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TEDGlobal 2010

Elif Shafak: The politics of fiction

エリフ・シャファク: フィクション小説の利害

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物語は想像力を広げます。物語を紡ぐことで文化の壁を超え、様々な経験を得て、他者の心の内を理解することができます。エリフ・シャファクは、この明確な概念のもとに、フィクション小説がアイデンティティ政治を乗り越えられると語ります。

- Novelist
Elif Shafak explicitly defies definition -- her writing blends East and West, feminism and tradition, the local and the global, Sufism and rationalism, creating one of today's most unique voices in literature. Full bio

私は作家です
00:15
I'm a storyteller.
物語や小説を
00:17
That's what I do in life -- telling stories,
書いています
00:19
writing novels --
今日は物語の真髄について
00:21
and today I would like to tell you a few stories
いくつかお話をします
00:23
about the art of storytelling
ジンという超自然的な
00:25
and also some supernatural creatures
生き物の話もします
00:27
called the djinni.
本題に入る前に 少しだけ
00:29
But before I go there, please allow me to share with you
個人的な話をしますが
00:32
glimpses of my personal story.
言葉だけではなく
00:34
I will do so with the help of words, of course,
幾何学模様と共に話を進めますので
00:37
but also a geometrical shape, the circle,
話の途中で
00:40
so throughout my talk,
丸や輪が出てきます
00:42
you will come across several circles.
私はフランスのストラスブールで生まれました
00:45
I was born in Strasbourg, France
トルコ人の両親は
00:48
to Turkish parents.
私が生まれて間もなく離婚し
00:50
Shortly after, my parents got separated,
母は私を連れてトルコに引っ越しました
00:52
and I came to Turkey with my mom.
私は一人っ子で
00:54
From then on, I was raised
シングルマザーに育てられました
00:56
as a single child by a single mother.
70年代初頭のアンカラでは
00:58
Now in the early 1970s, in Ankara,
珍しい家族構成でした
01:00
that was a bit unusual.
近所はどの家も大所帯で
01:02
Our neighborhood was full of large families,
父親が家長だったので
01:04
where fathers were the heads of households,
父家長制の社会で 離婚した母を
01:07
so I grew up seeing my mother as a divorcee
見ながら育ちました
01:10
in a patriarchal environment.
とくに私が見て育ったのは
01:12
In fact, I grew up observing
二人のタイプの違う女性でした
01:14
two different kinds of womanhood.
一人は母
01:16
On the one hand was my mother,
高学歴で西洋の影響をうけた非宗教的な現代人
01:18
a well-educated, secular, modern, westernized, Turkish woman.
もう一人は母と共に
01:21
On the other hand was my grandmother,
私を育ててくれた祖母
01:23
who also took care of me
精神世界に生きていて
01:25
and was more spiritual, less educated
低学歴で 非合理的でした
01:28
and definitely less rational.
祖母はコーヒー豆で未来を占い
01:30
This was a woman who read coffee grounds to see the future
鉛を不思議な形に溶かし
01:33
and melted lead into mysterious shapes
邪気を追い払っていました
01:35
to fend off the evil eye.
ニキビがひどい人や
01:38
Many people visited my grandmother,
手にイボがある人が
01:40
people with severe acne on their faces
たくさんやって来ました
01:42
or warts on their hands.
祖母がアラビア語で まじないをかけ
01:45
Each time, my grandmother would utter some words in Arabic,
消したいイボと
01:48
take a red apple and stab it
同じ数のバラのとげを
01:50
with as many rose thorns
赤いリンゴに刺すのです
01:52
as the number of warts she wanted to remove.
そして祖母はインクで
01:55
Then one by one, she would
とげを丸く囲むのでした
01:57
encircle these thorns with dark ink.
患者は1週間後に再び
02:00
A week later, the patient would come back
様子を見せにやってきました
02:02
for a follow-up examination.
学者や科学者の方たちを前にして
02:04
Now, I'm aware that I should not be saying such things
このようなことを言うべきでないのは承知の上です
02:07
in front of an audience of scholars and scientists,
でも 肌の問題を抱えて
02:10
but the truth is, of all the people
祖母を訪ねて来た人たちは
02:12
who visited my grandmother for their skin conditions,
皆 満足し
02:15
I did not see anyone go back
症状も回復し 帰って行きました
02:17
unhappy or unhealed.
祈りの力で治したのかと祖母に尋ねると
02:20
I asked her how she did this. Was it the power of praying?
祈りも効果はあるけれど
02:23
In response she said, "Yes, praying is effective,
輪がつくり出す力が効くのだと言いました
02:26
but also beware of the power of circles."
