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Jonathan Haidt: Can a divided America heal?

Jonathan Haidt: Apakah Amerika yang terpecah bisa bersatu kembali?

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Bagaimanakah AS bisa pulih kembali setelah pemilu presiden 2016 yang penuh dengan pesan negatif dan partisan? Psikolog sosial Jonathan Haidt mempelajari moral yang mendasari pilihan politik kita. Dalam perbincangan dengan Kurator TED Chris Anderson, ia menjelaskan pola pikir dan penyebab historis yang telah menyebabkan perpecahan mendalam di Amerika -- dan memproyeksikan bagaimana AS bisa bangkit dari perpecahan ini.

- Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded. Full bio

- TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading. Full bio

Chris Anderson: Jon, ini menakutkan.
00:12
Chris Anderson: So, Jon, this feels scary.
Jonathan Haidt: Ya.
00:15
Jonathan Haidt: Yeah.
CA: Rasanya seperti dunia saat ini
00:16
CA: It feels like the world is in a place
dalam kondisi yang sudah lama sekali
tidak kita lihat.
00:18
that we haven't seen for a long time.
00:20
People don't just disagree
in the way that we're familiar with,
Orang-orang tidak sekadar tidak setuju
dengan cara yang biasa kita lihat,
akan perbedaan politik sayap kiri-kanan.
00:24
on the left-right political divide.
Ada banyak perbedaan yang mendalam.
00:26
There are much deeper differences afoot.
Apa yang sedang terjadi,
dan bagaimana kita bisa sampai di sini?
00:29
What on earth is going on,
and how did we get here?
JH: Ini berbeda.
00:33
JH: This is different.
Ada perasaan seakan mau kiamat.
00:36
There's a much more
apocalyptic sort of feeling.
Survei oleh Pew Research menunjukkan
00:39
Survey research by Pew Research shows
bahwa perasaan kita terhadap
pihak seberang bukan sekedar --
00:41
that the degree to which we feel
that the other side is not just --
bukan hanya tidak suka; tapi
amat sangat tidak suka,
00:45
we don't just dislike them;
we strongly dislike them,
dan menurut kita mereka adalah
ancaman bagi bangsa ini.
00:48
and we think that they are
a threat to the nation.
Makin banyak yang merasa demikian,
00:51
Those numbers have been going up and up,
dan melebihi 50% pada kedua belah pihak.
00:53
and those are over 50 percent
now on both sides.
Orang-orang ketakutan,
00:56
People are scared,
karena rasanya berbeda dari sebelumnya;
jauh lebih tegang.
00:57
because it feels like this is different
than before; it's much more intense.
Setiap kali saya mengamati
teka-teki sosial,
01:01
Whenever I look
at any sort of social puzzle,
saya selalu menerapkan
tiga prinsip dasar psikologi moral,
01:04
I always apply the three basic
principles of moral psychology,
yang menurut saya bisa membantu kita.
01:07
and I think they'll help us here.
Yang perlu Anda ingat
01:09
So the first thing that you
have to always keep in mind
ketika memikirkan politik
01:11
when you're thinking about politics
adalah bahwa manusia itu kesukuan.
01:13
is that we're tribal.
Kita berevolusi dalam kesukuan.
01:15
We evolved for tribalism.
Salah satu pemikiran paling sederhana
dan hebat tentang sifat manusia
01:16
One of the simplest and greatest
insights into human social nature
01:19
is the Bedouin proverb:
adalah peribahasa Bedouin:
01:20
"Me against my brother;
"Aku melawan abangku;
01:22
me and my brother against our cousin;
aku dan abangku melawan sepupu kami;
aku, abangku dan para sepupu kami
melawan orang asing."
01:24
me and my brother and cousins
against the stranger."
01:26
And that tribalism allowed us
to create large societies
Dan sifat kesukuan itu mengizinkan kita
membangun komunitas masyarakat
dan bersama-sama
bersaing dengan suku lain.
01:31
and to come together
in order to compete with others.
Ia membawa kita keluar dari hutan
dan keluar dari kelompok kecil,
01:34
That brought us out of the jungle
and out of small groups,
01:38
but it means that we have
eternal conflict.
tapi juga berarti kita
selalu ada dalam konflik.
01:40
The question you have to look at is:
Dan pertanyaannya adalah:
Aspek apa dalam masyarakat kita
yang membuatnya
01:42
What aspects of our society
are making that more bitter,
semakin parah dan
apa yang bisa menenangkannya?
01:44
and what are calming them down?
01:46
CA: That's a very dark proverb.
CA: Itu peribahasa yang sangat kelam.
01:47
You're saying that that's actually
baked into most people's mental wiring
Yang Anda katakan adalah pada dasarnya
otak manusia diprogram seperti itu?
01:52
at some level?
JH: Tentu saja. Ini hanyalah aspek dasar
dari kesadaran sosial manusia.
01:53
JH: Oh, absolutely. This is just
a basic aspect of human social cognition.
Tapi kita juga bisa hidup bersama
dengan damai,
01:57
But we can also live together
really peacefully,
kita menciptakan berbagai cara
menyenangkan seperti main perang-perangan.
01:59
and we've invented all kinds
of fun ways of, like, playing war.
Aktivitas olahraga, politik --
02:02
I mean, sports, politics --
adalah cara yang kita gunakan untuk
mempraktikkan sifat kesukuan alamiah ini
02:04
these are all ways that we get
to exercise this tribal nature
02:08
without actually hurting anyone.
tanpa menyakiti siapa pun.
Kita juga ahli dalam berdagang dan
mengeksplorasi dan bertemu orang baru.
02:09
We're also really good at trade
and exploration and meeting new people.
Sifat kesukuan kita itu sifatnya
naik-turun --
02:14
So you have to see our tribalism
as something that goes up or down --
kita tidak ditakdirkan untuk
selalu bersengketa,
02:17
it's not like we're doomed
to always be fighting each other,
tapi kita tidak akan pernah
mencapai perdamaian dunia.
02:20
but we'll never have world peace.
CA: Ukuran suku itu bisa
menyusut dan membesar.
02:22
CA: The size of that tribe
can shrink or expand.
JH: Betul.
02:26
JH: Right.
CA: Persepsi kita tentang apa itu "kita"
02:27
CA: The size of what we consider "us"
dan apa itu "orang lain" atau "mereka"
02:29
and what we consider "other" or "them"
bisa berubah.
02:31
can change.
Dan ada orang yang percaya proses ini
bisa berlangsung terus-menerus.
02:34
And some people believed that process
could continue indefinitely.
JH: Betul.
02:40
JH: That's right.
CA: Dan memang terjadi perluasan pemahaman
kita tentang suku, selama beberapa waktu.
02:41
CA: And we were indeed expanding
the sense of tribe for a while.
02:44
JH: So this is, I think,
JH: Jadi, menurut saya,
02:45
where we're getting at what's possibly
