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TEDSalon London Spring 2011

Jonathan Drori: The beautiful tricks of flowers

ジョナサン・ドローリ:花が仕掛ける美しい罠

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見事な画像を使ったこのトークでジョナサン・ドローリが語るのは、地上に25万種類以上も存在するという「花を咲かせる植物」がいかにして昆虫を惹き寄せて花粉を運んでもらえるように進化してきたのかということです。”着地場所”を設けて昆虫を招いたり、紫外線に輝く色合いを纏ったり、手の込んだ罠を作ったり、発情期の昆虫のそっくりさんになったり、その方法は様々でした。

- Educator
Jonathan Drori commissioned the BBC's very first websites, one highlight in a long career devoted to online culture and educational media -- and understanding how we learn. Full bio

Do you know
花を咲かせる植物が
00:17
how many species of flowering plants there are?
どれぐらいあるか ご存知ですか?
00:19
There are a quarter of a million -- at least those are the ones we know about --
少なくとも わかっているだけで25万種です
00:22
a quarter of a million species of flowering plants.
25万種の植物が 花を咲かせるのです
00:25
And flowers are a real bugger.
本当に大したものです
00:28
They're really difficult for plants to produce.
花を作るのは 植物にとって大仕事です
00:30
They take an enormous amount of energy and a lot of resources.
大量のエネルギーと資源が必要です
00:32
Why would they go to that bother?
なぜ そこまでするのでしょう
00:35
And the answer of course, like so many things in the world,
ありがちな話ですが
00:37
is sex.
答えは性です
00:39
I know what's on your mind when you're looking at these pictures.
この写真 あるものを想起させますね
00:41
And the reason that sexual reproduction is so important --
生殖が非常に重要なのは -
00:45
there are lots of other things that plants can do to reproduce.
植物には繁殖の方法が他にもたくさんあります
00:48
You can take cuttings;
例えば挿し木は 言わば
00:51
they can sort of have sex with themselves;
自らと交わるようなもので
00:53
they can pollinate themselves.
自分自身を受粉させます
00:55
But they really need to spread their genes
でも 他の遺伝子と受粉して
00:57
to mix with other genes
生態系への適応を進めるためには
00:59
so that they can adapt to environmental niches.
自らの遺伝子を広く飛ばすことが必要です
01:01
Evolution works that way.
進化はそのようにして起こります
01:03
Now the way that plants transmit that information
植物は 花粉を通じて
01:05
is through pollen.
遺伝情報を伝えます
01:07
Some of you may have seen some of these pictures before.
これらの写真をご存知の人もいるでしょう
01:09
As I say, every home should have a scanning electron microscope
家には電子顕微鏡を置くべきです
01:11
to be able to see these.
こうしたものが見られますから
01:13
And there is as many different kinds of pollen
花を咲かせる植物の数と同じぐらい
01:15
as there are flowering plants.
花粉の種類も多岐にわたります
01:17
And that's actually rather useful for forensics and so on.
法医学などでも役立つぐらいです
01:19
Most pollen that causes hay fever for us
花粉症を引き起こす花粉は ほとんどが
01:22
is from plants that use the wind
風を使って花粉を広める
01:25
to disseminate the pollen,
植物のものです
01:27
and that's a very inefficient process,
とても非効率的な方法なので
01:29
which is why it gets up our noses so much.
私たちの鼻にもたくさん飛んできます
01:32
Because you have to chuck out masses and masses of it,
花粉に包まれた雄しべの生殖細胞が
01:34
hoping that your sex cells, your male sex cells,
偶然にでも何とか
01:36
which are held within the pollen,
他の花に届くようにと
01:39
will somehow reach another flower just by chance.
膨大な花粉を送り出すのです
01:41
So all the grasses, which means all of the cereal crops,
全ての穀物と
01:43
and most of the trees
ほとんどの木は
01:46
have wind-borne pollen.
花粉を風で飛ばします
01:48
But most species
でも他の多くの種では
01:50
actually use insects to do their bidding,
昆虫を使って受粉します
01:52
and that's more intelligent in a way,
ある意味 より賢い方法です
01:54
because the pollen, they don't need so much of it.
花粉が少なくて済みますから
01:57
The insects
昆虫や
02:00
and other species
他の生き物は
02:02
can take the pollen,
花粉を身につけ
02:05
transfer it directly to where it's required.
直接目的地に運ぶことができます
02:07