祖母からは多くのことを学びましたが
02:29
From her, I learned, amongst many other things,
ことに貴重な教えを受けました
02:32
one very precious lesson --
何かを取り除きたければ
02:34
that if you want to destroy something in this life,
ニキビであろうが
02:36
be it an acne, a blemish
人の心であろうが
02:38
or the human soul,
厚い壁で囲みこんでしまえば
02:40
all you need to do is to surround it with thick walls.
中で消滅してしまうのです
02:43
It will dry up inside.
誰でも 社会的 文化的な輪の中で
02:45
Now we all live in some kind of a social and cultural circle.
暮らしています
02:48
We all do.
生まれた家 民族 階級 という輪です
02:50
We're born into a certain family, nation, class.
でも当たり前だと思っている世界の外と
02:53
But if we have no connection whatsoever
つながりが全くなければ
02:56
with the worlds beyond the one we take for granted,
私たちも 輪の中で枯渇してしまう―
02:58
then we too run the risk
可能性があるのです
03:00
of drying up inside.
想像力が欠け
03:02
Our imagination might shrink;
心が小さくなり
03:04
our hearts might dwindle,
人間味を失います
03:06
and our humanness might wither
文化的な囲いの中に
03:08
if we stay for too long
長居した結果です
03:10
inside our cultural cocoons.
友人や隣人 同僚や家族
03:12
Our friends, neighbors, colleagues, family --
誰もが同じ価値観であれば
03:15
if all the people in our inner circle resemble us,
我々自身を鏡に映して
03:17
it means we are surrounded
見ているようなものです
03:19
with our mirror image.
祖母のようなトルコ人女性には
03:21
Now one other thing women like my grandma do in Turkey
鏡をベルベットで覆ったり
03:24
is to cover mirrors with velvet
鏡を裏返して壁に掛ける習慣が伝わっています
03:26
or to hang them on the walls with their backs facing out.
これは東洋の伝統で
03:29
It's an old Eastern tradition
鏡に映る自分の姿を
03:31
based on the knowledge that it's not healthy
眺めてばかりいるのは健全ではない―
03:33
for a human being to spend too much time
という考えに基づいています
03:36
staring at his own reflection.
皮肉にも 似た者同士で成り立つコミュニティーは
03:38
Ironically, [living in] communities of the like-minded
現代のグローバル社会に挙げられる―
03:41
is one of the greatest dangers
大きな危険性のひとつで
03:43
of today's globalized world.
至る所で見られます
03:45
And it's happening everywhere,
自由主義者と保守主義者
03:47
among liberals and conservatives,
不可知論者に信奉者 金持ちと貧民
03:49
agnostics and believers, the rich and the poor,
東洋と西洋も然り
03:51
East and West alike.
人間とは共通点がある人と
03:53
We tend to form clusters
親しくなる傾向があり
03:55
based on similarity,
他の集団に対する―
03:57
and then we produce stereotypes
ステレオタイプをつくり出します
03:59
about other clusters of people.
このような文化的ゲットーは
04:01
In my opinion, one way of transcending
物語がもつ力で
04:03
these cultural ghettos
乗り越えられると思います
04:05
is through the art of storytelling.
境界線を取り壊すことはできなくても
04:07
Stories cannot demolish frontiers,
精神的な壁に穴をあけ
04:10
but they can punch holes in our mental walls.
そこから他者を垣間見て
04:13
And through those holes, we can get a glimpse of the other,
好きになることさえできるのです
04:16
and sometimes even like what we see.
私は8歳で物語を書き始めました
04:19
I started writing fiction at the age of eight.
ある日 母が私に
04:22
My mother came home one day with a turquoise notebook
日記を書いてみてはどうかと言いました
04:25
and asked me if I'd be interested in keeping a personal journal.
きっと私のことが
04:28
In retrospect, I think she was slightly worried
心配だったのでしょう
04:30
about my sanity.
私は絶えず話をしていたのです
04:32
I was constantly telling stories at home, which was good,
相手は存在しない―
04:35
except I told this to imaginary friends around me,
架空の友達でした
04:37
which was not so good.
内気な子だった私は
04:39
I was an introverted child,
クレヨンと交流を図り
04:41
to the point of communicating with colored crayons
何かにぶつかったときは
04:44
and apologizing to objects
物に向かって謝っていました
04:46
when I bumped into them,
ですから母は
04:48
so my mother thought it might do me good
毎日の出来事や 自分の思いを
04:50
to write down my day-to-day experiences
文にするのがいいと思ったのです
04:52
and emotions.
でも私は毎日がつまらなくて
04:54
What she didn't know was that I thought my life was terribly boring,
文章にしたいことは
04:57
and the last thing I wanted to do
ひとつもなかったので
04:59
was to write about myself.
他人の話や 架空の出来事を
05:01
Instead, I began to write about people other than me
書き始めました
05:04
and things that never really happened.