the new left-right distinction.
ketika menemukan kemungkinan definisi baru
sayap kiri dan kanan,
maksud saya, pemahaman
sayap kiri dan kanan yang kita warisi,
02:49
I mean, the left-right
as we've all inherited it,
02:51
comes out of the labor
versus capital distinction,
lahir dari pembedaan
tenaga kerja vs kapital,
dan kelas pekerja, dan Marx.
02:54
and the working class, and Marx.
Tapi yang kita lihat sekarang,
menurut saya,
02:56
But I think what we're seeing
now, increasingly,
adalah semakin terpecahnya
demokrasi Barat
02:59
is a divide in all the Western democracies
antara orang-orang yang
tujuan akhirnya adalah negara,
03:01
between the people
who want to stop at nation,
dan orang-orang yang lebih religius --
03:05
the people who are more parochial --
dan saya tidak memandangnya negatif --
03:07
and I don't mean that in a bad way --
orang-orang yang lebih merasa
memiliki akar,
03:09
people who have much more
of a sense of being rooted,
peduli akan kota mereka,
masyarakat mereka, bangsa mereka.
03:12
they care about their town,
their community and their nation.
Dan orang-orang yang
tidak religius dan yang --
03:15
And then those who are
anti-parochial and who --
ketika bingung, saya suka memikirkan
lagu "Imagine" John Lennon:
03:19
whenever I get confused, I just think
of the John Lennon song "Imagine."
"Bayangkan tak ada negara,
tak ada alasan untuk membunuh dan mati."
03:23
"Imagine there's no countries,
nothing to kill or die for."
Dan orang-orang ini menginginkan
lebih banyak pengaturan global,
03:26
And so these are the people
who want more global governance,
mereka tidak suka negara-bangsa,
mereka tidak suka perbatasan.
03:29
they don't like nation states,
they don't like borders.
Kita melihat hal yang sama di Eropa.
03:32
You see this all over Europe as well.
Ada penyuka metafor yang hebat --
namanya Shakespeare --
03:33
There's a great metaphor guy --
actually, his name is Shakespeare --
ia menulis sepuluh tahun lalu di Inggris.
03:37
writing ten years ago in Britain.
03:38
He had a metaphor:
Metafora-nya seperti ini:
03:39
"Are we drawbridge-uppers
or drawbridge-downers?"
"Kita mau menutup jembatan
atau membuka jembatan?"
Inggris terbagi pendapatnya 52-48.
03:43
And Britain is divided
52-48 on that point.
Dan Amerika juga terpecah pendapatnya.
03:46
And America is divided on that point, too.
CA: Jadi kita-kita yang tumbuh besar
di masa The Beatles
03:49
CA: And so, those of us
who grew up with The Beatles
dengan filosofi hippie yang memimpikan
dunia yang lebih terhubung --
03:52
and that sort of hippie philosophy
of dreaming of a more connected world --
rasanya begitu idealis dan
"kenapa ada yang berpikir itu buruk?"
03:56
it felt so idealistic and "how could
anyone think badly about that?"
Dan yang Anda katakan adalah
bahwa saat ini
04:00
And what you're saying is that, actually,
04:02
millions of people today
feel that that isn't just silly;
jutaan orang merasa pemikiran seperti itu
tidak hanya konyol;
tapi bahkan salah dan berbahaya,
dan mereka merasa takut.
04:07
it's actually dangerous and wrong,
and they're scared of it.
JH: Menurut saya masalah besarnya,
terutama di Eropa, tapi juga di AS,
04:09
JH: I think the big issue, especially
in Europe but also here,
04:13
is the issue of immigration.
adalah masalah imigrasi.
Menurut saya sudah saatnya
kita mencermati dengan teliti
04:14
And I think this is where
we have to look very carefully
tentang keragaman dan imigrasi
dalam ilmu sosial.
04:17
at the social science
about diversity and immigration.
Ketika sesuatu dipolitisasi,
04:21
Once something becomes politicized,
begitu suatu hal didukung sayap kiri
sementara sayap kanan --
04:22
once it becomes something
that the left loves and the right --
bahkan para peneliti ilmu sosial
pun tidak pasti tentang hal ini.
04:25
then even the social scientists
can't think straight about it.
Ada banyak hal baik tentang keragaman.
04:29
Now, diversity is good in a lot of ways.
Ia menghasilkan lebih banyak inovasi.
04:31
It clearly creates more innovation.
Ekonomi Amerika tumbuh besar
karena keragaman.
04:33
The American economy
has grown enormously from it.
Keragaman dan imigrasi banyak
membuahkan hal positif.
04:35
Diversity and immigration
do a lot of good things.
Tapi yang tidak dilihat penganut
paham globalis, menurut saya adalah,
04:38
But what the globalists,
I think, don't see,
04:40
what they don't want to see,
mereka tidak ingin melihat
04:42
is that ethnic diversity
cuts social capital and trust.
bahwa keragaman etnis telah memangkas
modal sosial dan kepercayaan.
Ada studi penting oleh Robert Putman
04:48
There's a very important
study by Robert Putnam,
yang menulis "Bowling Alone,"
04:51
the author of "Bowling Alone,"
yang mempelajari tentang
basis data modal sosial.
04:52
looking at social capital databases.
Pada dasarnya, semakin banyak orang
yang merasa mereka adalah sama,
04:54
And basically, the more people
feel that they are the same,
semakin mereka percaya satu sama lain,
04:57
the more they trust each other,
04:59
the more they can have
a redistributionist welfare state.
dan semakin mungkin untuk negara
meredistribusi kemakmuran.
05:02
Scandinavian countries are so wonderful
Negara-negara Skandinavia berhasil
karena mereka punya warisan sejarah
sebagai negara-negara kecil dan homogen.
05:04
because they have this legacy
of being small, homogenous countries.
05:07
And that leads to
a progressive welfare state,
Dan ini membawa mereka menjadi
negara makmur yang progresif,
dengan nilai-nilai progresif sayap kiri
yang mengatakan,
05:11
a set of progressive
left-leaning values, which says,
"Buka jembatan!
Dunia ini adalah tempat yang hebat,
05:14
"Drawbridge down!
The world is a great place.
orang-orang di Suriah menderita --
kita harus menerima mereka."
05:17
People in Syria are suffering --
we must welcome them in."
Dan ini adalah suatu hal yang indah.
05:20
And it's a beautiful thing.
Saya ke Swedia musim panas lalu.
05:21
But if, and I was in Sweden
this summer,
Seandainya perbincangan di Swedia bisa
dikatakan netral secara politik
05:24
if the discourse in Sweden
is fairly politically correct
dan mereka tidak bisa membicarakan
kerugiannya,
05:27
and they can't talk about the downsides,
mereka akan membawa banyak orang
ke negara mereka.
05:30
you end up bringing a lot of people in.
05:32
That's going to cut social capital,
Yang akan memangkas modal sosial,
05:33
