.
誰だと思っているかで大きく違います
06:34
You probably think the picture on the left is male,
左の写真の人は男性で右の人は女性だと
06:37
the one on the right is female.
皆さんきっと思うでしょう
06:40
If that belief turns out to be mistaken, it will make a difference.
これが間違いだった場合 違いが生じます
06:42
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:45
It will make a difference if they turn out to be
2人が見た目より若かったり
06:47
much younger or much older than you think they are.
年を取っていても違いが生じます
06:49
It will make a difference if you were to discover
そそられながら見ていた相手が
06:52
that the person you're looking at with lust
実は変装した息子や娘
06:54
is actually a disguised version of your son or daughter,
母親や父親だったと知った場合も
06:56
your mother or father.
違いが生じます
06:58
Knowing somebody's your kin typically kills the libido.
自分の血縁であるという知識は性欲を抹消します
07:00
Maybe one of the most heartening findings
喜びの心理学で最も励まされる
07:03
from the psychology of pleasure
調査結果の1つだろうと言えるのは
07:05
is there's more to looking good than your physical appearance.
魅力には外見以上のものがあるということです
07:07
If you like somebody, they look better to you.
好きな相手は魅力的に見えます
07:10
This is why spouses in happy marriages
幸せな結婚生活をするカップルが
07:13
tend to think that their husband or wife
他の人が思うより
07:16
looks much better than anyone else thinks that they do.
お互いを素敵だと思う理由はこれです
07:18
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:21
A particularly dramatic example of this
特に劇的な例として
07:23
comes from a neurological disorder known as Capgras syndrome.
カプグラ症候群という神経障害があります
07:26
So Capgras syndrome is a disorder
これは特定の妄想が
07:29
where you get a specific delusion.
出る障害です
07:32
Sufferers of Capgras syndrome
カプグラ症候群の患者は
07:34
believe that the people they love most in the world
世界で最も愛している人たちが
07:36
have been replaced by perfect duplicates.
そっくりの別人とすり替えられたと
07:38
Now often, a result of Capgras syndrome is tragic.
思い込み その結果悲劇となることもよくあります
07:40
People have murdered those that they loved,
偽者だと信じて
07:43
believing that they were murdering an imposter.
愛する人たちを殺害したりしています
07:45
But there's at least one case
でも少なくとも1つは
07:48
where Capgras syndrome had a happy ending.
ハッピーエンドでした
07:50
This was recorded in 1931.
1931年の記録です
07:52
"Research described a woman with Capgras syndrome
「あそこが小さくベッドで無能な恋人に
07:54
who complained about her poorly endowed and sexually inadequate lover."
不満があったカプグラ症候群の女性の研究」
07:57
But that was before she got Capgras syndrome.
でもこれはカプグラ症候群になる前です
08:00
After she got it, "She was happy to report
なってからは「女性はうれしそうに
08:03
that she has discovered that he possessed a double
金持ちで精力的でハンサムで端正なそっくりさんの
08:05
who was rich, virile, handsome and aristocratic."
存在を発見したと報告した」
08:08
Of course, it was the same man,
もちろん同じ男ですが
08:10
but she was seeing him in different ways.
女性は違った目で見ていたんです
08:12
As a third example,
3つ目の例として
08:14
consider consumer products.
消費者製品を考えます
08:16
So one reason why you might like something is its utility.
何かを好きな理由として実用性があります
08:18
You can put shoes on your feet; you can play golf with golf clubs;
靴は履くことができ ゴルフ用クラブではゴルフができます
08:21
and chewed up bubble gum doesn't do anything at all for you.
噛み終わった風船ガムは全く役に立ちません
08:24
But each of these three objects has value
でもこれら3つには実用性を越えた
08:27
above and beyond what it can do for you
経歴に基づいた価値が
08:29
based on its history.
それぞれあります
08:31
The golf clubs were owned by John F. Kennedy
ゴルフクラブはJFKが所有していたもので
08:33
and sold for three-quarters of a million dollars at auction.