このようにフィクションを書く―
05:06
And thus began my life-long passion
楽しさを身につけていったのです
05:08
for writing fiction.
私にとってフィクションは当初から
05:10
So from the very beginning, fiction for me
自分自身を明らかにするというより
05:13
was less of an autobiographical manifestation
他者の人生や別の可能性へ
05:16
than a transcendental journey
入り込む旅だったのです
05:18
into other lives, other possibilities.
今から別の話をしますが
05:20
And please bear with me:
輪を描いて 再びここに戻ってきます
05:22
I'll draw a circle and come back to this point.
この時期 生活に変化が訪れました
05:25
Now one other thing happened around this same time.
母が外交官になったため
05:27
My mother became a diplomat.
祖母と過ごした 迷信深くて
05:29
So from this small, superstitious,
小さな中流階級の街を離れ
05:31
middle-class neighborhood of my grandmother,
マドリッドにある上流階級の
05:34
I was zoomed into this
学校に通うことになりました
05:36
posh, international school [in Madrid],
トルコ人は私だけでした
05:38
where I was the only Turk.
そこで私は
05:40
It was here that I had my first encounter
“国の代表”を初めて経験したのです
05:42
with what I call the "representative foreigner."
同級生は あらゆる国から来ていましたが
05:45
In our classroom, there were children from all nationalities,
クラスの中は必ずしも民主的だったわけではなく
05:48
yet this diversity did not necessarily lead
偏見や不平等が見受けられました
05:51
to a cosmopolitan, egalitarian
それぞれの子どもたちが
05:54
classroom democracy.
個人として見られるのではなく
05:56
Instead, it generated an atmosphere
もっと大きなものを
05:58
in which each child was seen --
背負わされた雰囲気が漂っていました
06:00
not as an individual on his own,
良く言えば小さな国連のようでしたが
06:02
but as the representative of something larger.
国や宗教に関わる―
06:05
We were like a miniature United Nations, which was fun,
否定的な出来事が起きると
06:08
except whenever something negative,
対象になった子どもは
06:10
with regards to a nation
いつまでも ばかにされたり
06:12
or a religion, took place.
いじめられました
06:14
The child who represented it was mocked,
ちなみに この学校に通学していた頃
06:17
ridiculed and bullied endlessly.
トルコでは軍が政治に介入し
06:20
And I should know, because during the time I attended that school,
トルコ人の男がローマ教皇を殺そうとし
06:23
a military takeover happened in my country,
欧州版歌合戦でトルコは ひどいざまでした
06:26
a gunman of my nationality nearly killed the Pope,
(会場: 笑い声)
06:29
and Turkey got zero points in [the] Eurovision Song Contest.
当時 私は学校を頻繁に休み
06:32
(Laughter)
船乗りにあこがれました
06:34
I skipped school often and dreamed of becoming a sailor
文化的ステレオタイプも
06:36
during those days.
そこで初めて経験しました
06:38
I also had my first taste
私は観たことがない―
06:40
of cultural stereotypes there.
トルコが舞台の映画や
06:42
The other children asked me about the movie
一日に吸うタバコの数を 同級生は尋ねてきました
06:44
"Midnight Express," which I had not seen;
トルコ人は皆 愛煙家だと思われていました
06:46
they inquired how many cigarettes a day I smoked,
何歳からベールを被るのか
06:49
because they thought all Turks were heavy smokers,
尋ねられたこともあります
06:52
and they wondered at what age
トルコのステレオタイプは
06:54
I would start covering my hair.
政治やタバコ
06:56
I came to learn that these were
肌や髪を隠すベールだと
06:58
the three main stereotypes about my country:
知りました
07:00
politics, cigarettes
その後 ヨルダンやドイツで暮らし
07:02
and the veil.
再びアンカラに戻りました
07:04
After Spain, we went to Jordan, Germany
どこで暮らすにも
07:06
and Ankara again.
想像力は私が携帯できる―
07:08
Everywhere I went, I felt like
唯一のスーツケースのようでした
07:10
my imagination was the only suitcase
私は物語によって
07:12
I could take with me.
情緒的バランスや
07:14
Stories gave me a sense of center,
連続性や一貫性を得たのです
07:16
continuity and coherence,
20代半ば 大好きな街―
07:18
the three big Cs that I otherwise lacked.
イスタンブールに移り
07:21
In my mid-twenties, I moved to Istanbul,
活気に満ちた場所で暮らしながら
07:23
the city I adore.
執筆活動をしました
07:25
I lived in a very vibrant, diverse neighborhood
1999年 イスタンブールで
07:28
where I wrote several of my novels.
地震がありました
07:30
I was in Istanbul when the earthquake hit
明け方3時で 私は外に飛び出ると
07:32
in 1999.