it makes it hard to have a welfare state
sehingga sulit mempertahankan
negara makmur
05:35
and they might end up,
as we have in America,
dan seperti yang kita lihat di Amerika,
negara mereka
05:38
with a racially divided, visibly
racially divided, society.
dan masyarakatnya bisa
sangat terbelah karena isu rasial.
Ini adalah topik pembicaraan
yang tidak nyaman.
05:41
So this is all very
uncomfortable to talk about.
Tapi menurut saya,
inilah yang harus kita amati,
05:44
But I think this is the thing,
especially in Europe and for us, too,
terutama di Eropa dan juga di AS.
05:47
we need to be looking at.
CA: Anda mengatakan bahwa
seseorang yang rasional,
05:48
CA: You're saying that people of reason,
orang yang menganggap
diri mereka tidak rasis,
05:50
people who would consider
themselves not racists,
yang merasa dirinya
bermoral, berintegritas,
05:53
but moral, upstanding people,
05:55
have a rationale that says
humans are just too different;
punya rasionalisasi bahwa
manusia begitu berbeda;
bahwa bahaya untuk terlalu memikirkan
tentang apa yang mampu dilakukan manusia,
05:58
that we're in danger of overloading
our sense of what humans are capable of,
dengan mencampur orang-orang
yang terlalu berbeda.
06:03
by mixing in people who are too different.
JH: Ya, tapi saya bisa membuatnya
lebih bisa dipahami
06:06
JH: Yes, but I can make it
much more palatable
dengan mengatakan bahwa ini tidak
harus tentang masalah ras saja.
06:09
by saying it's not necessarily about race.
Ini adalah masalah budaya.
06:12
It's about culture.
Ada tulisan bagus oleh
peneliti politik Karen Stenner,
06:14
There's wonderful work by a political
scientist named Karen Stenner,
yang menunjukkan bahwa ketika orang
06:18
who shows that when people have a sense
merasa bersatu, bahwa kita semua sama,
06:21
that we are all united,
we're all the same,
banyak orang mempunyai kecenderungan
pada otoritarianisme.
06:23
there are many people who have
a predisposition to authoritarianism.
Mereka pada dasarnya tidak rasis
06:27
Those people aren't particularly racist
ketika merasa tidak ada ancaman
06:29
when they feel as through
there's not a threat
pada sistem sosial dan moral mereka.
06:31
to our social and moral order.
Tapi kalau Anda siapkan mereka
06:33
But if you prime them experimentally
untuk berpikir kita semakin terpisah,
semakin banyak perbedaan dalam masyarakat,
06:35
by thinking we're coming apart,
people are getting more different,
06:38
then they get more racist, homophobic,
they want to kick out the deviants.
mereka akan jadi lebih rasis, homofobik,
mereka ingin mengenyahkan para penyimpang.
06:41
So it's in part that you get
an authoritarian reaction.
Jadi pada satu sisi kita melihat
reaksi otoritarian.
Sayap kiri, menggunakan
logika Lennon tadi --
06:44
The left, following through
the Lennonist line --
logika John Lennon --
06:47
the John Lennon line --
melakukan hal-hal yang mendorong
reaksi otoriter.
06:48
does things that create
an authoritarian reaction.
Itulah yang kita lihat di Amerika
yang cenderung sayap kanan.
06:50
We're certainly seeing that
in America with the alt-right.
Kita melihatnya di Inggris,
dan di seluruh Eropa.
06:53
We saw it in Britain,
we've seen it all over Europe.
Tapi aspek positifnya adalah
06:56
But the more positive part of that
menurut saya orang-orang yang menganut
paham nasionalis sesungguhnya benar --
06:58
is that I think the localists,
or the nationalists, are actually right --
bahwa kalau kita menekankan
kesamaan budaya kita,
07:03
that, if you emphasize
our cultural similarity,
ras sebenarnya tidak terlalu penting.
07:07
then race doesn't actually
matter very much.
Jadi pendekatan asimilasi dalam imigrasi
07:09
So an assimilationist
approach to immigration
bisa menyelesaikan banyak masalah kita.
07:12
removes a lot of these problems.
Dan kalau kita menginginkan
negara makmur yang berlimpah,
07:13
And if you value having
a generous welfare state,
07:16
you've got to emphasize
that we're all the same.
kita harus menekankan
bahwa kita semua sama.
CA: OK, jadi meningkatnya imigrasi dan
ketakutan akan imigrasi
07:18
CA: OK, so rising immigration
and fears about that
adalah salah satu penyebab
perpecahan saat ini.
07:21
are one of the causes
of the current divide.
Apa penyebab lainnya?
07:25
What are other causes?
JH: Prinsip psikologi moral berikutnya
07:26
JH: The next principle of moral psychology
adalah intuisi muncul lebih dulu,
baru rasionalisasi setelahnya.
07:28
is that intuitions come first,
strategic reasoning second.
Anda mungkin pernah dengar
istilah "motivated reasoning"
07:32
You've probably heard
the term "motivated reasoning"
07:35
or "confirmation bias."
atau "confirmation bias."
Ada beberapa studi yang menarik
07:36
There's some really interesting work
tentang bagaimana intelejensia tinggi
dan kemampuan verbal kita
07:38
on how our high intelligence
and our verbal abilities
telah berevolusi bukan untuk
membantu kita menemukan kebenaran,
07:41
might have evolved
not to help us find out the truth,
07:45
but to help us manipulate each other,
defend our reputation ...
tapi untuk memanipulasi satu sama lain,
menjaga reputasi kita.
Kita amat sangat ahli dalam
menjustifikasi diri sendiri.
07:48
We're really, really good
at justifying ourselves.
Dan ketika Anda membawa
kepentingan kelompok,
07:51
And when you bring
group interests into account,
masalahnya bukan lagi saya,
tapi kelompok saya vs kelompok Anda.
07:53
so it's not just me,
it's my team versus your team,
Sebaliknya apabila Anda mengevaluasi bukti
bahwa kelompok Anda salah,
07:56
whereas if you're evaluating evidence
that your side is wrong,
07:59
we just can't accept that.
kita tidak bisa menerimanya.
Inilah kenapa kita tak bisa menang
dalam debat politik.
08:01
So this is why you can't win
a political argument.
Ketika berdebat tentang suatu hal,
08:03
If you're debating something,
08:05
you can't persuade the person
with reasons and evidence,
Anda tidak bisa meyakinkan seseorang
dengan alasan dan bukti,
08:08
because that's not
the way reasoning works.
karena bukan begitu cara kita berpikir.
Dengan internet, kita mencari di Google:
08:10
So now, give us the internet,
give us Google:
"Saya dengar Barack Obama lahir di Kenya.
08:14
"I heard that Barack Obama
was born in Kenya.
Coba di-Google -- Ya Tuhan!
10 juta hasil! Itu memang benar!"
08:17
Let me Google that -- oh my God!
10 million hits! Look, he was!"
CA: Ini adalah kejutan yang tidak