So we're aware, obviously, of the relationship
もちろん私たちは
02:09
between insects and plants.
昆虫と植物の関係を知っています
02:12
There's a symbiotic relationship there,
ハエでも鳥でも蜂でも
02:14
whether it's flies or birds or bees,
よく見られる関係は
02:16
they're getting something in return,
花粉を運ぶ代わりに
02:19
and that something in return is generally nectar.
花蜜をもらうというものです
02:21
Sometimes that symbiosis
その共生関係は
02:24
has led to wonderful adaptations --
時に素晴らしい適応を生みます
02:26
the hummingbird hawk-moth
これはスズメガの一種で
02:28
is beautiful in its adaptation.
美しい適応をしています
02:30
The plant gets something,
植物が何かを得て
02:32
and the hawk-moth spreads the pollen somewhere else.
スズメガが花粉を他の場所に運びます
02:34
Plants have evolved
植物は 道に迷った蜂のために
02:38
to create little landing strips here and there
あちこちに小さな着地場所を作るよう
02:40
for bees that might have lost their way.
進化してきました
02:42
There are markings on many plants
多くの植物には
02:44
that look like other insects.
昆虫のように見える模様があります
02:46
These are the anthers of a lily,
これはユリの葯(やく)です
02:49
cleverly done
巧みに作られています
02:51
so that when the unsuspecting insect
何も知らない昆虫が
02:53
lands on it,
ここにとまると
02:55
the anther flips up and whops it on the back
葯が跳ね上がって虫の背中を打ちます
02:57
with a great load of pollen that it then goes to another plant with.
その虫は花粉をたっぷり積んで別の花へと行くのです
02:59
And there's an orchid
ある種のランは
03:02
that might look to you as if it's got jaws,
顎を持っているように見えます
03:05
and in a way, it has; it forces the insect to crawl out,
ある意味 本当の顎です 昆虫は這い出さねばならず
03:07
getting covered in pollen that it takes somewhere else.
花粉に包まれて別の場所に行くことになります
03:10
Orchids: there are 20,000, at least,
ランには
03:14
species of orchids --
少なくとも2万種あります
03:16
amazingly, amazingly diverse.
本当に驚くほど多様で
03:18
And they get up to all sorts of tricks.
いろいろな仕掛けを持っています
03:20
They have to try and attract pollinators
花粉の運び手を惹きつけて
03:22
to do their bidding.
受粉しなければなりません
03:25
This orchid, known as Darwin's orchid,
これはダーウィンのランとして知られています
03:27
because it's one that he studied
ダーウィンがそれを見て研究し
03:30
and made a wonderful prediction when he saw it --
素晴らしい予測をしたからです
03:32
you can see that there's a very long nectar tube
ランの花から とても長い花蜜の管が
03:34
that descends down
下に伸びているのが
03:37
from the orchid.
おわかりですね
03:39
And basically what the insect has to do --
ここは花の中ですが
03:41
we're in the middle of the flower --
昆虫は 小さな口吻を
03:43
it has to stick its little proboscis
真ん中に突き立てて
03:45
right into the middle of that
管をずっと下っていかないと
03:47
and all the way down that nectar tube
花蜜のところには
03:49
to get to the nectar.
たどり着くことができません
03:51
And Darwin said, looking at this flower,
ダーウィンは この花を見て言いました
03:53
"I guess something has coevolved with this."
「何かがこれと共に進化してきたはずだ」
03:56
And sure enough,
その通りで
03:58
there's the insect.
こんな昆虫がいます
04:00
And I mean, normally it kind of rolls it away,
通常はぐるぐる巻きの口吻ですが
04:02
but in its erect form,
真っ直ぐに伸ばすと
04:04
that's what it looks like.
こんな姿になります
04:06
Now you can imagine
想像してみて下さい
04:09
that if nectar
もし花蜜が
04:11
is such a valuable thing
とても貴重で
04:13
and expensive for the plant to produce
作るのが大変なもので
04:16
and it attracts lots of pollinators,
たくさんの運び屋を惹きつけるものならば
04:18
then, just as in human sex,
人間の場合と同様に
04:21
people might start to deceive.
こんな風に欺くかもしれません
04:23
They might say, "I've got a bit of nectar. Do you want to come and get it?"
「うちにたくさんの花蜜があるよ 来ないかい?」
04:25
Now this is a plant.
ここに植物があります
04:28
This is a plant here
南アフリカの昆虫は
04:31
that insects in South Africa just love,
これが大好きで
04:33
and they've evolved with a long proboscis
そこにある花蜜をもらうために
04:37
to get the nectar at the bottom.
口吻を長くするよう進化してきました
04:40