ある光景が目に飛び込んできました
07:34
When I ran out of the building at three in the morning,
社会の外れ者には目もくれない
07:37
I saw something that stopped me in my tracks.
普段は不機嫌な
07:40
There was the local grocer there --
商店の店主が座りこみ
07:42
a grumpy, old man who didn't sell alcohol
脇には 黒いロングのかつらをかぶり
07:44
and didn't speak to marginals.
涙でマスカラが落ちた
07:46
He was sitting next to a transvestite
女装者がいました
07:49
with a long black wig
震えた手つきで
07:51
and mascara running down her cheeks.
タバコを取り出し
07:53
I watched the man open a pack of cigarettes
彼女にふるまう店主の姿が
07:55
with trembling hands
いまだに私の脳裏に
07:57
and offer one to her,
焼きついています
07:59
and that is the image of the night of the earthquake
保守的な店主と泣いている女装者が
08:01
in my mind today --
共に歩道でタバコを吸っている光景です
08:03
a conservative grocer and a crying transvestite
死や破壊に直面して
08:06
smoking together on the sidewalk.
表面上の相違点は消え
08:08
In the face of death and destruction,
短時間であっても
08:11
our mundane differences evaporated,
私たちはひとつになりました
08:13
and we all became one
物語にも同じ効果があると思います
08:15
even if for a few hours.
フィクションと地震が同じ重みという意味ではありませんが
08:17
But I've always believed that stories, too, have a similar effect on us.
優れた小説を読むと
08:20
I'm not saying that fiction has the magnitude of an earthquake,
心地よい住居を後にして
08:23
but when we are reading a good novel,
一人で夜の街にくり出し
08:25
we leave our small, cozy apartments behind,
今まで知らなかった人たちと出会い始めます
08:28
go out into the night alone
偏見の対象だった人とさえ 親交が生まれるかもしれません
08:30
and start getting to know people we had never met before
私はその後
08:33
and perhaps had even been biased against.
ボストンとミシガンで大学に通いました
08:36
Shortly after, I went
そこでは地理的な変化よりも
08:38
to a women's college in Boston, then Michigan.
言葉の転換を経験しました
08:41
I experienced this, not so much as a geographical shift,
私は英語で小説を書き始めました
08:44
as a linguistic one.
移民のような立場ではない私に
08:46
I started writing fiction in English.
英語で書く理由を尋ねる人がいますが
08:48
I'm not an immigrant, refugee or exile --
言語を使い分けることで
08:50
they ask me why I do this --
自分自身を再び作り出せるのです
08:52
but the commute between languages
私はトルコ語で執筆するのが大好きです
08:54
gives me the chance to recreate myself.
私にはロマンチックで感情に訴える言語だからです
08:57
I love writing in Turkish,
英語も好きですが 英語は私にとって
08:59
which to me is very poetic and very emotional,
数理的で知性に訴える言語です
09:02
and I love writing in English, which to me
それぞれの言語に 違ったつながりを感じます
09:04
is very mathematical and cerebral.
何百万もの人たちのように
09:06
So I feel connected to each language in a different way.
私は英語を
09:09
For me, like millions of other people
勉強して身につけました
09:11
around the world today,
ある程度の年齢になってから
09:13
English is an acquired language.
新しい言語を学ぼうとすると
09:15
When you're a latecomer to a language,
常にもどかしさを
09:17
what happens is you live there
感じることになります
09:20
with a continuous
人を笑わせたり
09:22
and perpetual frustration.
気のきいたコメントをしたくても
09:24
As latecomers, we always want to say more, you know,
言葉が出てこないのは
09:26
crack better jokes, say better things,
心と言語能力に差があるからです
09:29
but we end up saying less
その差があることで 気後れしますが
09:31
because there's a gap between the mind and the tongue.
おじけづかないことを身につけると
09:33
And that gap is very intimidating.
その感覚も刺激的です
09:36
But if we manage not to be frightened by it,
ボストンで感じたことですが
09:38
it's also stimulating.
いらだちが刺激になりました
09:40
And this is what I discovered in Boston --
当時 祖母は
09:42
that frustration was very stimulating.
私の身の振り方を
09:45
At this stage, my grandmother,
懸念していて
09:46
who had been watching the course of my life
いつものお祈りの中で
09:48
with increasing anxiety,
私が結婚して落ち着くことを
09:50
started to include in her daily prayers
願っていました
09:52
that I urgently get married
神は祖母の見方をしたようで 私は結婚をしました
09:54
so that I could settle down once and for all.
(会場: 笑い声)
09:57
And because God loves her, I did get married.
家庭に落ち着くのではなく
10:00
(Laughter)
私はアリゾナに引っ越しました
10:02
But instead of settling down,
夫はイスタンブールにいるので
10:04
I went to Arizona.