menyenangkan bagi banyak orang.
08:21
CA: So this has come as an unpleasant
surprise to a lot of people.
Media sosial seringkali digambarkan
oleh para optimis teknologi
08:24
Social media has often been framed
by techno-optimists
sebagai sebuah kekuatan penghubung hebat
yang akan menyatukan kita.
08:27
as this great connecting force
that would bring people together.
Dan sudah ada beberapa dampak
sebaliknya yang tidak kita kira.
08:32
And there have been some
unexpected counter-effects to that.
JH: Betul.
08:36
JH: That's right.
Itulah kenapa saya begitu terpikat
oleh pemikiran yin-yang
08:38
That's why I'm very enamored
of yin-yang views
08:40
of human nature and left-right --
tentang sifat alamiah manusia --
08:42
that each side is right
about certain things,
masing-masing yakin mereka benar
tentang hal tertentu,
08:44
but then it goes blind to other things.
tapi menutup mata pada hal-hal lain.
Sayap kiri umumnya percaya bahwa
sifat alami manusia itu baik:
08:46
And so the left generally believes
that human nature is good:
menyatukan orang-orang,
menghapus batas dan semua akan baik.
08:49
bring people together, knock down
the walls and all will be well.
Sayap kanan -- kelompok konservatif,
bukan libertarian --
08:52
The right -- social conservatives,
not libertarians --
kelompok konservatif pada umumnya percaya
bahwa manusia bisa menjadi tamak
08:55
social conservatives generally
believe people can be greedy
dan seksual dan egois,
08:59
and sexual and selfish,
dan kita butuh peraturan,
kita butuh batasan.
09:01
and we need regulation,
and we need restrictions.
Jadi kalau kita menghancurkan
dinding yang ada,
09:04
So, yeah, if you knock down all the walls,
semua orang bisa berkomunikasi
di seluruh dunia,
09:06
allow people to communicate
all over the world,
hasilnya adalah pornografi dan rasisme.
09:08
you get a lot of porn and a lot of racism.
CA: Bantu saya memahami ini.
09:10
CA: So help us understand.
09:12
These principles of human nature
have been with us forever.
Sifat alamiah manusia ini sudah ada
pada kita sejak dulu.
Apa yang berubah, sehingga memperburuk
perasaan terpecah ini?
09:18
What's changed that's deepened
this feeling of division?
JH: Ada 6-10 alasan yang
mencuat bersamaan.
09:24
JH: You have to see six to ten
different threads all coming together.
Saya akan menyebutkan
beberapa di antaranya.
09:29
I'll just list a couple of them.
09:31
So in America, one of the big --
actually, America and Europe --
Di Amerika -- di Amerika dan Eropa --
salah satu penyebab terbesar
adalah Perang Dunia II.
09:35
one of the biggest ones is World War II.
Ada riset menarik yang dilakukan
Joe Henrich dkk
09:37
There's interesting research
from Joe Henrich and others
yang mengatakan bahwa ketika
negara Anda sedang perang,
09:40
that says if your country was at war,
09:42
especially when you were young,
terutama ketika Anda masih muda,
dan mereka menguji Anda 30 tahun
setelahnya dalam commons dilemma
09:44
then we test you 30 years later
in a commons dilemma
atau prisoner's dilemma,
09:47
or a prisoner's dilemma,
Anda akan lebih kooperatif.
09:49
you're more cooperative.
Karena sifat kesukuan Anda --
09:50
Because of our tribal nature, if you're --
ketika orangtua saya masih remaja
semasa Perang Dunia II,
09:53
my parents were teenagers
during World War II,
mereka membantu mencari
sisa-sisa aluminium
09:56
and they would go out
looking for scraps of aluminum
untuk membantu dalam perang.
09:59
to help the war effort.
Semua orang bersatu padu.
10:00
I mean, everybody pulled together.
Dan mereka bersama-sama
10:02
And so then these people go on,
bangkit di sektor bisnis dan pemerintah,
10:04
they rise up through business
and government,
dan mengambil posisi pemimpin.
10:06
they take leadership positions.
Mereka ahli dalam berkompromi
dan bekerja sama.
10:08
They're really good
at compromise and cooperation.
Mereka semua pensiun tahun 90an.
10:11
They all retire by the '90s.
Sehingga di akhir 90an, yang ada di posisi
ini adalah para baby boomers.
10:13
So we're left with baby boomers
by the end of the '90s.
Dan masa muda mereka dihabiskan berperang
satu sama lain dalam negara masing-masing
10:17
And their youth was spent fighting
each other within each country,
dari tahun 1968 seterusnya.
10:21
in 1968 and afterwards.
Hilangnya generasi Perang Dunia II,
"Generasi Terhebat,"
10:22
The loss of the World War II generation,
"The Greatest Generation,"
adalah tragedi besar.
10:26
is huge.
Ini satu penyebabnya.
10:28
So that's one.
Penyebab lainnya, di Amerika,
adalah purifikasi dua partai.
10:30
Another, in America,
is the purification of the two parties.
Dulu kita punya
Partai Republik yang liberal
10:33
There used to be liberal Republicans
and conservative Democrats.
dan Partai Demokrat yang konservatif.
10:37
So America had a mid-20th century
that was really bipartisan.
Amerika sangat bipartisan di
pertengahan abad ke-20.
Tapi karena banyak hal, ini mulai berubah
10:40
But because of a variety of factors
that started things moving,
dan di tahun 90an, kita punya
partai liberal dan partai konservatif.
10:44
by the 90's, we had a purified
liberal party and conservative party.
Sekarang, orang-orang
di kedua partai ini sangat berbeda,
10:48
So now, the people in either party
really are different,
10:50
and we really don't want
our children to marry them,
dan kita tidak ingin anak-anak kita
menikahi mereka,
yang mana di tahun 60an,
ini bukan persoalan besar.
10:53
which, in the '60s,
didn't matter very much.
10:55
So, the purification of the parties.
Itulah purifikasi partai.
Yang ketiga adalah internet,
dan seperti sudah saya katakan,
10:57
Third is the internet and, as I said,
10:59
it's just the most amazing stimulant
for post-hoc reasoning and demonization.
ini adalah stimulan paling spektakuler
untuk mencari alasan dan menyalahkan.
CA: Nada bicara orang-orang di internet
cukup meresahkan.
11:04
CA: The tone of what's happening
on the internet now is quite troubling.
Saya baru saja melakukan pencarian Twitter
tentang pemilu
11:09
I just did a quick search
on Twitter about the election
dan saya melihat dua tweet berdekatan.
11:12
and saw two tweets next to each other.
Yang satu, di bawah gambar
grafiti bernada rasis:
11:15
One, against a picture of racist graffiti:
"Ini menjijikkan!
11:20
"This is disgusting!
Keburukan di negara ini,
dibawakan oleh #Trump."
11:21
Ugliness in this country,
brought to us by #Trump."