オークションで75万ドルの値がつきました
08:36
The bubble gum was chewed up by pop star Britney Spears
ガムはポップ歌手ブリトニー・スピアーズが噛んだもので
08:39
and sold for several hundreds of dollars.
何百ドルの値で売れました
08:42
And in fact, there's a thriving market
実際 好きな人物の食べ残しには
08:44
in the partially eaten food of beloved people.
盛況な市場があります
08:46
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:49
The shoes are perhaps the most valuable of all.
この靴はこの中で一番価値のあるものでしょう
08:51
According to an unconfirmed report,
ある確証のない報告によると
08:54
a Saudi millionaire offered 10 million dollars
サウジアラビアの億万長者が
08:56
for this pair of shoes.
100万ドル払うと言ったそうです
08:58
They were the ones thrown at George Bush
これらは何年か前にイラクの記者会見で
09:00
at an Iraqi press conference several years ago.
ブッシュに投げつけられた靴です
09:03
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:05
Now this attraction to objects
物に魅かれることは
09:07
doesn't just work for celebrity objects.
有名人の物に対してだけではなく
09:09
Each one of us, most people,
ほとんどの人にはそれぞれ
09:11
have something in our life that's literally irreplaceable,
文字通りかけがえない品があります
09:13
in that it has value because of its history --
その品の経歴のために価値がある―
09:16
maybe your wedding ring, maybe your child's baby shoes --
結婚指輪だとか子供の赤ちゃんの時の靴とか―
09:19
so that if it was lost, you couldn't get it back.
もし失くしたらおしまいなものです
09:22
You could get something that looked like it or felt like it,
似たような品は手に入っても
09:25
but you couldn't get the same object back.
同じ品は戻ってこないのです
09:27
With my colleagues George Newman and Gil Diesendruck,
同僚のジョージ・ニューマンとギル・ディーセンドラックと共に
09:30
we've looked to see what sort of factors, what sort of history, matters
どのような要素や経歴が人の好きな品に
09:33
for the objects that people like.
影響を持つのか調べました
09:36
So in one of our experiments,
実験の1つで
09:38
we asked people to name a famous person who they adored,
熱愛する有名人を挙げてもらいました
09:40
a living person they adored.
生きている有名人です
09:43
So one answer was George Clooney.
ジョージ・クルーニーが挙げられました
09:45
Then we asked them,
そこで「彼のセーターに
09:47
"How much would you pay for George Clooney's sweater?"
いくら払いますか?」と尋ねました
09:49
And the answer is a fair amount --
なかなかの金額でした
09:51
more than you would pay for a brand new sweater
新品のセーターや熱愛していない人の
09:53
or a sweater owned by somebody who you didn't adore.
セーターに支払う額より高額です
09:56
Then we asked other groups of subjects --
次に別のグループの対象者に
09:59
we gave them different restrictions
違う制約と条件を
10:01
and different conditions.
与えて尋ねました
10:03
So for instance, we told some people,
例えば何人かには
10:05
"Look, you can buy the sweater,
「彼のセーターを買っても
10:07
but you can't tell anybody you own it,
誰にも言ってはダメで
10:09
and you can't resell it."
売ることも禁止」と言いました
10:11
That drops the value of it,
そうすると価値が下がります
10:13
suggesting that that's one reason why we like it.
なぜその品が好きなのか理由が1つ分かります
10:15
But what really causes an effect
でも大きな影響を与える条件は
10:18
is you tell people, "Look, you could resell it, you could boast about it,
「売ってもいいし 自慢してもいいけれど
10:20
but before it gets to you,
配送される前にセーターは
10:23
it's thoroughly washed."
しっかりと洗濯されます」で
10:25
That causes a huge drop in the value.
こうすると大きく価値が下がります
10:27
As my wife put it, "You've washed away the Clooney cooties."
「クルーニーの汗を洗っちゃった」わけです
10:30
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:33
So let's go back to art.
では芸術に戻りましょう
10:35
I would love a Chagall. I love the work of Chagall.
私はシャガールの作品が欲しいです
10:37
If people want to get me something at the end of the conference,
TEDのあとで何かもらえるなら
10:39
you could buy me a Chagall.