私は行ったり来たりの生活を始めました
10:06
And since my husband is in Istanbul,
両極端にある―
10:08
I started commuting between Arizona and Istanbul --
二つの街です
10:11
the two places on the surface of earth
私には肉体的にも精神的にも
10:13
that couldn't be more different.
遊牧民のような一面があります
10:15
I guess one part of me has always been a nomad,
物語が私を追いかけ
10:18
physically and spiritually.
人生を問うかのごとく
10:20
Stories accompany me,
記憶の断片をつなぎ合わせ続けます
10:22
keeping my pieces and memories together,
物語は大好きなのですが
10:24
like an existential glue.
最近 あることに気がつきました
10:26
Yet as much as I love stories,
物語がただの物語以上に見られると
10:28
recently, I've also begun to think
その魔法を失うということです
10:31
that they lose their magic
これは皆さんにも
10:33
if and when a story is seen as more than a story.
ぜひ考えていただきたい内容です
10:36
And this is a subject that I would love
私が英語で執筆した小説が 初めてアメリカで
10:38
to think about together.
出版されたとき ある文芸評論家が言いました
10:40
When my first novel written in English came out in America,
“面白かったけど 内容が気に食わない”
10:43
I heard an interesting remark from a literary critic.
(会場: 笑い声)
10:46
"I liked your book," he said, "but I wish you had written it differently."
どういう意味か尋ねると
10:49
(Laughter)
登場人物は多いのに
10:53
I asked him what he meant by that.
トルコ人は一人だけで
10:55
He said, "Well, look at it. There's so many
それも男だと言われました
10:57
Spanish, American, Hispanic characters in it,
ボストンの大学の構内を舞台にしたので
10:59
but there's only one Turkish character and it's a man."
トルコ人よりも
11:02
Now the novel took place on a university campus in Boston,
国際色にあふれている方が
11:05
so to me, it was normal
普通だと思ったのですが
11:07
that there be more international characters in it
それは評論家が求めていたものではなく
11:09
than Turkish characters,
私の作風では今後も
11:11
but I understood what my critic was looking for.
期待に添えないことがわかりました
11:13
And I also understood that I
彼は私のアイデンティティの証拠を見たかったのです
11:15
would keep disappointing him.
私がトルコ人女性だからという理由で
11:17
He wanted to see the manifestation of my identity.
本にもトルコ人女性を期待していました
11:20
He was looking for a Turkish woman in the book
現実世界が物語に影響されることは話題にあがります
11:23
because I happened to be one.
でも 物語が各地で読まれ批評されている方法に
11:25
We often talk about how stories change the world,
どれだけアイデンティティ政治が
11:28
but we should also see how the world of identity politics
影響を及ぼすのかという点にも
11:31
affects the way stories
目を向けるべきです
11:33
are being circulated,
多くの作家はこのプレッシャーを感じていますが
11:35
read and reviewed.
西洋人でない場合 プレッシャーはさらに大きいのです
11:37
Many authors feel this pressure,
私のようなイスラム世界出身の女流作家である場合
11:39
but non-Western authors feel it more heavily.
求められる物語は
11:42
If you're a woman writer from the Muslim world, like me,
ムスリム女性の物語で
11:45
then you are expected to write
不幸なムスリム女性の
11:47
the stories of Muslim women
暗い話が好まれます
11:49
and, preferably, the unhappy stories
求められる物語は
11:51
of unhappy Muslim women.
学びが得られ 心に訴える特徴があるもので
11:53
You're expected to write
実験的文学や前衛文学は
11:55
informative, poignant and characteristic stories
欧米作家の分野だと思われています
11:58
and leave the experimental and avant-garde
マドリッドの学校で子どものときに経験したことが
12:00
to your Western colleagues.
現在 文学の世界で起きています
12:02
What I experienced as a child in that school in Madrid
作家を独創性のある―
12:05
is happening in the literary world today.
一人の個人として見ず
12:08
Writers are not seen
個々の文化の
12:10
as creative individuals on their own,
代表者として見ているのです
12:12
but as the representatives
中国人作家やトルコ人作家
12:14
of their respective cultures:
ナイジェリア人作家
12:16
a few authors from China, a few from Turkey,
私たちは異様ではなくても
12:19
a few from Nigeria.
目新しさがあると思われています
12:21
We're all thought to have something very distinctive,
小説家のジェイムズ ボールドウィンが
12:23
if not peculiar.
1984年に受けたインタビューで
12:25
The writer and commuter James Baldwin
同性愛指向について何度も尋ねられました
12:28
gave an interview in 1984
同性愛作家として
12:30
in which he was repeatedly asked about his homosexuality.