Dan yang berikutnya:
11:25
And then the next one is:
"Halaman untuk Hillary yang korup.
Menjijikkan!"
11:27
"Crooked Hillary
dedication page. Disgusting!"
Pemikiran tentang "jijik" ini meresahkan
bagi saya.
11:31
So this idea of "disgust"
is troubling to me.
Karena kita bisa setuju atau tidak setuju
tentang sesuatu hal,
11:35
Because you can have an argument
or a disagreement about something,
Anda bisa marah terhadap seseorang.
11:38
you can get angry at someone.
Anda mengatakan bahwa
perasaan jijik itu jauh lebih mendalam.
11:41
Disgust, I've heard you say,
takes things to a much deeper level.
JH: Betul. Perasaan jijik itu berbeda.
11:44
JH: That's right. Disgust is different.
Marah -- Anda tahu,
11:46
Anger -- you know, I have kids.
anak-anak saya berkelahi 10 kali sehari,
11:48
They fight 10 times a day,
dan mereka saling menyayangi
30 kali sehari.
11:50
and they love each other 30 times a day.
11:52
You just go back and forth:
you get angry, you're not angry;
Begitu seterusnya:
mereka marah, lalu tidak marah;
marah, tidak marah.
11:55
you're angry, you're not angry.
Tapi jijik itu berbeda.
11:56
But disgust is different.
Perasaan jijik itu menggambarkan objeknya
lebih rendah daripada manusia, monster,
11:58
Disgust paints the person
as subhuman, monstrous,
cacat, cacat secara moral.
12:02
deformed, morally deformed.
Jijik itu tidak bisa dihapus.
12:04
Disgust is like indelible ink.
Ada riset yang dilakukan John Gottman
tentang terapi pernikahan.
12:07
There's research from John Gottman
on marital therapy.
Apabila Anda lihat wajah mereka -- apabila
salah seorang terlihat jijik atau benci,
12:11
If you look at the faces -- if one
of the couple shows disgust or contempt,
itu indikasi bahwa mereka
akan segera bercerai.
12:16
that's a predictor that they're going
to get divorced soon,
Tapi apabila mereka terlihat marah,
itu tidak memprediksi apa pun,
12:19
whereas if they show anger,
that doesn't predict anything,
karena kalau Anda bisa mengatasi amarah,
ini sesuatu yang baik.
12:22
because if you deal with anger well,
it actually is good.
12:25
So this election is different.
Pemilu ini berbeda.
Donald Trump sendiri banyak
menggunakan kata "jijik."
12:26
Donald Trump personally
uses the word "disgust" a lot.
Dia sensitif terhadap kuman,
jadi jijik itu sangat penting --
12:30
He's very germ-sensitive,
so disgust does matter a lot --
terutama pada dirinya,
ini adalah sesuatu yang khas Trump --
12:33
more for him, that's something
unique to him --
tapi semakin kita mengutuk satu sama lain
12:37
but as we demonize each other more,
menggunakan sudut pandang Manichaean,
12:40
and again, through
the Manichaean worldview,
pemikiran bahwa dunia ini adalah
pertarungan antara kekuatan baik dan jahat
12:43
the idea that the world
is a battle between good and evil
seperti yang berkembang saat ini,
12:46
as this has been ramping up,
12:47
we're more likely not just to say
they're wrong or I don't like them,
kita tidak hanya cenderung menyebut
mereka salah
dan kita tidak menyukai mereka,
12:51
but we say they're evil, they're satanic,
tapi kita menyebut mereka jahat, setan,
bahwa mereka menjijikkan.
12:53
they're disgusting, they're revolting.
Jadi kita tidak mau
berurusan dengan mereka.
12:55
And then we want nothing to do with them.
Dan menurut saya, itulah kenapa kita
menyaksikan ini di kampus-kampus.
12:58
And that's why I think we're seeing it,
for example, on campus now.
Kita melihat ada keinginan untuk
menjauhkan mereka dari kampus,
13:02
We're seeing more the urge
to keep people off campus,
13:04
silence them, keep them away.
membungkam mereka, menjauhkan mereka.
Saya khawatir jika pengalaman pertama
generasi muda
13:06
I'm afraid that this whole
generation of young people,
dengan politik melibatkan
banyak perasaan jijik,
13:09
if their introduction to politics
involves a lot of disgust,
mereka tidak akan ingin terlibat dalam
politik ketika mereka dewasa.
13:13
they're not going to want to be involved
in politics as they get older.
CA: Jadi bagaimana kita mengatasinya?
13:17
CA: So how do we deal with that?
Jijik. Bagaimana kita meredakan
rasa jijik?
13:19
Disgust. How do you defuse disgust?
JH: Anda tidak bisa menggunakan alasan.
13:24
JH: You can't do it with reasons.
Menurut saya...
13:27
I think ...
Saya mempelajari rasa jijik
bertahun-tahun,
13:30
I studied disgust for many years,
and I think about emotions a lot.
dan saya banyak memikirkan
tentang emosi.
13:33
And I think that the opposite
of disgust is actually love.
Dan menurut saya lawan dari jijik
adalah kasih sayang.
Kasih sayang itu seperti ...
13:37
Love is all about, like ...
Kalau jijik membangun dan
menutup perbatasan,
13:41
Disgust is closing off, borders.
rasa kasih sayang melebur
dinding perbatasan itu.
13:43
Love is about dissolving walls.
Jadi menurut saya, hubungan personal
13:47
So personal relationships, I think,
mungkin adalah alat terkuat
yang kita punya.
13:49
are probably the most
powerful means we have.
Anda mungkin merasa jijik
akan sekelompok orang,
13:53
You can be disgusted by a group of people,
tapi kemudian Anda bertemu
dengan satu orang
13:56
but then you meet a particular person
dan menemukan bahwa
ternyata mereka orang baik.
13:57
and you genuinely discover
that they're lovely.
Perlahan itu akan mengikis atau
mengubah kategorisasi Anda.
14:00
And then gradually that chips away
or changes your category as well.
Tragisnya, warga AS zaman dulu hidup
lebih beragam di kota-kota mereka
14:06
The tragedy is, Americans used to be
much more mixed up in the their towns
dari segi politik sayap kiri-kanan.
14:12
by left-right or politics.
Kini perbedaan itu
jadi perpecahan moral yang besar
14:14
And now that it's become
this great moral divide,
sehingga banyak bukti menunjukkan
kita cenderung berada di sekitar
14:16
there's a lot of evidence
that we're moving to be near people
orang-orang yang
pandangan politiknya mirip.
14:19
who are like us politically.
14:21
It's harder to find somebody
who's on the other side.
Lebih sulit menemukan orang
yang berbeda pandangan.
14:23
So they're over there, they're far away.
Mereka ada di sana, jauh sekali.
Lebih sulit mengenal mereka.
14:26
It's harder to get to know them.
CA: Apa pesan Anda pada mereka,
14:27
CA: What would you say to someone
or say to Americans,
atau warga AS pada umumnya,
14:31
people generally,
tentang apa yang harus kita pahami
tentang satu sama lain
14:33