And this is the mimic.
こちらは模倣版です
04:42
So this is a plant that is mimicking the first plant.
先ほどの植物を真似しています
04:44
And here is the long-probosced fly
長い口吻を持つハエがいますが
04:47
that has not gotten any nectar from the mimic,
模倣版の植物からは花蜜を得ることができません
04:50
because the mimic doesn't give it any nectar. It thought it would get some.
花蜜を持っていないからです
04:53
So not only has the fly
ハエは 模倣の植物から
04:56
not got the nectar from the mimic plant,
花蜜を得られないだけでなく
04:58
it's also -- if you look very closely
よく見るとわかりますが
05:00
just at the head end, you can see that it's got a bit of pollen
頭のところに少し花粉が付いていて
05:02
that it would be transmitting to another plant,
それを他の植物に運ぶことになります
05:05
if only some botanist hadn't come along
植物学者がやって来て
05:07
and stuck it to a blue piece of card.
捕まえてしまわなければ の話ですが
05:09
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:11
Now deceit carries on through the plant kingdom.
欺きは植物界の至る所で行われています
05:16
This flower with its black dots:
この花には黒い点々があります
05:19
they might look like black dots to us,
私たちには黒い点に見えますが
05:21
but if I tell you, to a male insect of the right species,
ある種の昆虫のオスには
05:23
that looks like two females
可愛くて追いかけ甲斐のある
05:26
who are really, really hot to trot.
2匹のメスのように見えます
05:28
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:30
And when the insect gets there and lands on it,
オスがやってきて とまると
05:32
dousing itself in pollen, of course, that it's going to take to another plant,
花粉の中に突っ込んで もちろんそれを運ぶことになります
05:35
if you look at the every-home-should-have-one scanning electron microscope picture,
「一家に一台の電子顕微鏡」で撮った写真を見ると
05:38
you can see that there are actually some patterning there,
あるパターンが見えてきます
05:42
which is three-dimensional.
三次元のパターンです
05:44
So it probably even feels good for the insect,
それは見栄えが良いだけでなく
05:46
as well as looking good.
昆虫を心地良くさせるのでしょう
05:49
And these electron microscope pictures --
こうした電子顕微鏡の写真から
05:52
here's one of an orchid mimicking an insect --
- このランは昆虫を模倣していますが -
05:54
you can see that different parts of the structure
私たちの目には 植物は部分ごとに
05:57
have different colors and different textures to our eye,
違う色と質感を持っているように見えますが
06:00
have very, very different textures
昆虫は 随分と違った質感を
06:03
to what an insect might perceive.
感じているかもしれません
06:05
And this one is evolved to mimic
この植物は
06:08
a glossy metallic surface
ある種の甲虫のような 光沢のある
06:10
you see on some beetles.
金属っぽい表面を模倣しています
06:13
And under the scanning electron microscope,
走査型電子顕微鏡を使うと
06:15
you can see the surface there --
表面はこんな感じに見えます
06:18
really quite different from the other surfaces we looked at.
甲虫の表面とはずいぶん違います
06:21
Sometimes the whole plant
時には 植物全体が 私たちの目にも
06:25
mimics an insect, even to us.
昆虫のように見えることがあります
06:27
I mean, I think that looks like some sort of flying animal or beast.
これは飛んでいる動物のように見えます
06:30
It's a wonderful, amazing thing.
素晴らしいですね
06:33
This one's clever. It's called obsidian.
これはオンシジュームという賢い植物です
06:36
I think of it as insidium sometimes.
油断のならない花です
06:39
To the right species of bee,
この花は ある種のハチにとって
06:41
this looks like another very aggressive bee,
別の獰猛なハチのように見えるので
06:44
and it goes and bonks it on the head lots and lots of times to try and drive it away,
追い払おうと何度も頭をぶつけてきて
06:46
and, of course, covers itself with pollen.
花粉だらけになります
06:49
The other thing it does
他の例を挙げると
06:51
is that this plant mimics another orchid
この植物は 昆虫が好きな
06:53
that has a wonderful store
食べ物をたくさん蓄えている
06:56
of food for insects.
別のランを模倣していますが
06:59
And this one doesn't have anything for them.
自らは昆虫に何もあげません
07:01
So it's deceiving on two levels --
2段階でだましているのです