シャガールがいいです
10:41
But I don't want a duplicate,
でも複製は欲しくありません
10:43
even if I can't tell the difference.
たとえ違いが分からなくてもです
10:45
That's not because, or it's not simply because,
単に私が俗物で
10:47
I'm a snob and want to boast about having an original.
本物を持っていると自慢したいからではなく
10:49
Rather, it's because I want something that has a specific history.
特定の歴史を持つものが欲しいからです
10:52
In the case of artwork,
芸術作品の場合
10:55
the history is special indeed.
実際に歴史は特別です
10:57
The philosopher Denis Dutton
哲学者のデニス・ダットンは
10:59
in his wonderful book "The Art Instinct"
素晴らしい著書「The Art Instinct」で
11:01
makes the case that, "The value of an artwork
「芸術作品の価値は創作の背景に
11:03
is rooted in assumptions about the human performance underlying its creation."
人の技があるという仮定から来ている」と述べています
11:05
And that could explain the difference
本物と贋作の違いが
11:08
between an original and a forgery.
説明できます
11:10
They may look alike, but they have a different history.
見た目は同じでも違う歴史があり
11:12
The original is typically the product of a creative act,
通常本物は創作の結果である一方
11:14
the forgery isn't.
贋作は違います
11:17
I think this approach can explain differences
このアプローチだと人々の美術の
11:19
in people's taste in art.
好みの違いの説明ができます
11:22
This is a work by Jackson Pollock.
ジャクソン・ポーロックの作品です
11:24
Who here likes the work of Jackson Pollock?
この中でポーロックが好きな人はいますか?
11:26
Okay. Who here, it does nothing for them?
なんとも思わない人は?
11:30
They just don't like it.
ただ単に好きじゃないんですね
11:32
I'm not going to make a claim about who's right,
誰が正しいかと言うわけではなく
11:35
but I will make an empirical claim
人の直感について
11:37
about people's intuitions,
実験に基づいた主張をすると
11:39
which is that, if you like the work of Jackson Pollock,
ポーロックの作品が好きな人は
11:41
you'll tend more so than the people who don't like it
そうでない人より これらの作品の創作は
11:43
to believe that these works are difficult to create,
難しいと考える傾向があります
11:46
that they require a lot of time and energy
たくさんの時間と労力と創造力が
11:49
and creative energy.
必要なのだと思うわけです
11:51
I use Jackson Pollock on purpose as an example
わざとポーロックの例を挙げたのですが それは
11:53
because there's a young American artist
彼のようなスタイルの絵を描く
11:56
who paints very much in the style of Jackson Pollock,
幼いアメリカ人アーティストがいて
11:58
and her work was worth
彼女の作品は
12:00
many tens of thousands of dollars --
何万ドルもするからです
12:02
in large part because she's a very young artist.
非常に幼いのが大きな理由です
12:04
This is Marla Olmstead
マーラ・オルムステッドです
12:06
who did most of her work when she was three years old.
ほとんどの絵は3歳のときのものです
12:08
The interesting thing about Marla Olmstead
マーラについて興味深いのは
12:10
is her family made the mistake
家族がテレビ番組「60 Minutes II」を
12:12
of inviting the television program 60 Minutes II into their house
家に招待して マーラが絵を描くところを撮影させるという
12:14
to film her painting.
間違いを犯したことです
12:18
And they then reported that her father was coaching her.
番組は父親がコーチしていたとリポートしました
12:20
When this came out on television,
これがオンエアしたとき
12:23
the value of her art dropped to nothing.
マーラの作品の価値は消えました
12:25
It was the same art, physically,
物理的には同じ作品でしたが
12:28
but the history had changed.
その経歴が変わったのです
12:30
I've been focusing now on the visual arts,
ビジュアルアートばかりでしたが
12:33
but I want to give two examples from music.
音楽からも2つ例を挙げます
12:35
This is Joshua Bell, a very famous violinist.