about what we should understand
about each other
yang bisa membantu kita untuk
merefleksikan kembali
14:35
that might help us rethink for a minute
insting kita untuk merasa jijik?
14:39
this "disgust" instinct?
JH: Ya.
14:42
JH: Yes.
Yang penting untuk diingat --
14:43
A really important
thing to keep in mind --
ada riset oleh peneliti politik
Alan Abramowitz,
14:45
there's research by political
scientist Alan Abramowitz,
yang menunjukkan bahwa demokrasi
di Amerika semakin diarahkan
14:50
showing that American democracy
is increasingly governed
oleh sesuatu yang disebut
"partisan negatif."
14:54
by what's called "negative partisanship."
Yang berarti kita berpikir,
ada seorang kandidat,
14:56
That means you think,
OK there's a candidate,
kita suka kandidat ini,
dan kita memilihnya di pemilu.
15:00
you like the candidate,
you vote for the candidate.
Tapi dengan meningkatnya promosi negatif
15:02
But with the rise of negative advertising
dan media sosial dan segala tren baru,
15:04
and social media
and all sorts of other trends,
semakin sering yang terjadi adalah
15:06
increasingly, the way elections are done
masing-masing pihak berusaha
menggambarkan pihak lawan
15:08
is that each side tries to make
the other side so horrible, so awful,
dengan sangat buruk dan mengerikan,
sehingga Anda mau tak mau
memilih kandidat saya.
15:12
that you'll vote for my guy by default.
Dan kita semakin sering memilih
karena tidak suka pihak lawan,
15:15
And so as we more and more vote
against the other side
alih-alih karena suka kandidat kita,
15:18
and not for our side,
15:19
you have to keep in mind
that if people are on the left,
Anda harus ingat apabila
seseorang ada di sayap kiri,
mereka berpikir, "Aku dulu berpikir
pendukung Partai Republik itu buruk,
15:25
they think, "Well, I used to think
that Republicans were bad,
tapi sekarang Donald Trump membuktikannya.
15:28
but now Donald Trump proves it.
Dan sekarang saya melihat
setiap pendukung Partai Republik
15:29
And now every Republican,
I can paint with all the things
15:32
that I think about Trump."
seperti Trump."
Namun ini tidak sepenuhnya benar.
15:33
And that's not necessarily true.
Umumnya mereka tidak terlalu senang
dengan kandidat mereka.
15:35
They're generally not very happy
with their candidate.
15:38
This is the most negative partisanship
election in American history.
Ini adalah pemilu partisan paling negatif
dalam sejarah Amerika.
Jadi pertama, Anda harus memisahkan
perasaan Anda tentang kandidat
15:43
So you have to first separate
your feelings about the candidate
dengan perasaan Anda tentang
orang-orang yang memilih.
15:47
from your feelings about the people
who are given a choice.
Lalu Anda harus menyadari bahwa
15:50
And then you have to realize that,
karena kita semua tinggal dalam
dunia moral yang berbeda --
15:53
because we all live
in a separate moral world --
metafora yang saya gunakan adalah bahwa
kita semua terjebak dalam "The Matrix,"
15:55
the metaphor I use in the book
is that we're all trapped in "The Matrix,"
15:59
or each moral community is a matrix,
a consensual hallucination.
atau bahwa setiap komunitas moral adalah
sebuah matrix, halusinasi bersama.
16:02
And so if you're within the blue matrix,
Jadi kalau Anda ada di dalam matrix biru,
kita dibuat untuk berpikir bahwa
pihak lawan adalah --
16:04
everything's completely compelling
that the other side --
terbelakang layaknya manusia gua,
rasis, orang terparah di dunia,
16:08
they're troglodytes, they're racists,
they're the worst people in the world,
dan Anda punya semua fakta yang
mendukung pendapat tersebut.
16:11
and you have all the facts
to back that up.
16:13
But somebody in the next house from yours
Tapi tetangga Anda
tinggal dalam matrix moral yang berbeda.
16:16
is living in a different moral matrix.
Mereka tinggal dalam
video game yang berbeda,
16:18
They live in a different video game,
16:20
and they see a completely
different set of facts.
dan mereka melihat
fakta-fakta yang berbeda.
Masing-masing melihat ancaman
yang berbeda terhadap negara ini.
16:22
And each one sees
different threats to the country.
Yang saya lihat ketika
berada di tengah-tengah
16:25
And what I've found
from being in the middle
dan berusaha memahami kedua pihak
adalah: kedua pihak benar.
16:27
and trying to understand both sides
is: both sides are right.
Ada banyak ancaman di negara ini,
16:30
There are a lot of threats
to this country,
dan masing-masing tidak mampu
melihatnya secara keseluruhan.
16:32
and each side is constitutionally
incapable of seeing them all.
CA: Jadi, Anda mengatakan bahwa kita
agaknya membutuhkan empati jenis baru?
16:36
CA: So, are you saying
that we almost need a new type of empathy?
Secara tradisional,
empati itu dijelaskan sbb:
16:43
Empathy is traditionally framed as:
"Saya bisa membayangkan diri saya
di posisi Anda."
16:45
"Oh, I feel your pain.
I can put myself in your shoes."
16:48
And we apply it to the poor,
the needy, the suffering.
Kita menerapkannya pada kaum miskin,
orang yang membutuhkan, yang menderita.
16:52
We don't usually apply it
to people who we feel as other,
Tapi bukan pada
orang yang kita anggap lawan,
atau orang yang membuat kita merasa jijik.
16:55
or we're disgusted by.
JH: Ya, betul.
16:57
JH: No. That's right.
CA: Akan seperti apa seandainya kita
membangun empati seperti ini?
16:58
CA: What would it look like
to build that type of empathy?
JH: Sebenarnya, menurut saya ...
17:04
JH: Actually, I think ...
Empati adalah topik hangat
dalam studi psikologi,
17:06
Empathy is a very, very
hot topic in psychology,
dan ini adalah kata yang sangat populer
terutama di sayap kiri.
17:08
and it's a very popular word
on the left in particular.
17:11
Empathy is a good thing, and empathy
for the preferred classes of victims.
Empati adalah hal baik, dan untuk
berempati pada korban yang kita sukai.
Adalah penting untuk berempati
17:15
So it's important to empathize
dengan kelompok yang menurut kita
di sayap kiri, adalah penting.
17:16
with the groups that we on the left
think are so important.
17:19
That's easy to do,
because you get points for that.
Dan ini gampang dilakukan,
karena Anda dipuji ketika melakukannya.
17:22
But empathy really should get you points
if you do it when it's hard to do.
Tapi harusnya, Anda hanya dipuji ketika
empati itu sulit dilakukan.
Dan menurut saya ...
17:26
And, I think ...
Anda tahu, selama 50 tahun kita
berkutat dengan masalah ras
17:28