分類しようとする記者に対し
12:33
When the interviewer tried to pigeonhole him
ボールドウィンは言いました
12:35
as a gay writer,
“皆にないものは
12:37
Baldwin stopped and said,
私にもないし
12:39
"But don't you see? There's nothing in me
私にないものは
12:41
that is not in everybody else,
皆にもないんです”
12:43
and nothing in everybody else
アイデンティティ政治が生み出す偏見は
12:45
that is not in me."
想像力の自由を束縛します
12:47
When identity politics tries to put labels on us,
欧米以外の作家を
12:50
it is our freedom of imagination that is in danger.
ひとくくりにして
12:53
There's a fuzzy category called
多国籍文学と称する
12:55
multicultural literature
あいまいなカテゴリーがあります
12:57
in which all authors from outside the Western world
約10年前に呼ばれた
12:59
are lumped together.
私には初の多国籍読書会は決して忘れません
13:01
I never forget my first multicultural reading,
私の他に フィリピン人とインドネシア人の
13:03
in Harvard Square about 10 years ago.
作家が招かれました
13:06
We were three writers, one from the Philippines,
笑い話のようですね
13:09
one Turkish and one Indonesian --
(会場: 笑い声)
13:11
like a joke, you know.
この三人の作家が招かれた理由は
13:13
(Laughter)
作風に共通点が
13:15
And the reason why we were brought together
あったからではなく
13:17
was not because we shared an artistic style
国籍だけの理由でした
13:19
or a literary taste.
多国籍文学の作家はフィクションのように
13:21
It was only because of our passports.
想像力を使うより
13:23
Multicultural writers are expected to tell real stories,
実話を語ることを求められます
13:26
not so much the imaginary.
作家自身のみならず
13:28
A function is attributed to fiction.
架空の登場人物も
13:31
In this way, not only the writers themselves,
さらに大きなものの代表になります
13:33
but also their fictional characters
しかし
13:36
become the representatives of something larger.
物語を物語以上に
13:39
But I must quickly add
見る傾向は
13:41
that this tendency to see a story
欧米に限ったことではなく
13:43
as more than a story
どこでも起こります
13:45
does not solely come from the West.
私がこれを初めて経験したのは
13:47
It comes from everywhere.
小説の登場人物が発した言葉を理由に
13:49
And I experienced this firsthand
2005年に裁判にかけられたときでした
13:51
when I was put on trial in 2005
私は女性の目から見た
13:54
for the words my fictional characters uttered in a novel.
アルメニア人家族とトルコ人家族の
13:57
I had intended to write
建設的で多層的な小説を
13:59
a constructive, multi-layered novel
書くつもりでいました
14:02
about an Armenian and a Turkish family
私の小さな話は告発されて
14:04
through the eyes of women.
大問題となりました
14:06
My micro story became a macro issue
二つの国民の対立を書き
14:09
when I was prosecuted.
賛否両論が寄せられましたが
14:11
Some people criticized, others praised me
どちらの側にも これはフィクションなのだと
14:13
for writing about the Turkish-Armenian conflict.
伝えたかった時期がありました
14:16
But there were times when I wanted to remind both sides
ただの物語だったのです
14:19
that this was fiction.
“ただの物語” といっても
14:21
It was just a story.
自分の本を軽く見ているわけではありません
14:23
And when I say, "just a story,"
私はフィクション小説を
14:25
I'm not trying to belittle my work.
目的達成の手段としてではなく
14:27
I want to love and celebrate fiction
あるがままに楽しみたいのです
14:29
for what it is,
作家は政治的意見を述べる権利があり
14:31
not as a means to an end.
優れた政治的小説もありますが
14:33
Writers are entitled to their political opinions,
フィクション小説の言葉は
14:35
and there are good political novels out there,
駆け引きのためではありません
14:38
but the language of fiction
チェーホフは言いました
14:40
is not the language of daily politics.
“問題の解決策と
14:42
Chekhov said,
問題を投げかける正当な方法は
14:44
"The solution to a problem
まったく別ものである
14:46
and the correct way of posing the question
後者だけが表現者に課せられた責任だ”
14:48
are two completely separate things.
アイデンティティ政治は人間を隔て
14:51
And only the latter is an artist's responsibility."
境界線をつくりあげますが
14:55
Identity politics divides us. Fiction connects.
フィクションは人と人をつなぎ
14:58
One is interested in sweeping generalizations.
ニュアンスで心に訴え
15:01
The other, in nuances.
境界線の認識はありません
15:03
One draws boundaries.
アイデンティティ政治は頑丈なレンガでできていますが
15:05
The other recognizes no frontiers.
フィクションは流水です
15:07
Identity politics is made of solid bricks.
オスマン帝国時代 メッダフという語り手がいました
15:10
Fiction is flowing water.
メッダフは喫茶店を巡回し
15:13
In the Ottoman times, there were itinerant storytellers called "meddah."
即興で物語を
15:16
They would go to coffee houses,
披露するのです
15:18
where they would tell a story in front of an audience,
メッダフは登場人物によって
15:20
often improvising.