07:03
fabulous.
素晴らしい
07:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:07
Here we see ylang ylang,
イランイランノキです
07:09
the component of many perfumes.
いろいろな香水に使われています
07:11
I actually smelt someone with some on earlier.
先ほど 誰かからこの匂いがしました
07:13
And the flowers don't really have to be that gaudy.
花はそんなに派手でなくてよいのです
07:16
They're sending out a fantastic array of scent
昆虫に向けて
07:18
to any insect that'll have it.
素晴らしい香りを放っています
07:21
This one doesn't smell so good.
この花は
07:24
This is a flower
そんなに良い香りではありません
07:26
that really, really smells pretty nasty
本当に嫌な臭いがして
07:28
and is designed, again, evolved,
死肉のように見える姿に
07:31
to look like carrion.
進化してきました
07:34
So flies love this.
ハエはこれが大好きで
07:37
They fly in and they pollinate.
花に飛び込んでは受粉させます
07:39
This, which is helicodiceros,
このツイストアラムは
07:42
is also known as dead horse arum.
「死んだ馬アラム」とも呼ばれています
07:46
I don't know what a dead horse actually smells like,
死んだ馬の臭いは知りませんが
07:49
but this one probably smells pretty much like it.
それと似たような臭いがするのでしょう
07:51
It's really horrible.
ひどいものです
07:53
And blowflies just can't help themselves.
クロバエはたまらなくなり
07:55
They fly into this thing,
この花に飛び込んで
07:57
and they fly all the way down it.
ずっと中に潜り込み
07:59
They lay their eggs in it,
よい死肉だと思って
08:01
thinking it's a nice bit of carrion,
卵を産みつけますが
08:03
and not realizing that there's no food for the eggs, that the eggs are going to die,
食べるものがないので 卵は死んでしまいます
08:05
but the plant, meanwhile, has benefited,
一方で植物は恩恵を受けます
08:08
because the bristles release
毛が開いて
08:11
and the flies disappear
ハエは次の花へと飛んで
08:13
to pollinate the next flower -- fantastic.
受粉させてくれるからです - 素晴らしい
08:15
Here's arum, arum maculatum,
これはマムシアルムで
08:18
"lords and ladies," or "cuckoo-pint" in this country.
「ロード&レディ」や「カッコー・パイント」とも呼ばれます
08:20
I photographed this thing last week in Dorset.
先週ドーセットで撮った写真です
08:23
This thing heats up
この植物は 周囲より
08:25
by about 15 degrees above ambient temperature --
15度ほども高い熱を発します
08:27
amazing.
驚くべきことです
08:29
And if you look down into it,
見下ろすと
08:31
there's this sort of dam past the spadix,
花軸の小さな花のところにダムのようなものがあります
08:33
flies get attracted by the heat --
ハエが熱に惹かれてやってきます
08:36
which is boiling off volatile chemicals, little midges --
熱が化学物質を発して
08:38
and they get trapped underneath in this container.
ハエはこの入れ物に捕われます
08:40
They drink this fabulous nectar
そしておいしい花蜜を飲み
08:43
and then they're all a bit sticky.
体がネバネバしてきます
08:46
At night they get covered in pollen,
夜には 降り注ぐ花粉に
08:48
which showers down over them,
体が覆われ
08:51
and then the bristles that we saw above,
さっき見た毛がしぼんで
08:53
they sort of wilt and allow all these midges out, covered in pollen --
花粉に覆われた虫は外に出ることができます
08:55
fabulous thing.
素晴らしい仕組みです
08:58
Now if you think that's fabulous, this is one of my great favorites.
そして私のお気に入りがこちら
09:00
This is the philodendron selloum.
フィロデンドロン・セロームです
09:03
For anyone here from Brazil, you'll know about this plant.
ブラジル出身の方はこの植物をご存知でしょう
09:06
This is the most amazing thing.
これは本当にすごいんです
09:09
That sort of phallic bit there
このペニスのようなものは
09:11
is about a foot long.
30センチほどの長さがあり
09:13
And it does something
私の知る限りでは
09:15
that no other plant that I know of does,
他のどの植物もしないようなことを行います
09:17
and that is that when it flowers --
花が咲くときに -
09:20
that's the spadix in the middle there --
真ん中にあるのがそうです -
09:22
for a period of about two days,
2日間に渡って
09:24
it metabolizes in a way
まるでほ乳類のように
09:27
which is rather similar to mammals.
新陳代謝をするのです
09:29
So instead of having starch,
植物にとっての食べ物である
09:31
which is the food of plants,