You know, we had a long 50-year period
of dealing with our race problems
dan diskriminasi legal di AS,
17:33
and legal discrimination,
dan ini sudah lama menjadi
prioritas utama kita
17:35
and that was our top priority
for a long time
dan masih sangat penting sampai sekarang.
17:37
and it still is important.
17:39
But I think this year,
Tapi tahun ini, menurut saya,
17:40
I'm hoping it will make people see
saya harap orang-orang bisa melihat
bahwa ada ancaman yang
selalu ada di tangan kita.
17:43
that we have an existential
threat on our hands.
Saya yakin bahwa perbedaan
sayap kiri dan kanan
17:45
Our left-right divide, I believe,
adalah perpecahan paling penting
yang pernah kita hadapi.
17:48
is by far the most important
divide we face.
17:50
We still have issues about race
and gender and LGBT,
Masih ada masalah ras,
jender, dan LGBT,
tapi masalah ini sifatnya mendesak
untuk 50 tahun ke depan,
17:53
but this is the urgent need
of the next 50 years,
dan situasi tidak akan membaik
dengan sendirinya.
17:57
and things aren't going
to get better on their own.
Kita harus melakukan banyak
reformasi institusi,
18:01
So we're going to need to do
a lot of institutional reforms,
dan kita bisa membicarakannya,
18:03
and we could talk about that,
tapi ini adalah pembicaraan panjang
dan melelahkan.
18:05
but that's like a whole long,
wonky conversation.
Tapi menurut saya ini dimulai
dengan orang-orang
18:07
But I think it starts with people
realizing that this is a turning point.
menyadari bahwa ini adalah titik balik.
18:11
And yes, we need a new kind of empathy.
Kita memerlukan empati jenis baru.
Kita perlu menyadari:
18:14
We need to realize:
ini yang dibutuhkan negara kita:
18:15
this is what our country needs,
dan ini yang kita butuhkan jika
kita tidak ingin --
18:17
and this is what you need
if you don't want to --
18:19
Raise your hand if you want
to spend the next four years
Angkat tangan Anda jika Anda ingin
menghabiskan 4 tahun ke depan
18:22
as angry and worried as you've been
for the last year -- raise your hand.
semarah dan sekhawatir setahun terakhir
-- angkat tangan.
Kalau Anda ingin lepas dari masalah ini,
18:26
So if you want to escape from this,
18:27
read Buddha, read Jesus,
read Marcus Aurelius.
bacalah Buddha, bacalah Jesus,
bacalah Marcus Aurelius.
18:29
They have all kinds of great advice
for how to drop the fear,
Semuanya punya nasehat baik untuk
melepaskan ketakutan,
menata ulang,
18:35
reframe things,
berhenti melihat orang lain sebagai musuh.
18:36
stop seeing other people as your enemy.
Ada banyak panduan dalam
kebijaksanaan kuno
18:38
There's a lot of guidance in ancient
wisdom for this kind of empathy.
tentang empati jenis ini.
CA: Pertanyaan terakhir saya:
18:41
CA: Here's my last question:
18:43
Personally, what can
people do to help heal?
Secara individu, apa yang bisa dilakukan
orang-orang untuk kembali pulih?
JH: Sangat sulit untuk memutuskan Anda
ingin mengalahkan prasangka terdalam Anda.
18:47
JH: Yeah, it's very hard to just decide
to overcome your deepest prejudices.
Dan ada riset yang menunjukkan bahwa
18:51
And there's research showing
18:53
that political prejudices are deeper
and stronger than race prejudices
prasangka politik lebih mendalam dan
lebih kuat daripada prasangka rasial
18:57
in the country now.
di AS saat ini.
Jadi menurut saya, Anda harus berusaha --
itu yang utama.
18:59
So I think you have to make an effort --
that's the main thing.
Berusaha untuk bertemu dengan seseorang.
19:02
Make an effort to actually meet somebody.
Setiap orang punya sepupu, saudara ipar,
19:04
Everybody has a cousin, a brother-in-law,
seseorang di sisi berlawanan.
19:07
somebody who's on the other side.
Jadi, setelah pemilu ini --
19:09
So, after this election --
tunggu satu atau dua minggu,
19:11
wait a week or two,
karena salah satu dari Anda mungkin
akan merasa sangat menderita --
19:12
because it's probably going to feel
awful for one of you --
19:15
but wait a couple weeks, and then
reach out and say you want to talk.
tunggulah beberapa minggu, kemudian
hubungi mereka dan ajak bicara.
Dan sebelum Anda melakukannya,
19:19
And before you do it,
bacalah buku Dale Carnegie, "Bagaimana
Mencari Kawan dan Mempengaruhi Orang Lain"
19:21
read Dale Carnegie, "How to Win
Friends and Influence People" --
19:24
(Laughter)
(Tertawa)
Saya serius.
19:25
I'm totally serious.
Anda bisa belajar caranya, apabila
Anda mulai dengan mengakui,
19:26
You'll learn techniques
if you start by acknowledging,
19:29
if you start by saying,
mulai dengan mengatakan,
19:30
"You know, we don't agree on a lot,
"Kita tidak setuju tentang banyak hal,
19:32
but one thing I really respect
about you, Uncle Bob,"
tapi satu hal yang kuhormati
darimu, Paman Bob,"
atau "...dari kelompok
konservatif adalah..."
19:34
or "... about you conservatives, is ... "
19:36
And you can find something.
Anda bisa menemukan sesuatu.
19:38
If you start with some
appreciation, it's like magic.
Kalau Anda mulai dengan menghargai,
mudah saja.
Ini adalah salah satu hal utama
yang saya pelajari
19:40
This is one of the main
things I've learned
dan saya gunakan dalam
hubungan pribadi saya.
19:42
that I take into my human relationships.
19:44
I still make lots of stupid mistakes,
Saya masih melakukan banyak kesalahan.
19:46
but I'm incredibly good
at apologizing now,
tapi sekarang saya jadi
sangat ahli meminta maaf,
19:48
and at acknowledging what
somebody was right about.
dan mengakui bahwa orang lain benar.
Dan jika Anda melakukannya,
19:51
And if you do that,
19:52
then the conversation goes really well,
and it's actually really fun.
percakapan akan mengalir dengan baik,
dan sebenarnya menyenangkan.
CA: Jon, sungguh menarik berdiskusi
dengan Anda.
19:56
CA: Jon, it's absolutely fascinating
speaking with you.
Benar-benar terasa seakan
tanah yang kita pijak
19:59
It's really does feel like
the ground that we're on
penuh dengan pertanyaan mendalam
tentang moral dan sifat alamiah manusia.
20:03
is a ground populated by deep questions
of morality and human nature.
Pengetahuan yang Anda bagi hari ini
sangat relevan.
20:08
Your wisdom couldn't be more relevant.
Terima kasih telah membagi waktu Anda
bersama kami.
20:10
Thank you so much for sharing
this time with us.
20:13
JH: Thanks, Chris.
JH: Terima kasih, Chris.
20:14
JH: Thanks, everyone.
JH: Terima kasih semuanya.
20:15
(Applause)
(Tepuk tangan)
Translated by Dewi Barnas
Reviewed by Gita Arimanda