有名なバイオリン奏者ジョシュア・ベルです
12:37
And the Washington Post reporter Gene Weingarten
ワシントン・ポスト紙の記者ジーン・ウェインガーテンが
12:39
decided to enlist him for an audacious experiment.
彼に大胆な実験をしてもらおうと考えました
12:42
The question is: How much would people like Joshua Bell,
ジョシュア・ベルだと気づかず
12:45
the music of Joshua Bell,
聴いた場合 人々は彼の演奏を
12:47
if they didn't know they were listening to Joshua Bell?
どのくらい気に入るだろう?という実験です
12:49
So he got Joshua Bell to take his million dollar violin
そこで彼に100万ドルのバイオリンを持って
12:53
down to a Washington D.C. subway station
ワシントンD.C.の地下鉄の駅に行ってもらい
12:56
and stand in the corner and see how much money he would make.
角に立っていくら稼げるか試してもらいました
12:59
And here's a brief clip of this.
これが短いビデオクリップです
13:02
(Violin music)
(バイオリン演奏)
13:04
After being there for three-quarters of an hour,
45分間ここにいて
13:11
he made 32 dollars.
彼が稼いだのは32ドルでした
13:13
Not bad. It's also not good.
悪くないですが良くもないです
13:16
Apparently to really enjoy the music of Joshua Bell,
ジョシュア・ベルの演奏を本当に堪能するには
13:18
you have to know you're listening to Joshua Bell.
彼の演奏だと認識していないとダメなのです
13:21
He actually made 20 dollars more than that,
彼は実際20ドル余分に稼ぎましたが
13:24
but he didn't count it.
勘定に入れませんでした
13:26
Because this woman comes up --
女性が来て―
13:28
you see at the end of the video -- she comes up.
ビデオの最後に来るのが見えます
13:30
She had heard him at the Library of Congress a few weeks before
数週間前に米国議会図書館の
13:32
at this extravagant black-tie affair.
豪華な正装パーティで演奏を聴いたばかりだったので
13:34
So she's stunned that he's standing in a subway station.
彼が地下鉄の駅にいるのを見てビックリし
13:37
So she's struck with pity.
気の毒に思って
13:40
She reaches into her purse and hands him a 20.
20ドル出して渡しました
13:42
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:44
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:46
The second example from music
音楽の2つ目の例は
13:48
is from John Cage's modernist composition,
ジョン・ケージの現代主義的作品
13:50
"4'33"."
「4分33秒」です
13:52
As many of you know,
知っている方も多いでしょうが
13:54
this is the composition where the pianist sits at a bench,
これはピアニストがピアノの前に座り
13:56
opens up the piano
ピアノを開けて
13:59
and sits and does nothing for four minutes and 33 seconds --
何もしないでいる4分33秒の
14:01
that period of silence.
無音の時間です
14:03
And people have different views on this.
いろいろな見解があります
14:05
But what I want to point out
でも注目して欲しいのは
14:07
is you can buy this from iTunes.
iTunesで売られていることです
14:09
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:11
For a dollar 99,
1ドル99セントで
14:13
you can listen to that silence,
この沈黙が聴けるわけです
14:15
which is different than other forms of silence.
他の沈黙の形とは違うわけです
14:17
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:20
Now I've been talking so far about pleasure,
さてここまで喜びについて話してきましたが
14:22
but what I want to suggest
考えてもらいたいのは
14:25
is that everything I've said applies as well to pain.
これら全ては痛みにも当てはまるということです
14:27
And how you think about what you're experiencing,
自分が何を体験しているのか
14:30
your beliefs about the essence of it,
その本質に対する考えは
14:32
affect how it hurts.
痛みの感じ方に影響します
14:34
One lovely experiment
カート・グレイとダン・ウェグナーは
14:36
was done by Kurt Gray and Dan Wegner.
人情溢れる実験をしました
14:38
What they did was they hooked up Harvard undergraduates
電気ショックの装置を
14:40
to an electric shock machine.
ハーバード大の学部生たちにつけ
14:42
And they gave them a series of painful electric shocks.
痛みを伴う一連の電気ショックを与えたのです
14:44
So it was a series of five painful shocks.