でんぷんの代わりに
09:33
it takes something rather similar to brown fat
この植物は脂肪のようなものを摂取し
09:35
and burns it at such a rate
小さな猫が
09:37
that it's burning fat, metabolizing,
脂肪を燃やして代謝するのと
09:39
about the rate of a small cat.
同じぐらいの速度でそれを燃やします
09:42
And that's twice the energy output, weight for weight,
重さが同じだとすると
09:45
than a hummingbird --
ハチドリの2倍のエネルギー出力です
09:48
absolutely astonishing.
全く驚かされます
09:50
This thing does something else which is unusual.
とても変わったことをしています
09:52
Not only will it raise itself to 115 Fahrenheit,
2日間に渡って
09:54
43 or 44 degrees Centigrade, for two days,
摂氏44度ほどまで自らを熱くするだけでなく
09:57
but it keeps constant temperature.
その温度を一定に保ちます
10:00
There's a thermoregulation mechanism in there
熱を管理するシステムを持っているので
10:03
that keeps constant temperature.
温度が一定になるのです
10:05
"Now why does it do this," I hear you ask.
どうしてこんなことをするのでしょう?
10:07
Now wouldn't you know it,
多分知らないと思いますが
10:09
there's some beetles that just love to make love at that temperature.
ある種の甲虫は この温度での交尾を好みます
10:11
And they get inside, and they get it all on.
中に入ると 準備万端なのです
10:15
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:18
And the plant showers them with pollen,
そして植物は虫に花粉を浴びせかけ
10:20
and off they go and pollinate.
外に出た虫は別の花に受粉します
10:22
And what a wonderful thing it is.
何と素晴らしいことでしょう
10:25
Now most pollinators
受粉の媒介をするものとして思いつくのは
10:28
that we think about are insects,
大抵が昆虫ですが
10:31
but actually in the tropics,
熱帯では
10:33
many birds and butterflies pollinate.
鳥や蝶も受粉を取り持ちます
10:35
And many of the tropical flowers are red,
熱帯の花は多くが赤い色をしています
10:38
and that's because butterflies and birds
蝶や鳥は
10:40
see similarly to us, we think,
私たちと同じように
10:42
and can see the color red very well.
赤がよく見えるからです
10:44
But if you look at the spectrum,
でも光の波長で考えると
10:47
birds and us, we see red, green and blue
鳥や人間は
10:50
and see that spectrum.
赤 緑 青を見ますが
10:53
Insects see green, blue and ultraviolet,
昆虫は 緑 青 そして紫外線が見えます
10:55
and they see various shades of ultraviolet.
いろいろな色調の紫外線です
10:57
So there's something that goes on off the end there.
私たちには見えない何かを見ているのです
10:59
"And wouldn't it be great if we could somehow see what that is," I hear you ask.
それが何なのか 見たいでしょう
11:02
Well yes we can.
ええ 見ることができます
11:05
So what is an insect seeing?
昆虫は何を見ているのでしょうか?
11:07
Last week I took these pictures of rock rose,
先週ドーセットで ロックローズ つまり
11:10
helianthemum, in Dorset.
ハンニチバナを写真に撮りました
11:12
These are little yellow flowers like we all see,
どこにでもあるような 小さな黄色い花が
11:14
little yellow flowers all over the place.
一面に咲いています
11:17
And this is what it looks like with visible light.
可視光の下ではこう見えます
11:19
This is what it looks like if you take out the red.
赤色を除くとこうなります
11:22
Most bees don't perceive red.
ほとんどのハチは赤が見えません
11:25
And then I put some ultraviolet filters on my camera
それからカメラに紫外線透過フィルターをつけ
11:28
and took a very, very long exposure
特定の紫外線の波長を
11:32
with the particular frequencies of ultraviolet light
長時間露光すると
11:35
and this is what I got.
こんな写真ができます
11:38
And that's a real fantastic bull's eye.
ねらいを定める場所が一目瞭然です
11:40
Now we don't know
ハチの目に映るものを
11:43
exactly what a bee sees,
正確に知ることはできません
11:45
any more than you know what I'm seeing
私がこれを赤と呼ぶ時に
11:47
when I call this red.
何を見ているのか 正確には知ることができないのと同じです
11:49
We can't know what's going on in -- let alone an insect's --
人の心も読めないのだから
11:52
another human being's mind.
昆虫の心は なおさらわかりません
11:55
But the contrast will look something like that,
でも色のコントラストはこんな感じに見えるでしょう
11:58
so standing out a lot from the background.
後ろの方がたくさん立ち上がっていますね
12:02