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About the speakers:

Jonathan Haidt - Social psychologist
Jonathan Haidt studies how -- and why -- we evolved to be moral. By understanding more about our moral roots, his hope is that we can learn to be civil and open-minded.

Why you should listen

Haidt is a social psychologist whose research on morality across cultures led up to his much-quoted 2008 TEDTalk on the psychological roots of the American culture war. He asks, "Can't we all disagree more constructively?" In September 2009, Jonathan Haidt spoke to the TED Blog about the moral psychology behind the healthcare debate in the United States. He's also active in the study of positive psychology and human flourishing.

At TED2012 he explored the intersection of his work on morality with his work on happiness to talk about “hive psychology” – the ability that humans have to lose themselves in groups pursuing larger projects, almost like bees in a hive. This hivish ability Is crucial, he argues, for understanding the origins of morality, politics, and religion. These are ideas that Haidt develops at greater length in his new book, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion. Learn more about his drive for a more productive and civil politics on his website CivilPolitics.org. And take an eye-opening quiz about your own morals at YourMorals.org

During the bruising 2012 political season, Haidt was invited to speak at TEDxMidAtlantic on the topic of civility. He developed the metaphor of The Asteroids Club to embody how we can reach. common groun. Learn how to start your own Asteroids Club at www.AsteroidsClub.org.

Watch Haidt talk about the Asteroids Club on MSNBC's The Cycle >>

More profile about the speaker
Jonathan Haidt | Speaker | TED.com
Chris Anderson - TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading.

Why you should listen

Chris Anderson is the Curator of TED, a nonprofit devoted to sharing valuable ideas, primarily through the medium of 'TED Talks' -- short talks that are offered free online to a global audience.

Chris was born in a remote village in Pakistan in 1957. He spent his early years in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where his parents worked as medical missionaries, and he attended an American school in the Himalayas for his early education. After boarding school in Bath, England, he went on to Oxford University, graduating in 1978 with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics.

Chris then trained as a journalist, working in newspapers and radio, including two years producing a world news service in the Seychelles Islands.

Back in the UK in 1984, Chris was captivated by the personal computer revolution and became an editor at one of the UK's early computer magazines. A year later he founded Future Publishing with a $25,000 bank loan. The new company initially focused on specialist computer publications but eventually expanded into other areas such as cycling, music, video games, technology and design, doubling in size every year for seven years. In 1994, Chris moved to the United States where he built Imagine Media, publisher of Business 2.0 magazine and creator of the popular video game users website IGN. Chris eventually merged Imagine and Future, taking the combined entity public in London in 1999, under the Future name. At its peak, it published 150 magazines and websites and employed 2,000 people.

This success allowed Chris to create a private nonprofit organization, the Sapling Foundation, with the hope of finding new ways to tackle tough global issues through media, technology, entrepreneurship and, most of all, ideas. In 2001, the foundation acquired the TED Conference, then an annual meeting of luminaries in the fields of Technology, Entertainment and Design held in Monterey, California, and Chris left Future to work full time on TED.

He expanded the conference's remit to cover all topics, including science, business and key global issues, while adding a Fellows program, which now has some 300 alumni, and the TED Prize, which grants its recipients "one wish to change the world." The TED stage has become a place for thinkers and doers from all fields to share their ideas and their work, capturing imaginations, sparking conversation and encouraging discovery along the way.

In 2006, TED experimented with posting some of its talks on the Internet. Their viral success encouraged Chris to begin positioning the organization as a global media initiative devoted to 'ideas worth spreading,' part of a new era of information dissemination using the power of online video. In June 2015, the organization posted its 2,000th talk online. The talks are free to view, and they have been translated into more than 100 languages with the help of volunteers from around the world. Viewership has grown to approximately one billion views per year.

Continuing a strategy of 'radical openness,' in 2009 Chris introduced the TEDx initiative, allowing free licenses to local organizers who wished to organize their own TED-like events. More than 8,000 such events have been held, generating an archive of 60,000 TEDx talks. And three years later, the TED-Ed program was launched, offering free educational videos and tools to students and teachers.

More profile about the speaker
Chris Anderson | Speaker | TED.com