5回の痛い電気ショックでした
14:47
Half of them are told that they're being given the shocks
対象者の半分は 別の部屋にいる人が
14:50
by somebody in another room,
電気ショックを送っているが
14:52
but the person in the other room doesn't know they're giving them shocks.
悪意はなく 本人は知らずに ただボタンを
14:54
There's no malevolence, they're just pressing a button.
押しているだけだと聞かされました
14:57
The first shock is recorded as very painful.
最初のショックはとても痛いと評価されますが
14:59
The second shock feels less painful, because you get a bit used to it.
2回目は少し慣れてましになります
15:02
The third drops, the fourth, the fifth.
3回 4回 5回目とましになり
15:05
The pain gets less.
痛みは減っていきます
15:07
In the other condition,
残り半分の対象者は
15:10
they're told that the person in the next room
隣の部屋の人が分かっていてわざと
15:12
is shocking them on purpose -- knows they're shocking them.
電気ショックを送っていると聞かされました
15:14
The first shock hurts like hell.
最初のショックは非常に痛く
15:17
The second shock hurts just as much,
2回目も同じくらい痛く
15:19
and the third and the fourth and the fifth.
3回 4回 5回目も同じです
15:21
It hurts more
誰かがわざと自分を
15:23
if you believe somebody is doing it to you on purpose.
痛めつけていると思うと一層痛く感じるのです
15:25
The most extreme example of this
最も極端な例だと
15:28
is that in some cases,
場合によっては
15:31
pain under the right circumstances
特定の状況が痛みを
15:33
can transform into pleasure.
喜びに変えることもあるのです
15:35
Humans have this extraordinarily interesting property
人間にはこのような並外れた興味深い性質があり
15:37
that will often seek out low-level doses of pain
制限のある状況で
15:40
in controlled circumstances
少しだけの痛みを求め そこから
15:42
and take pleasure from it --
喜びを得ることがよくあります
15:44
as in the eating of hot chili peppers
辛いチリペッパーを食べたり
15:46
and roller coaster rides.
ローラーコースターに乗ったりです
15:48
The point was nicely summarized
この点は詩人ジョン・ミルトンが
15:51
by the poet John Milton
うまくまとめています
15:53
who wrote, "The mind is its own place,
「意識は独立した場所で
15:55
and in itself can make a heaven of hell,
その中で地獄を天国にしたり
15:57
a hell of heaven."
天国を地獄にしたりできる」
15:59
And I'll end with that. Thank you.
これで締めくくります ありがとう
16:01
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:03
Translated by Sawa Horibe
Reviewed by Takafusa Kitazume

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About the speaker:

Paul Bloom - Psychologist
Paul Bloom explores some of the most puzzling aspects of human nature, including pleasure, religion, and morality.

Why you should listen

In Paul Bloom’s last book, How Pleasure Works, he explores the often-mysterious enjoyment that people get out of experiences such as sex, food, art, and stories. His latest book, Just Babies, examines the nature and origins of good and evil. How do we decide what's fair and unfair? What is the relationship between emotion and rationality in our judgments of right and wrong? And how much of morality is present at birth? To answer these questions, he and his colleagues at Yale study how babies make moral decisions. (How do you present a moral quandary to a 6-month-old? Through simple, gamelike experiments that yield surprisingly adult-like results.)  

Paul Bloom is a passionate teacher of undergraduates, and his popular Introduction to Psychology 110 class has been released to the world through the Open Yale Courses program. He has recently completed a second MOOC, “Moralities of Everyday Life”, that introduced moral psychology to tens of thousands of students. And he also presents his research to a popular audience though articles in The Atlantic, The New Yorker, and The New York Times. Many of the projects he works on are student-initiated, and all of them, he notes, are "strongly interdisciplinary, bringing in theory and research from areas such as cognitive, social, and developmental psychology, evolutionary theory, linguistics, theology and philosophy." 

He says: "A growing body of evidence suggests that humans do have a rudimentary moral sense from the very start of life."

More profile about the speaker
Paul Bloom | Speaker | TED.com