Here's another little flower --
ここに別の小さな花があります
12:04
different range of ultraviolet frequencies,
紫外線の波長が違うので
12:06
different filters
受粉の媒介者の目で見るには
12:09
to match the pollinators.
別のフィルターが必要です
12:11
And that's the sort of thing that it would be seeing.
こんな感じに見えるはずです
12:13
Just in case you think
黄色い花は全て
12:16
that all yellow flowers have this property --
このような特徴を持っていると思うかもしれませんが -
12:18
no flower was damaged in the process of this shot;
撮影は花を傷つけないように行いました
12:21
it was just attached to the tripod,
ただ三脚に取り付けただけです
12:24
not killed --
抜いたり切ったりはしていません -
12:27
then under ultraviolet light,
それで 紫外線を当てた
12:29
look at that.
この写真を見て下さい
12:31
And that could be the basis of a sunscreen
日焼け止めの成分にも使えそうです
12:33
because sunscreens work by absorbing ultraviolet light.
紫外線を吸収すると 日焼けを防げますから
12:35
So maybe the chemical in that would be useful.
この花の化学物質は役に立つでしょう
12:37
Finally, there's one of evening primrose
最後に この月見草は ノルウェーの
12:41
that Bjorn Rorslett from Norway sent me --
ビョルン・ロースレットからもらいましたが
12:44
fantastic hidden pattern.
隠れたパターンを持っています
12:46
And I love the idea of something hidden.
隠れたものには心惹かれます
12:48
I think there's something poetic here,
詩的なものを感じます
12:50
that these pictures taken with ultraviolet filter,
紫外線透過フィルターで撮った写真です
12:52
the main use of that filter
このフィルターは 宇宙飛行士が
12:55
is for astronomers to take pictures of Venus --
金星の写真を撮るために使います
12:57
actually the clouds of Venus.
正確には金星の雲です
13:00
That's the main use of that filter.
それが主な使われ方です
13:03
Venus, of course, is the god of love and fertility,
知っての通り ビーナスは愛と豊穣の神で
13:05
which is the flower story.
それは花にも通じます
13:08
And just as flowers spend a lot of effort
花は多大な努力を払って
13:10
trying to get pollinators to do their bidding,
受粉の媒介者を呼び寄せようとしますが
13:12
they've also somehow managed to persuade us to plant great fields full of them
人間は 花を広大な大地いっぱいに植えたり
13:15
and give them to each other
生まれる時や死ぬ時
13:18
at times of birth and death,
そして特に結婚の際に
13:20
and particularly at marriage,
花を贈ったりします
13:24
which, when you think of it,
結婚というのは
13:26
is the moment that encapsulates
遺伝物質の移動経路を
13:28
the transfer of genetic material
ある生命体からもう一つの生命体へと
13:30
from one organism to another.
定めることなのです
13:33
Thank you very much.
どうもありがとう
13:35
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:37
Translated by Wataru Narita
Reviewed by Takako Sato

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About the speaker:

Jonathan Drori - Educator
Jonathan Drori commissioned the BBC's very first websites, one highlight in a long career devoted to online culture and educational media -- and understanding how we learn.

Why you should listen

Jonathan Drori has dedicated his career to media and learning. As the Head of Commissioning for BBC Online, he led the effort to create bbc.co.uk, the online face of the BBC (an effort he recalls fondly). He came to the web from the TV side of the BBC, where as an editor and producer he headed up dozens of television series on science, education and the arts.

After almost two decades at the BBC, he's now a director at Changing Media Ltd., a media and education consultancy, and is a visiting professor at University of Bristol, where he studies educational media and misperceptions in science. He continues to executive produce the occasional TV series, including 2004's award-winning "The DNA Story" and 2009's "Great Sperm Race." He is on the boards of the Royal Botanic Gardens and the Woodland Trust.

(Photo: Lloyd Davis/flickr)

More profile about the speaker
Jonathan Drori | Speaker | TED.com