声を使い分け
15:22
With each new person in the story,
役を演じました
15:24
the meddah would change his voice,
階級や宗教に関係なく
15:26
impersonating that character.
どんな人でもメッダフの話を聴きに行けました
15:28
Everybody could go and listen, you know --
物語が どんな境界線をも超えたのです
15:30
ordinary people, even the sultan, Muslims and non-Muslims.
ナスレッディン ホジャの物語が
15:33
Stories cut across all boundaries,
中東 北アフリカ バルカン半島
15:36
like "The Tales of Nasreddin Hodja,"
アジアで人気があったようなものです
15:38
which were very popular throughout the Middle East,
物語は今も
15:40
North Africa, the Balkans and Asia.
国境を超え続けます
15:43
Today, stories continue
パレスチナとイスラエルの政治家は
15:45
to transcend borders.
お互いに耳を傾けませんが
15:47
When Palestinian and Israeli politicians talk,
今でもパレスチナの人たちは
15:50
they usually don't listen to each other,
ユダヤ人作家の小説を読み
15:52
but a Palestinian reader
逆もまた同様に 登場人物とつながりを感じ
15:54
still reads a novel by a Jewish author,
共感するのです
15:56
and vice versa, connecting and empathizing
文学は境界線を乗り越えなくてはいけません
15:59
with the narrator.
それができなければ
16:01
Literature has to take us beyond.
優れた文学ではありません
16:03
If it cannot take us there,
かつて内向的だった私は
16:05
it is not good literature.
本によって救われました
16:07
Books have saved the introverted,
本を崇める危険性も
16:09
timid child that I was -- that I once was.
私は認識しています
16:12
But I'm also aware of the danger
詩人のルーミーが
16:14
of fetishizing them.
シャムセ タブリーズに会ったとき
16:16
When the poet and mystic, Rumi,
シャムセがまずしたことは
16:18
met his spiritual companion, Shams of Tabriz,
ルーミーの本を水に放り投げ
16:21
one of the first things the latter did
文字が消えるのを見たことでした
16:23
was to toss Rumi's books into water
スーフィー信者は言います “自分を超えられない知識は
16:25
and watch the letters dissolve.
無知よりもずっと悪い”
16:27
The Sufis say, "Knowledge that takes you not beyond yourself
現代の文化的ゲットーが抱える問題は
16:31
is far worse than ignorance."
知識の欠如ではありません
16:34
The problem with today's cultural ghettos
お互いに関する知識は十分にもっています
16:36
is not lack of knowledge --
でも 私たち自身を超えられない知識は
16:38
we know a lot about each other, or so we think --
エリート主義者をつくりだし
16:41
but knowledge that takes us not beyond ourselves:
切り離されていきます
16:44
it makes us elitist,
私は人生を 動くコンパスに
16:46
distant and disconnected.
例えるのが好きです
16:48
There's a metaphor which I love:
片方の脚を一か所に置きながら
16:50
living like a drawing compass.
もう片方が円を描き
16:52
As you know, one leg of the compass is static, rooted in a place.
常に動いている姿です
16:55
Meanwhile, the other leg
私の小説も同様に
16:57
draws a wide circle, constantly moving.
トルコにルーツをもち
16:59
Like that, my fiction as well.
イスタンブールに根付いていながら
17:01
One part of it is rooted in Istanbul,
世界を旅して
17:03
with strong Turkish roots,
いろいろな文化と結びつくのです
17:06
but the other part travels the world,
そんな意味で私の小説は
17:08
connecting to different cultures.
地域的でありながら 国際的だと
17:10
In that sense, I like to think of my fiction
考えています
17:12
as both local and universal,
イスタンブールに行ったことがある方は
17:15
both from here and everywhere.
トプカプ宮殿を見たことがあるでしょう
17:17
Now those of you who have been to Istanbul
オスマン帝国の君主が
17:19
have probably seen Topkapi Palace,
400年以上も住居とした宮殿です
17:21
which was the residence of Ottoman sultans
この宮殿には めかけが住んでいた―
17:23
for more than 400 years.
部屋があり その外に
17:26
In the palace, just outside the quarters
ジンの集会所 と呼ばれた場所があります
17:28
of the favorite concubines,
建物に はさまれています
17:30
there's an area called The Gathering Place of the Djinn.
私はこの概念に興味をそそられています
17:33
It's between buildings.
二つの空間の間にある場所を
17:35
I'm intrigued by this concept.
怪しむ人はたくさんいます
17:37
We usually distrust those areas
そのような場所はジンのような
17:39
that fall in between things.
超自然的な生き物の棲家で
17:41
We see them as the domain
彼らは得体の知れないものの
17:43
of supernatural creatures like the djinn,
象徴だからです
17:45
who are made of smokeless fire
でも
17:47
and are the symbol of elusiveness.
人目を避けた その空間が
17:49
But my point is perhaps
作家や芸術家に一番必要なものだと思います
17:51
that elusive space
私がフィクション小説を書くとき
17:53
is what writers and artists need most.
大事にするのは可変性です
17:56
When I write fiction
10ページ先が予測できなかったり
17:58
I cherish elusiveness and changeability.
登場人物の意外な行動が好きなのです
18:00
I like not knowing what will happen 10 pages later.
ムスリム女性を題材に
18:03
I like it when my characters surprise me.
小説を書いたときに
18:05
I might write about
幸せな物語になるかもしれませんし
18:07
a Muslim woman in one novel,
ノルウェーのハンサムな
18:09
and perhaps it will be a very happy story,
ゲイの大学教授を主人公にするかもしれません
18:11
and in my next book, I might write
心が生み出すものならば
18:13
about a handsome, gay professor in Norway.
どんなことでも書けるのです
18:16
As long as it comes from our hearts,
オードリ ロードは言いました
18:18
we can write about anything and everything.
“白人の父から教えられたのは
18:21
Audre Lorde once said,
我思う ゆえに我あり”
18:23
"The white fathers taught us to say,
彼女が提言したのは “我感じる ゆえに我は自由”
18:26
'I think, therefore I am.'"
素晴らしいパラダイムシフトだと思います
18:28
She suggested, "I feel, therefore I am free."
でも 今日に至って
18:31
I think it was a wonderful paradigm shift.
創作文の授業で
18:34
And yet, why is it that,
知っていることから書きなさいと
18:36
in creative writing courses today,
教えるのはなぜでしょうか
18:38
the very first thing we teach students is
その始め方に問題があるのではないでしょうか
18:40
"write what you know"?
文学とは必ずしも私たちの本質や
18:42
Perhaps that's not the right way to start at all.
知識やアイデンティティに
18:45
Imaginative literature is not necessarily about
関するものではありません
18:48
writing who we are or what we know
若者や我々自身に教えるべきことは
18:51
or what our identity is about.
心を広げて 私たちが感じることを
18:54
We should teach young people and ourselves
書いていくことです
18:56
to expand our hearts
文化的ゲットーから抜け出し
18:58
and write what we can feel.
他の世界を見るべきです
19:00
We should get out of our cultural ghetto
物語は スーフィーの旋回舞踏のように
19:02
and go visit the next one and the next.
接点がなかった輪と輪に つなぎ目をつくります
19:05
In the end, stories move like whirling dervishes,
アイデンティティ政治に関係なく
19:08
drawing circles beyond circles.
物語は人間性をつなげる―
19:11
They connect all humanity,
肯定的側面があります
19:13
regardless of identity politics,
スーフィーの詩で締めくくります
19:15
and that is the good news.
“これを限りに 友になろう
19:17
And I would like to finish with an old Sufi poem:
もう争いは やめにしよう
19:19
"Come, let us be friends for once;
お互いを愛し合おう
19:22
let us make life easy on us;
地球は皆のものだから”
19:24
let us be lovers and loved ones;
ありがとう
19:26
the earth shall be left to no one."
(拍手)
19:29
Thank you.
19:31
(Applause)
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Kayo Mizutani

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About the speaker:

Elif Shafak - Novelist
Elif Shafak explicitly defies definition -- her writing blends East and West, feminism and tradition, the local and the global, Sufism and rationalism, creating one of today's most unique voices in literature.

Why you should listen

Elif Shafak is the most-read female author in Turkey, where she is as well known for her descriptions of backstreets Istanbul as she is for her global and multicultural perspective. Her writing is at once rooted in her politically feminist education and her deep respect for and knowledge of Sufism and Ottoman culture.

Using these paradoxes, she creates a third way to understand Turkey's intricate history. Shafak's international sensibilities have been shaped by a life spent in a very diverse range of cities, including Ankara, Cologne, Madrid, Amman and Boston. She has written novels in Turkish -- such as her first work, Pinhan ("The Sufi") -- as well as English, including her most recent novel, The Forty Rules of Love, in which two powerful parallel narratives take the reader from contemporary Boston to thirteenth-century Konya, where the Sufi poet Rumi encountered his spiritual mentor, the whirling dervish known as Shams.

Her uncommon political stances have not gone without controversy. At the publication of her novel The Bastard of Istanbul,  which crosses two family histories, one Turkish, the other Armenian, she faced charges for "insulting Turkishness." The case was later dismissed, and Shafak's role in the rare combination of radical and sentimental writer remains uninterrupted. Shafak also writes song lyrics for well-known rock musicians in her country.

More profile about the speaker
Elif Shafak | Speaker | TED.com